Lau Pa Sat
Lau Pa Sat (Chinese: 老巴刹), also known as Telok Ayer Market (Malay: Pasar Telok Ayer; Chinese: 直落亚逸巴刹), is a historic building located within the Downtown Core in the Central Area of Singapore. It is currently a food centre. There are several shops inside the market such as a 24 hours Cheers Store, a shoe repair shop, a tailor and a laundry store. In the evenings on the weekend a live band plays at the stage in the middle of the market.
In the early nineteenth century, Telok Ayer Market was a simple wooden building, located on piles just over the waters of Telok Ayer Bay from which the market derived its name. The Malay name Telok Ayer means "water bay", and the then coastal road Telok Ayer Street lies alongside the bay.
Lau Pa Sat means "old market" in the vernacular Chinese of Singapore. Lau (老) means old; pa sat is the Hokkien pronunciation of the Persian loanword bazaar (market) which is pasar in Malay. The original Telok Ayer market was one of the oldest markets in Singapore; a new market was later built along Ellenborough Road, and that market became known by the locals as the "new market" (Pasar Baru or Sin Pa Sat), while the Telok Ayer Market in turn became known colloquially as the "old market" or Lau Pa Sat. Because of its Victorian iron structure, the market is also referred to in Malay as pasar besi (market of iron).
The first market built in Singapore, a fish market, was located on the south bank of the Singapore River near the north end of the Market Street. On 4 November 1822, as part of his general plan to remodel the town, Stamford Raffles issued an instruction to relocate the fish market to Telok Ayer. The construction of the Telok Ayer Market started in 1823 under the supervision of police officer Francis James Bernard at a site on the southern end of Market Street on Telok Ayer Bay. The market, a timber-and-atap structure, opened in 1824. It was built on the shore that partially extended out to the sea so that waste may be washed away by the tides, and produce may be loaded or unloaded directly from boats via jetties leading to the market. However, the building was not well-constructed – the timber piles on which the building rest on was not sturdy enough, and needed to be replaced soon after completion. Its atap roof also did not comply with building regulations and was therefore replaced with tiles, but had to be replaced with atap again in 1827 regardless of fire regulation as the structure was not strong enough to support a tile roof and was in danger of collapse. The building was repeatedly repaired but by 1830, the structure was judged to be in an "extremely unsafe state" and needed to be rebuilt. A temporary market was erected in 1832 while a newer building awaited construction.
The construction of a new market, designed by architect George Drumgoole Coleman, commenced on the same site in 1836 and it was completed in 1838. Coleman produced an octagonal building with ornamental columns at the entrance. The building had twice the area of the older market, and was formed of an outer and inner drum, with the colonnade of the outer drum letting in light but also providing shelter from the sun and rain. This building was built on two octagonal rings of brick piers, which supported a structure 125 feet in diameter, and an inner drum 40 feet in diameter. As with the previous structure, it suffered from its exposure to the monsoons and the sea, and concerns over its safety were voiced soon after its constructions and over the years. In 1841, the market was extended on one side of the main building under the supervision of contractor Denis McSwiney with the erection of a new fish market. This new structure was a long open shed, and it was later further extended to run roughly parallel to two sides of the octagonal market. The extension would help protect the main market by serving as a breakwater to reduce the force of the swells and surf from the east. The Telok Ayer market needed to be repaired soon after construction, nevertheless, it stood for over 40 years until it was demolished when land was reclaimed on Telok Ayer Bay, and the prominence of the market on the waterfront made the building a landmark of early Singapore.
In 1879, land reclamation work on Telok Ayer Bay that created the land on which Robinson Road is now located began. The newly reclaimed land on which the current market now sits was declared to be ready for use in 1890, and construction of a new market was initiated. The market was certified as completed on 1 March 1894, and Market Street was extended to the new location. The new building, which covered an area of 55,000 square feet, was designed by the Municipal Engineer James MacRitchie. MacRitchie adopted the octagonal shape of Coleman's original design, and used cast-iron pillars to support the building. The cast iron work cost £13,200, and was shipped out from Glasgow by P&W MacLellan, who had also supplied the iron for the Cavenagh Bridge in 1868. The great cast-iron columns which support the structure bear the maker's mark of W. MacFarlane and Co., also of Glasgow. The iron structure was erected by Riley Hargreaves & Co. (now United Engineers) at a cost of $14,900, while building contractor Chea Keow laid the foundation for $18,000. This building, which is the current one still standing, was placed close to the waterfront and served as a general market, but linked by a bridge to a fish market built over the sea. However, further land reclamations in the 20th century meant that the octagonal building is now some distance from the coastline.
A cast-iron fountain was originally placed at the centre of the market under the clock tower, but in 1902 the fountain was moved to the front of the now demolished Orchard Road Market. The fountain was moved again to the Grand Hotel in Katong in 1930, and later dismantled and forgotten, but rediscovered in 1989. The fountain has since been reassembled and restored, and now forms the centrepiece of the Palm Garden at the Raffles Hotel.
As food court
By the early 1970s, the area around Telok Ayer Market—Shenton Way, Robinson Road, Cecil Street and Raffles Place—had transformed into a major commercial and financial district of Singapore, and a wet market was no longer considered suitable for the area. In 1972, the market was converted into a hawker centre. However, the historical and architectural value of Telok Ayer Marker was recognised, and it was gazetted as a national monument on 6 July 1973.
In 1986, the market was closed to allow construction of a new Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) line which runs underneath the building. The building was taken apart and its cast-iron supports put into storage. Once the track-laying project has finished, the Telok Ayer Market was reconstructed in the late 1980s.
In 1989, the market was officially renamed Lau Pa Sat, the vernacular name most Singaporeans used to refer to the market. The old market reopened in 1991 as a festival market, a supposedly modern food court catering to office workers and tourists. The owner was the Jumabhoy family's Renaissance Property (part of now defunct Scotts Holding). The grandiose food court was opened with a lot of fanfare and wide media publicity. But it soon became a flop, business dropped a few weeks after it opened, due largely to poor ventilation (no air conditioning). Lau Pa Sat was later taken over in 1995 by Kopitiam, another food court operator.
A major renovation of Lau Pa Sat, costing $4 million and lasting 9 months, began on 1 September 2013. The layout of the stalls was reconfigured in the renovation, reducing the number of stalls but increasing the seating. Better ventilation with eight industrial ceiling fans was also installed. It reopened on 30 June 2014.
Lau Pa Sat's unique, octagonal, cast-iron structure was designed by James MacRitchie. The cast-iron structures were crafted by Walter MacFarlane & Company, an iron foundry in Glasgow, Scotland. The use of cast iron for the structure, as well as for decorative reasons, is typically Victorian and popular in Britain after the building of Joseph Paxton's Crystal Palace. Slender columns are topped with composite capitals supporting trusses with filigree-like infills. The cast-iron archways and fretted eaves brackets are good examples of the craftsmanship of the day.
A lantern is placed at the center, allowing daylight to illuminate the interior. The lantern is topped by a clock tower, and a set of bronze bells and a jacquemart that strikes the bells were installed in the tower in 1991.
The photographs of the renovated Lau pa sat are below.
- Wan Meng Hao. Heritage Places of Singapore. Cavendish Square Publishing. p. 26. ISBN 9789814312950.
- Kip Lin Lee (1983). Telok Ayer market: a historical account of the market from the founding of the settlement of Singapore to the present time. Archives & Oral History Dept., Singapore.
- Singapore's 100 Historic Places. National Heritage Board. Archipelago Press. 2002. pp. 44–45. ISBN 981-4068-23-3.
- Gretchen Liu (27 April 2001). Singapore: A Pictorial History, 1819-2000. Routledge. pp. 48–49. ISBN 978-0700715848.
- Jane Beamish; Jane Ferguson (1 December 1985). A History of Singapore Architecture: The Making of a City. Graham Brash (Pte.) Ltd. pp. 44–45. ISBN 978-9971947972.
- "Preservation of Monuments Board: "Former Telok Ayer Market (now Lau Pa Sat)"". Preservation of Monuments Board. Archived from the original on 14 May 2012. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
- "Robinson Road". Singapore Infopedia. National Library Board.
- Wan Meng Hao. Heritage Places of Singapore. Cavendish Square Publishing. p. 24. ISBN 9789814312950.
- "Former Telok Ayer Market (now known as Lau Pa Sat)". Roots. National Heritage Board.
- "Facilities". Raffles Hotel.
- "Singapore’s Iconic Fountains of Dreams". Remember Singapore. 26 October 2014.
- National Library of Singapore: "Former Telok Ayer Market", retrieved 21 November 2012
- Khew, Carolyn (22 December 2016). "Lau Pa Sat: Old market that was rebuilt into a food paradise". The Strait Times.
- Quek, Eunice (6 July 2014). "New eats at revamped Lau Pa Sat". The Strait Times.
- Norman Edwards, Peter Keys (1996), Singapore - A Guide to Buildings, Streets, Places, Times Books International, ISBN 9971-65-231-5
- Victor R Savage, Brenda S A Yeoh (2003), Toponymics - A Study of Singapore Street Names, Eastern Universities Press, ISBN 981-210-205-1
- Lee Kip Lin (1983) Telok Ayer Market : a historical account of the market from the founding of the settlement of Singapore to the present time., Singapore, Archives & Oral History Department
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