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^Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 15: Reinforcement and Addictive Disorders". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. pp. 365–367. ISBN9780071481274.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
^Pool E, Sennwald V, Delplanque S, Brosch T, Sander D (2016). "Measuring wanting and liking from animals to humans: A systematic review". Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 63: 124–142. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.01.006. PMID26851575. animal wanting, which relies on affective relevance, consisting of the perception of a cue associated with a relevant reward for the organism's current physiological state.
Reviews, medical references, and content to add
^Eserian JK (July 2013). "Vitamin D as an effective treatment approach for drug abuse and addiction". Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ideas. 7 (2): 35–39. doi:10.1016/j.jmhi.2013.02.001. Vitamin D is a potent inducer of endogenous GDNF. The most prominent feature of GDNF is its ability to support the survival of dopaminergic neurons. ... The protective effects of vitamin D might be due to a mechanism of up-regulation of GDNF , as it was shown that when GDNF is administered directly into the striatum before methamphetamine treatment, complete protection against the dopaminergic toxicity of methamphetamine, such as reductions in striatal DA release and content, could be observed . Vitamin D also increases glutathione levels and inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) production, which could reduce methamphetamine toxicity to the DA system by reducing methamphetamine free radicals’ production .
^Chandel N, Malhotra A, Singhal PC (August 2015). "Vitamin D receptor and epigenetics in HIV infection and drug abuse". Front Microbiol. 6: 788. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2015.00788. PMC4541325. PMID26347716. Interestingly, vitamin D may not be able to augment VDR expression optimally in several instances where epigenetic contributes to down regulation of VDR; however, reversal of epigenetic corruption either by demethylating agents (DACs) or histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors would be able to maximize expression of VDR in these instances. ... Vit D works through its receptor- VDR ... VDR is a member of the nuclear receptor (NR) family of transcription factors ... VDR heterodimerizes with Retinoid X Receptor (RXR) and forms VDR-RXR complex, which recruits either repressor or activator complexes depending on its unliganded or liganded status ... Vit D provided protection against the serotonin-depleting effect of [methamphetamine] in the brain of animals in the setting of repeated dosage administration. Vit D deficient rats traveled farther in locomotion test after acute dosage administration (Cass et al., 2006; Kesby et al., 2012). Vit D treated animals also showed reduction in [methamphetamine]-induced dopamine [depletion] ... HIV and drugs provide an environment which is conducive to short term and long term epigenetic modifications leading to alterations in gene expression. Epigenetic alterations are also dependent on use of single or multiple drugs. ... Therefore, epigenetics is a complex issue in drugs of abuse in general and specifically in the presence of HIV infection. However, epigenetic alterations are reversible and thus strategies can be developed to reverse them.
^Koob GF, Volkow ND (August 2016). "Neurobiology of addiction: a neurocircuitry analysis". Lancet Psychiatry. 3 (8): 760–773. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(16)00104-8. PMID27475769. Drug addiction represents a dramatic dysregulation of motivational circuits that is caused by a combination of exaggerated incentive salience and habit formation, reward deficits and stress surfeits, and compromised executive function in three stages. The rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, development of incentive salience, and development of drug-seeking habits in the binge/intoxication stage involve changes in dopamine and opioid peptides in the basal ganglia. The increases in negative emotional states and dysphoric and stress-like responses in the withdrawal/negative affect stage involve decreases in the function of the dopamine component of the reward system and recruitment of brain stress neurotransmitters, such as corticotropin-releasing factor and dynorphin, in the neurocircuitry of the extended amygdala. The craving and deficits in executive function in the so-called preoccupation/anticipation stage involve the dysregulation of key afferent projections from the prefrontal cortex and insula, including glutamate, to the basal ganglia and extended amygdala. Molecular genetic studies have identified transduction and transcription factors that act in neurocircuitry associated with the development and maintenance of addiction that might mediate initial vulnerability, maintenance, and relapse associated with addiction. ... Substance-induced changes in transcription factors can also produce competing effects on reward function.141 For example, repeated substance use activates accumulating levels of ΔFosB, and animals with elevated ΔFosB exhibit exaggerated sensitivity to the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, leading to the hypothesis that ΔFosB might be a sustained molecular trigger or switch that helps initiate and maintain a state of addiction.141,142
United States Surgeon General's report on addiction (published November 2016)
High Priority: Recent and very comprehensive review/report on addiction in the United States
^Nora Volkow (31 March 2016). "A Major Step Forward for Addiction Medicine". National Institute on Drug Abuse. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved 3 April 2016. Only about 10 percent of the 21 million Americans who meet the need for care for an alcohol or drug use disorder receive any form of treatment, and much of the treatment available does not meet standards for evidence-based care. There are many attitudinal and systemic reasons for this treatment gap, including stigma against treating people with addictions and institutional barriers to providing or funding addiction treatment. ... A major milestone was reached on March 14, 2016, when the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) formally announced recognition of the field of Addiction Medicine as a medical subspecialty. ... In a statement issued to mark this milestone, ABAM President Robert J. Sokol summed up its significance: 'This landmark event, more than any other, recognizes addiction as a preventable and treatable disease, helping to shed the stigma that has long plagued it. It sends a strong message to the public that American medicine is committed to providing expert care for this disease and services designed to prevent the risky substance use that precedes it.'
^"AMERICAN BOARD OF MEDICAL SPECIALTIES RECOGNIZES THE NEW SUBSPECIALTY OF ADDICTION MEDICINE"(PDF). American Board of Addiction Medicine. 14 March 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016. Sixteen percent of the non-institutionalized U.S. population age 12 and over – more than 40 million Americans – meets medical criteria for addiction involving nicotine, alcohol or other drugs. This is more than the number of Americans with cancer, diabetes or heart conditions. In 2014, 22.5 million people in the United States needed treatment for addiction involving alcohol or drugs other than nicotine, but only 11.6 percent received any form of inpatient, residential, or outpatient treatment. Of those who do receive treatment, few receive evidence-based care. (There is no information available on how many individuals receive treatment for addiction involving nicotine.)
Risky substance use and untreated addiction account for one-third of inpatient hospital costs and 20 percent of all deaths in the United States each year, and cause or contribute to more than 100 other conditions requiring medical care, as well as vehicular crashes, other fatal and non-fatal injuries, overdose deaths, suicides, homicides, domestic discord, the highest incarceration rate in the world and many other costly social consequences. The economic cost to society is greater than the cost of diabetes and all cancers combined. Despite these startling statistics on the prevalence and costs of addiction, few physicians have been trained to prevent or treat it.
On a related note, I intend to add content from one of the reviews in that list at some point (PMID 27475769 - this is the 2nd citation in the #Incentive salience / neurobiology reviews to add section above this one). If you want to summarize the material on the reward system from that review, please feel free to do so! It'd reduce my workload. You can view the full text of that review article by following this link. Seppi333 (Insert 2¢) 22:41, 13 December 2016 (UTC)
The paragraph on physical exercise in the quote of this review currently cites/supports statements in this article, but the material on environmental enrichment-based therapies (i.e., the use of "environmental" positive reinforcers to promote healthier alternative behaviors that substitute for drug use) hasn't been added yet. A summary of this material should be added under Addiction#Behavioral therapy at some point. Full quote of the review's environmental enrichment subsection on clinical research in humans:
In humans, non-drug rewards delivered in a contingency management (CM) format successfully reduced drug dependence [for a review see Ref. (188)]. In general, CM programs promote drug abstinence through a combination of positive reinforcement for drug-free urine samples. For instance, voucher-based reinforcement therapy in which medication compliance, therapy session attendance, and negative drug screenings reinforced with vouchers to local business (e.g., movie theater, restaurants, etc.) directly reinforces drug abstinence, provides competing reinforcers, enriches the environment, and it is a robust treatment across a broad range of abused drugs (189). Another example of using social rewards to reduce drug addiction was given in the Naimi et al. (156) study, comparing younger and older adults, who reported that enhancing non-alcohol-related campus social programing had decreased alcohol use.
In summary, both animal and human studies indicate that environmental enrichment is an important intervention that moderates the development and progression of drug addiction. There is little information regarding sex differences in social reward at present; however, once drug use patterns have developed, non-drug rewards, such as social interaction, have the advantage of being self-sustaining and are effective in both sexes.
^ abCarroll ME, Smethells JR (February 2016). "Sex Differences in Behavioral Dyscontrol: Role in Drug Addiction and Novel Treatments". Front. Psychiatry. 6: 175. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2015.00175. PMC4745113. PMID26903885. Environmental Enrichment ...
In humans, non-drug rewards delivered in a contingency management (CM) format successfully reduced drug dependence ... In general, CM programs promote drug abstinence through a combination of positive reinforcement for drug-free urine samples. For instance, voucher-based reinforcement therapy in which medication compliance, therapy session attendance, and negative drug screenings reinforced with vouchers to local business (e.g., movie theater, restaurants, etc.) directly reinforces drug abstinence, provides competing reinforcers, enriches the environment, and it is a robust treatment across a broad range of abused drugs (189). ...
There is accelerating evidence that physical exercise is a useful treatment for preventing and reducing drug addiction ... In some individuals, exercise has its own rewarding effects, and a behavioral economic interaction may occur, such that physical and social rewards of exercise can substitute for the rewarding effects of drug abuse. ... The value of this form of treatment for drug addiction in laboratory animals and humans is that exercise, if it can substitute for the rewarding effects of drugs, could be self-maintained over an extended period of time. Work to date in [laboratory animals and humans] regarding exercise as a treatment for drug addiction supports this hypothesis. ... However, a RTC study was recently reported by Rawson et al. (226), whereby they used 8 weeks of exercise as a post-residential treatment for METH addiction, showed a significant reduction in use (confirmed by urine screens) in participants who had been using meth 18 days or less a month. ... Animal and human research on physical exercise as a treatment for stimulant addiction indicates that this is one of the most promising treatments on the horizon. [emphasis added]
Facing Addiction: A National Summit - November 21, 2016
This section was added by botonduty. I'm moving it here for further consideration. In my opinion this section does not fit on the article page. It seems mainly to be a promotional piece for the non-profit that held the summit and, as a one-off event, may not have the notability or impact needed to have it appear on this topic page.
“Addressing the addiction crisis in America will require seeing addiction as a chronic illness – not as a moral failing,” said Murthy. “Addiction has been a challenge for a long time, but we finally have the opportunity and the tools to address it. By bringing together researchers, treatment providers, policy makers and key influencers, this summit will help our country see that a united front is necessary to address a public health challenge of this magnitude.". The event was streamed live & archieved.
If the consensus is for keeping it, there are a number of issues with the text that will still need to be addressed (dab links, use of "motive", spelling, promotional language, mis-matched quotes, etc – most of them easily fixed, but I'll wait on that until others have had a chance to comment. —jmcgnh(talk)(contribs) 06:01, 29 November 2016 (UTC)