Summits of the Americas
The Summits of the Americas (SOA) is a series of international summit meetings bringing together the leaders of countries in the Americas. All countries sent representatives to all meetings except for Cuba, who joined to the Summit on its seventh edition. The meetings provide an opportunity for discussions about a variety of issues and topics.
The summits have been organized by a number of multilateral bodies led by the Organization of American States.
In the early 1990s, what were formerly ad hoc summits came to be institutionalized into a regular "Summit of the Americas" based on the principles of democracy and free trade.
|1994 ||1st||December 9–11||United States||Miami||Bill Clinton|
|1998||2nd||April 18–19||Chile||Santiago||Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle|
|2001||3rd||April 20–22||Canada||Quebec City||Jean Chrétien|
|2004||Special Summit||January 12–13||Mexico||Monterrey||Vicente Fox|
|2005||4th||November 4–5||Argentina||Mar del Plata||Néstor Kirchner|
|2009||5th||April 17–19||Trinidad and Tobago||Port-of-Spain||Patrick Manning|
|2012||6th||April 14–15||Colombia||Cartagena||Juan Manuel Santos Calderón|
|2015||7th||April 10–11||Panama||Panama City||Juan Carlos Varela|
The summits that garnered most general public and media attention were the Quebec City and Mar del Plata events, both of which provoked very large anti-globalization and anti–Free Trade Area of the Americas protests and attendant police response.
Membership and adhesions
All 35 independent nations of the Americas are members of the OAS:
The following is a list non-members of the OAS as they are dependencies of other nations. They are grouped under the states that control them.
- Prieto, Alfredo. "Everybody But Cuba," Havana Times. April 15, 2009.
- Twaddle, Andrew C. (2002). Health Care Reform Around the World, p. 382.
- Florida International University, Summit of the Americas Center (SOAC): Summits list
- Summit Americas: I summit (1st)
- Summit Americas: II summit (2nd)
- Summit Americas: III summit (3rd)
- Special Summit of the Americas: Special Summit
- Summit Americas: IV summit (4th)
- Summit Americas: V summit (5th)
- Summit Americas: VI summit (6th)
- Summit Americas: VII summit (7th)
- Summit Americas: VIII summit (8th)
- Twaddle, Andrew C. (2002). Health Care Reform Around the World. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing. ISBN 978-0-86569-288-6; OCLC 48132063
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Summits of the Americas.|
- Summits of the Americas
- The Fifth Summit of The Americas
- Summits of the Americas Follow-up System (SISCA)
- Follow-up and Implementation of Summits
- Summits Virtual community (SVC)