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- 1 Missing concepts
- 2 Reviews, medical references, and content to add
- 3 Facing Addiction: A National Summit - November 21, 2016
- 4 External links modified
- 5 Study or review?
- 6 Arts & humanities approaches to addiction
- 7 Changes
- 8 Criticism Section ?
Specific to drugs:
- Addiction liability of a drug as a risk factor
- Description of Self-administration
- Explanation of the relationship between conditioned reinforcers and primary reinforcers Added (still needs work)
- Drug/environmental cues: cue reactivity (conditioned reinforcers) and conditioned place preference (classical conditioning) Added (still needs work), but haven't covered CPP yet
- Relapse/Reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior
- Describe incentive salience as it relates to a reward Partly done
Reviews, medical references, and content to add
High Priority: Need to add coverage of these sources since they're recent and very comprehensive.
- Nestler's 2018 review on the neuroepigenetics of addiction. (note to self: Nestler covers the same 5 structures in Fig 48.1 that we cover in Addiction#Mesocorticolimbic pathway: the amygdala, hippocampus, PFC, NAcc, and VTA; also specifies that NAcc innervation by the hippocampus, PFC, and amygdala is glutamatergic) Seppi333 (Insert 2¢) 10:50, 13 August 2018 (UTC)
Excerpts from Nestler's review
Stopped on page 5/15 at the beginning of the section on histone modifications. Need to finish reading through this later to decide on what to quote for this ref and what to cover in the article. Seppi333 (Insert 2¢) 10:50, 13 August 2018 (UTC)
- United States Surgeon General's report on addiction (published November 2016).
- Review of the neurobiology of addiction
- Other content to add
Epigenetic effects of drugs
- Drug-specific epigenetics reference
- Amph/meth-specific epigenetics reference
- (First?) clinical trial with an HDACi for addiction - PMID 27656618; need a review of this paper in order to update Addiction#Research (3rd paragraph)
-  Review that covers motivational salience, stimulus control, and Pavlovian-instrumental transfer in addiction
- @Blb6175535: Hi there. Sorry for responding so late – I didn't notice this until now. I'm not sure if you're still interested in adding material on the reward system; however, if you still intend to do so, I'd strongly recommend that you only look at medical reviews of literature on this topic. The use of medical reviews to cite medical statements is required by WP:MEDRS and it's generally a good practice to cite such literature even when citing non-medical statements, such as statements which are more related to molecular neurobiology, in medicine-related articles like this one. This link provides a list of all medical reviews from the past 5 years that mention both "addiction" and "reward system" in the title or abstract – it'd be best if you use only the articles listed in these search results to add new content in the Addiction#Reward system section.
- On a related note, I intend to add content from one of the reviews in that list at some point (PMID 27475769 - this is the 2nd citation in the #Incentive salience / neurobiology reviews to add section above this one). If you want to summarize the material on the reward system from that review, please feel free to do so! It'd reduce my workload. You can view the full text of that review article by following this link. Seppi333 (Insert 2¢) 22:41, 13 December 2016 (UTC)
I haven't read through these papers yet, so I'm just putting these links here for now.
- Reviews on the endocannabinoid system and DA interactions/addiction: PMID 26733830 PMID 26373473
- Interesting primary source on 12 step programs: PMID 26306329
Environmental enrichment-based behavioral therapy
- The paragraph on physical exercise in the quote of this review currently cites/supports statements in this article, but the material on environmental enrichment-based therapies (i.e., the use of "environmental" positive reinforcers to promote healthier alternative behaviors that substitute for drug use) hasn't been added yet. A summary of this material should be added under Addiction#Behavioral therapy at some point. Full quote of the review's environmental enrichment subsection on clinical research in humans:
Seppi333 (Insert 2¢) 22:20, 13 December 2016 (UTC)
In humans, non-drug rewards delivered in a contingency management (CM) format successfully reduced drug dependence [for a review see Ref. (188)]. In general, CM programs promote drug abstinence through a combination of positive reinforcement for drug-free urine samples. For instance, voucher-based reinforcement therapy in which medication compliance, therapy session attendance, and negative drug screenings reinforced with vouchers to local business (e.g., movie theater, restaurants, etc.) directly reinforces drug abstinence, provides competing reinforcers, enriches the environment, and it is a robust treatment across a broad range of abused drugs (189). Another example of using social rewards to reduce drug addiction was given in the Naimi et al. (156) study, comparing younger and older adults, who reported that enhancing non-alcohol-related campus social programing had decreased alcohol use.
In summary, both animal and human studies indicate that environmental enrichment is an important intervention that moderates the development and progression of drug addiction. There is little information regarding sex differences in social reward at present; however, once drug use patterns have developed, non-drug rewards, such as social interaction, have the advantage of being self-sustaining and are effective in both sexes.
Facing Addiction: A National Summit - November 21, 2016
This section was added by botonduty. I'm moving it here for further consideration. In my opinion this section does not fit on the article page. It seems mainly to be a promotional piece for the non-profit that held the summit and, as a one-off event, may not have the notability or impact needed to have it appear on this topic page.
“Addressing the addiction crisis in America will require seeing addiction as a chronic illness – not as a moral failing,” said Murthy. “Addiction has been a challenge for a long time, but we finally have the opportunity and the tools to address it. By bringing together researchers, treatment providers, policy makers and key influencers, this summit will help our country see that a united front is necessary to address a public health challenge of this magnitude.". The event was streamed live & archieved.
If the consensus is for keeping it, there are a number of issues with the text that will still need to be addressed (dab links, use of "motive", spelling, promotional language, mis-matched quotes, etc – most of them easily fixed, but I'll wait on that until others have had a chance to comment. —jmcgnh(talk) (contribs) 06:01, 29 November 2016 (UTC)
Could it not be both? Some people grow up in households and are exposed to drugs from a young age before their brains are fully developed and are lacking a moral compass, therefore in those situations it could be seen as a chronic illness within our society. However, I could also see it being a moral failing of adults that choose to try drugs. Drugs are usually a coping mechanism people use as a response to an untreated mental illness and that could also argue the point that drug use is a symptom of untreated chronic illness. Mgomil1 (talk) 18:18, 7 September 2018 (UTC)
- The prose is copied from https://www.facingaddiction.org/news/2016/11/03/facing-addiction-america-national-summit and is thus a copyright violation. Sorry but we can't include it in the article unless it's thoroughly re-written. I have removed it from the talk page as well. — Diannaa 🍁 (talk) 16:47, 30 November 2016 (UTC)
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Study or review?
See edit here.
An addiction to loud music is seen more often in non-professional musicians than in non-musician control subjects.
- I've come across two Pubmed-indexed and Pubmed-classified "Reviews" on addiction that are absolute/utter crap; the studies which were reviewed in them were a biased selection of research which supported their assertions, whereas they ignored a large body of contradictory evidence. Consequently, IMO, if a pubmed-classified "review" on addiction seems to have dubious (WP:FRINGE) quality, then it should not be cited in this article. For some reason, the topic of addiction seems to generate more sketchy secondary medical research than any other topic I've researched and written about on WP.
- In relation to the article you're discussing, "loud music" is not actually a stimulus; rather, it describes a magnitude of a stimulus. A type of music would be a more specific, but still general class of stimuli, whereas a particular song would be a specific auditory stimulus. Some genres of music are classes of rewarding stimuli since music can induce pleasure/motivational states in approximately 95% of the population; consequently, it is plausible that some people are drawn to listening to music more than others, but compulsively listening to arbitrary songs which are loud seems like a very far-fetched phenomenon; consequently, the implications of that review about an "addiction to loud music" being an actual phenomenon seem very sketchy to me (i.e., the review seems WP:FRINGE). If more independent secondary medical research is published on this topic in the future, I'd be okay with covering it in the article; however, right now, there doesn't seem to be adequate medical consensus supporting this concept. Seppi333 (Insert 2¢) 19:42, 11 December 2017 (UTC)
- Just to be perfectly clear, not all music is rewarding. Some people find some types of music highly aversive and others highly rewarding; e.g., trance (music) songs are rewarding to me because I like to listen to them, but death metal songs are aversive to me because I would turn them off or move away from a source which is playing them. Consequently, music in general is not, and can not be, a potential class of addictive stimuli. Seppi333 (Insert 2¢) 19:56, 11 December 2017 (UTC)
Arts & humanities approaches to addiction
The article as it currently stands only contains quite a narrow scientific description of addiction. This is a topic on which there has been considerable research in other disciplines.
History Concepts of addiction emerging in the sixteenth century; link to religious treatises in seventeenth century; associated with temperance movements in eighteenth and nineteenth centuries; rise of the 'disease model' in twentieth century; current trend towards recognition of behavioural addictions. See Jessica Warner, Rebecca Lemon, Melvyn London, HG Levine, Roy Porter, etc.
Philosophy Ongoing and controversial debates around the morality of addiction, the responsibility of the addict, the balance between free will and compulsion. Tied into questions surrounding whether addiction is a disease or a choice.
Politics The war on drugs, harm reduction policies (abstinence vs maintenance, methadone clinics etc), gambling restrictions. — Preceding unsigned comment added by Ada cree (talk • contribs) 12:38, 20 June 2018 (UTC)
- @Ada cree: Wikipedia just cites and summarizes professionally-published mainstream academic (and in some cases journalistic) sources. While the ideas you are suggesting would be good, they would need to be supported by sources (preferably secondary or tertiary, not primary). Ian.thomson (talk) 15:02, 20 June 2018 (UTC)
- Here's a few to start (mostly historical):
- Cree, JM, 'Protestant evangelicals and addiction in early modern English', Renaissance Studies 32 (June 2018), pp. 446-462
- Ferentzy, P., 'From Sin to Disease: differences and similarities between past and current conceptions of substance abuse', Contemporary drug problems 28 (2001)
- Lemon, R., Addiction and Devotion in Early Modern England (Philadelphia, 2018)
- Lemon, R., ‘Scholarly Addiction: Doctor Faustus and the Drama of Devotion’, Renaissance Quarterly, 69 (2016)
- Levine, H. G., 'The discovery of addiction. Changing conceptions of habitual drunkenness in America', Journal of Studies on Alcohol 15 (1978)
- London, M., 'History of Addiction: A UK Perspective', American Journal on Addictions 14 (2005)
- Perry, L. M., 'The Word for an Addict in Geneva (Calvin on Addiction)', Christian Bioethics 20 (2014), pp. 80-96
- Porter, R., 'The Drinking Man's Disease: The ‘Pre-History’ of Alcoholism in Georgian Britain', British Journal of Addiction 80 (1985), pp. 385-96
- Robert, W., and West, R., Theory of addiction, (Oxford, 2006)
- Room, R., 'The Cultural Framing of Addiction', Janus Head 6 (2003), pp. 221-34
- Warner, J., '"Resolv'd to drink no more": addiction as a preindustrial construct', Journal of Studies on Alcohol 55 (1994), pp. 685-191
- Willis, D., ‘Doctor Faustus and the Early Modern Language of Addiction’, in Placing the Plays of Christopher Marlowe (Aldershot, 2008) — Preceding unsigned comment added by Ada cree (talk • contribs) 08:45, 22 June 2018 (UTC)
- Here's a few to start (mostly historical):
Hello, Today I am going to be revising this article for a neutral tone, checking for grammar and mechanical errors, watching for concise language, making sure the article has a strong lead, organizing the paragraphs, checking sites, and finally I will be summarizing.
Criticism Section ?
Social sciences can have a tendency to employ circular definitions, and utilize "correlation implies causation" arguments.
Lately, they have tacked hard science onto the end of dubious assertions, to make them look more authoritative.
For example, this article starts with "Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences." This sentence is followed by many paragraphs of undoubtedly solid biomedical and neuroscience research about reward systems. However, the first sentence has so many dubious aspects:
- Brain disorder is not defined.
- Compulsive is not defined.
- Adverse consequences is not defined.
- Normal brain functioning and normal human behavior are not defined. According to Evolutionary Psychology, neither of those has existed for 12,000 years, since homo sapiens mammals are evolved to live in tribes among groups of 200 individuals known for a lifetime. Life among thousands of strangers is at odds with homo sapiens' genetic programming. Any human culture will automatically define typical current behavior as "normal", but for scientists to fall into that error can entirely throw off any research done with that unexamined assumption.
If an organism is given a choice of accepting a well known positive reward or declining it, why is it "pathological" or a "disorder" to accept it?
So, the definitions of "compulsive" and "adverse consequences" are of huge importance here. Millions of people have been jailed in cases where a government reserves the right to define "adverse consequences" for individuals (as opposed to circumstances where someone checks themselves into "rehab"). 22.214.171.124 (talk) 20:41, 21 October 2018 (UTC)
- Adverse consequences are simply the ones that cause harm or oppose our interests. If the harm happens to be illegal, most governments will specify the precise violation before sending someone to jail. It varies, case-by-case, but is usually public, unless you're thinking of somewhere I'm not. Compulsive engagement is just engagement we're compelled to engage in by a compulsion (that irresistible persistent impulse to perform an act). Your guess is as good as mine as to what a brain disorder might be. InedibleHulk (talk) 19:47, October 22, 2018 (UTC)
- A brain disorder is any pathology that involves impaired cognition and/or distressing behaviors and arises from abnormal structural and/or functional changes within the brain. "Adverse consequences" is subjective and pertains to a case-by-case basis, although its definition should be fairly straightforward given that it's not jargon. A compulsion is simply an irresistable urge to do something; to be more precise, it is a behavior which one elicits despite an attempt to exert inhibitory control (NB: this is a cognitive process) over their behavior. Seppi333 (Insert 2¢) 23:03, 9 November 2018 (UTC)