Summits of the Americas

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The Summits of the Americas (SOA) is a series of international summit meetings that bring together the leaders of countries in the Organization of American States (OAS). All countries have sent representatives to every meeting, except for Cuba which was expelled from the OAS under pressure from the United States after the Cuban Revolution of 1959. Cuba participated in the 2015 summit in Panama, and sent its foreign minister to the subsequent 2018 summit in Peru.[1][2] In the early 1990s, the formerly ad hoc summits were institutionalized into a regular "Summit of the Americas" based on the principles of democracy and free trade.[3] The meetings, organized by a number of multilateral bodies led by the OAS, provide an opportunity for discussions about a variety of issues and topics.

List of summits[edit]

Summit Dates Host Country Host City Host leader
1st December 9–11, 1994  United States[4] Miami Bill Clinton
2nd April 18–19, 1998  Chile[5] Santiago Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle
3rd April 20–22, 2001  Canada[6] Quebec City Jean Chrétien
4th November 4–5, 2005  Argentina[7] Mar del Plata Néstor Kirchner
5th April 17–19, 2009  Trinidad and Tobago[8] Port-of-Spain Patrick Manning
6th April 14–15, 2012  Colombia[9] Cartagena Juan Manuel Santos Calderón
7th April 10–11, 2015  Panama[10] Panama City Juan Carlos Varela
8th April 13–14, 2018  Peru[11] Lima Martín Vizcarra

The events that garnered the most general public and media attention were the Quebec City and Mar del Plata summits (3rd and 4th respectively), both of which provoked very large anti-globalization and anti-Free Trade Area of the Americas protests and attendant police response.

OAS member states[edit]

All 35 independent nations of the Americas are members of the OAS.

Nation Capital city HDI
(2019 estimate
for 2018)
[12]
Official
language(s)
 Antigua and Barbuda St. John's 0.776 English
 Argentina Buenos Aires 0.830 Spanish
 Bahamas Nassau 0.805 English
 Barbados Bridgetown 0.813 English
 Belize Belmopan 0.720 English
 Bolivia Sucre 0.703 Spanish
 Brazil Brasília 0.761 Portuguese
 Canada Ottawa 0.922 English, French
 Chile Santiago 0.847 Spanish
 Colombia Bogota 0.761 Spanish
 Costa Rica San José 0.794 Spanish
 Cuba Havana 0.778 Spanish
 Dominica Roseau 0.724 English
 Dominican Republic Santo Domingo 0.745 Spanish
 Ecuador Quito 0.758 Spanish
 El Salvador San Salvador 0.667 Spanish
 Grenada St. George's 0.763 English
 Guatemala Guatemala City 0.651 Spanish
 Guyana Georgetown 0.670 English
 Haiti Port-au-Prince 0.503 French, Haitian Creole
 Honduras Tegucigalpa 0.623 Spanish
 Jamaica Kingston 0.726 English
 Mexico Mexico City 0.767 Spanish
 Nicaragua Managua 0.651 Spanish
 Panama Panama City 0.795 Spanish
 Paraguay Asuncion 0.724 Spanish, Guarani
 Peru Lima 0.759 Spanish
 Saint Kitts and Nevis Basseterre 0.777 English
 Saint Lucia Castries 0.745 English
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Kingstown 0.728 English
 Suriname Paramaribo 0.724 Dutch
 Trinidad and Tobago Port of Spain 0.799 English
 United States Washington D.C. 0.920 English (de facto)
 Uruguay Montevideo 0.808 Spanish
 Venezuela Caracas 0.726 Spanish

Non-members[edit]

The following jurisdictions are not members of the OAS as they are dependencies of other nations. They are grouped under the nation that has sovereignty over them.

Sovereign state Jurisdiction Dependency type
 Denmark  Greenland Autonomous country
 France  French Guiana Overseas region
 Guadeloupe Overseas region
 Martinique Overseas region
 Saint Barthélemy Overseas collectivity
 Saint Martin Overseas collectivity
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon Overseas collectivity
 Netherlands  Aruba Constituent country
 Bonaire Public body
 Curaçao Constituent country
 Saba Public body
 Sint Eustatius Public body
 Sint Maarten Constituent country
 United Kingdom  Anguilla Overseas territory
 Bermuda Overseas territory
 British Virgin Islands Overseas territory
 Cayman Islands Overseas territory
 Falkland Islands Overseas territory
Disputed with Argentina
 Montserrat Overseas territory
 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Overseas territory
Disputed with Argentina
 Turks and Caicos Islands Overseas territory
 United States  Puerto Rico Unincorporated organized commonwealth
 U.S. Virgin Islands Unincorporated organized territory

References[edit]

  1. ^ Prieto, Alfredo. "Everybody But Cuba," Havana Times. April 15, 2009.
  2. ^ http://www.staradvertiser.com/2018/04/13/business/business-breaking/cubas-raul-castro-skips-summit-of-the-americas/
  3. ^ Twaddle, Andrew C. (2002). Health Care Reform Around the World, p. 382.
  4. ^ Summit Americas: I summit (1st)
  5. ^ Summit Americas: II summit (2nd)
  6. ^ Summit Americas: III summit (3rd)
  7. ^ Summit Americas: IV summit (4th)
  8. ^ Summit Americas: V summit (5th)
  9. ^ Summit Americas: VI summit (6th)
  10. ^ Summit Americas: VII summit (7th)
  11. ^ Summit Americas: VIII summit (8th)
  12. ^ Human Development Report 2019 (PDF). New York: United Nations Development Programme. 2019. pp. 300–303. ISBN 978-92-1-126439-5. Retrieved 23 February 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)

External links[edit]