|AHFS/Drugs.com||International Drug Names|
|Elimination half-life||5 hours|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||702.89 g/mol|
|3D model (JSmol)|
|(what is this?)|
Sulbutiamine (brand name: Arcalion) is a synthetic derivative of thiamine (vitamin B1). In France, it is used to treat symptoms of weakness or fatigue. It is also sold as a dietary supplement. Sulbutiamine was discovered in Japan as part of an effort to develop useful thiamine derivatives.
Adverse effects in clinical trials have included diarrhea, bladder infections, bronchitis, arthritic pain, back pain, asthma, abdominal pain, insomnia, constipation, gastroenteritis, diffuse pain, sinusitis, headache, kidney pain, vertigo, and sore throat.
Efforts to develop thiamine derivatives with better bioavaiability than thiamine were conducted in the 1950s, mainly in Japan. These efforts led to the discovery of allicin (diallyl thiosulfinate) in garlic, which became a model for medicinal chemistry efforts to create other thiamine disulfides. The results included sulbutiamine, fursultiamine (thiamine tetrahydrofurfuryl disulfide) and benfothiamine. These compounds are hydrophobic, easily pass from the intestines to the bloodstream, and are reduced to thiamine by cysteine or glutathione.:302
It was first marketed in France by Servier in 1973 under the brand name Arcalion. The drug registration went through a validation procedure in France in the 1980s, which found that the use for treatment of fatigue was not supported by data.
Society and culture
Sulbutiamine is sold as a dietary supplement; it appears that endurance athletes may use it to try to enhance their performance.
It is also used as a nootropic dietary supplement; in 2014 the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency seized a shipment of nootropics worth around £200,000 that included sulbutiamine.
Because thiamine deficiency causes problems with memory and other cognitive functions, thiamine and analogs like sulbutiamine have been studied in clinical trials in the 1980s and 1990s for age-associated cognitive decline.
The pharmacology of subutiamine has been studied in various mice and rats; as of 2014 it appeared that subutiamine might be more effective in raising thiamine phosphate levels in the brain than benfotiamine and fursultiamine, but this was not certain.:303
- "Fiche info - Araclion 200 mg" (in French). Base de données publique des médicaments: ANSM of HAS et UNCAM. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
- Rane, Wishvas (1997). "High Cost, Low Efficiency Medicines". Economic and Political Weekly. 32 (51): 3251–3251. JSTOR 4406199.
- Alraek, T; Lee, MS; Choi, TY; Cao, H; Liu, J (7 October 2011). "Complementary and alternative medicine for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: a systematic review". BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 11: 87. doi:10.1186/1472-6882-11-87. PMC . PMID 21982120.
- Bettendorff, Lucien (2014). "Chapter 7 - Thiamine". In Zempleni, Janos; Suttie, John W.; Gregory, Jesse F.; Stover, Patrick J. Handbook of vitamins (Fifth edition ed.). Hoboken: CRC Press. pp. 267–324. ISBN 9781466515574.
- Volvert ML, Seyen S, Piette M, Evrard B, Gangolf M, Plumier JC, Bettendorff L (2008). "Benfotiamine, a synthetic S-acyl thiamine derivative, has different mechanisms of action and a different pharmacological profile than lipid-soluble thiamine disulfide derivatives". BMC Pharmacol. 8: 10. doi:10.1186/1471-2210-8-10. PMC . PMID 18549472.
- Kazlauskas, R (2010). "Advances in sports drug testing: an overview". Drug testing and analysis. 2 (11-12): 523–5. doi:10.1002/dta.251. PMID 21204284.
- "Record seizure of experimental "smart drugs" in UK". Reactions Weekly. 1526 (1): 4–4. 8 November 2014. doi:10.1007/s40278-014-4651-7.
- Riedel, WJ; Jolles, J (April 1996). "Cognition enhancers in age-related cognitive decline". Drugs & aging. 8 (4): 245–74. PMID 8920174.