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Should the following deleted information from a now-missing article entirtles "The Dell Hymes Model of Speaking" be included in this article. I think it should.
- The Dell Hymes Model of Speaking is a linguistic model developed by Dell Hymes in which it is stated that in order to speak a language correctly, one needs not only to learn its vocabulary and grammar, but also the context in which words are used. In the speaking model the following aspects of the linguistic situation are considered:
- ==Setting and Scene==
- "Setting refers to the time and place of a speech act and, in general, to the physical circumstances" (Hymes: 55).The living room in the grandparents' home might be a setting for a family story. Scene is the "psychological setting" or "cultural definition" of a scene, including characteristics such as range of formality and sense of play or seriousness (ibid: 55-56). The family story may be told at a reunion celebrating the grandparents' anniversary. At times, the family would be festive and playful; at other times, serious and commemorative.
- Speaker and audience. Linguists will make distinctions within these categories; for example, the audience can be distinguished as addressees and other hearers (ibid: 54 and 56). At the family reunion, an aunt might tell a story to the young female relatives, but males, although not addressed, might also hear the narrative.
- Purposes, goals, and outcomes (ibid: 56-57). The aunt may tell a story about the grandmother to entertain the audience, teach the young women, and honor the grandmother.
- ==Act Sequence==
- Form and order of the event. The aunt's story might begin as a response to a toast to the grandmother. The story's plot and development would have a sequence structured by the aunt. Possibly there would be a collaborative interruption during the telling. Finally, the group might applaud the tale and move onto another subject or activity.
- Clues that establish the "tone, manner, or spirit" of the speech act (ibid: 57). The aunt might imitate the grandmother's voice and gestures in a playful way, or she might address the group in a serious voice emphasizing the sincerity and respect of the praise the story expresses.
- Forms and styles of speech (ibid: 58-60). The aunt might speak in a casual register with many dialect features or might use a more formal register and careful grammatical "standard" forms.
- Social rules governing the event and the participants' actions and reaction. In a playful story by the aunt, the norms might allow many audience interruptions and collaboration, or possibly those interruptions might be limited to participation by older females. A serious, formal story by the aunt might call for attention to her and no interruptions as norms.
- The kind of speech act or event; for our course, the kind of story. The aunt might tell a character anecdote about the grandmother for entertainment, or an exemplum as moral instruction. Different disciplines develop terms for kinds of speech acts, and speech communities sometimes have their own terms for types.
- These eight terms (which together spell SPEAKING) can be applied to many kinds of discourse. Sometimes in a written discussion using this model, one might emphasize only two or three of the letters of the mnemonic. The model provides a structure for perceiving and addressing components.
- Hymes, Dell (1974) Foundations of Sociolinguistics: An Ethnographic Approach. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
- It is now incorporated (in slightly adapted form). Also, the alterations made by "22.214.171.124" were made by myself, who had neglected to "log on". Lindsay658 23:00, 12 November 2006 (UTC)
Removed reference to conflict with Noam Chomsky.
I have removed the reference to Noam Chomsky in the "Significance of Work" section (that is, removed the clause " . . . which puts him very much at odds with the linguistic theories of Noam Chomsky.") It is mildly stylistically awkward, since it suggests Hymes himself is at odds with a theory. It probably should read the Hymes' theory is at odds with Chomsky's theory. More importantly, it is not correct. One of the most recent publications in which this is addressed is a 2005 article (Fitch et al. 2005. The evolution of the language faculty: Clarifications and implications. Cognition (97), pp. 179-210). The authors (of which Chomsky is one) point out that they are specifically interested in forming theories about one part of the biological make-up of humans, called "faculty of language narrow" in the article. At most this is a theory about a subset set of the concerns of Dell Hymes, and as such is not at odds with his theories about language. Fitch et al. explicitly note that there are many more topics that fall under the study of language in general, and that their hypothesis about FLN is not in conflict with broader theories of communication of language use. pete212 21:00, 16 March 2007 (UTC)
I refer to footnote 4 of the article: What the hell is a sleeping language? I've been a linguist for decades and have never heard the term. I get a sense, being familiar with the tongue in questions, that's what meant is moribund or something of the sort, but I must know if the contributor in question specifically meant sleeping or, like too many others working on linguistics articles, just pulled something out of their ass when they did not know the proper terminology. Dr. C.S. Lewis-Barrie, Ph.D. (talk) 22:16, 3 May 2008 (UTC)
Reference 1 and 5
These are not references, they are footnotes with unreferenced material. I think 1 can be resolved with http://jasonbairdjackson.com/2009/11/16/dell-hymes-passing/. Can anyone find a real reference for 5? --126.96.36.199 (talk) 11:21, 27 May 2010 (UTC)
Reference to Hymes (1974)
Since Hymes wrote a number of things in 1974, it is not clear which of those references is meant by Hymes (1974). The usual notation would be to have Hymes (1974a), Hymes (1974b) in the bibliography and refer to the appropriate one whenever suitable. (188.8.131.52 (talk) 11:00, 23 November 2014 (UTC))
He apparently has/had a daughter who is a mental-health pateints' advocate" http://www.washingtonpost.com/local/she-fought-for-patients-rights-then-she-was-put-in-a-hospital-against-her-will/2015/01/31/c306f01c-a1b0-11e4-903f-9f2faf7cd9fe_story.html?wpisrc=nl_headlines&wpmm=1184.108.40.206 (talk) 12:20, 1 February 2015 (UTC)