The Caretaker (musician)

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The Caretaker
Background information
Birth nameJames Leyland Kirby
Also known as
  • Billy Ray Cyrix
  • Butcher Claus
  • Butcher Claws
  • CV[ev]
  • Dr. Fred
  • Edgeley Musher
  • The
  • Leon And Hits
  • MC V/Vm
  • Notorious P.I.G.
  • Pole
  • The Stranger
  • V/Vm Allstar Marching Band
  • V/Vm And The Hog Chorus
  • V/Vm With Garry's Glitter
Born (1974-05-09) 9 May 1974 (age 46)
OriginStockport, England
GenresExperimental music, ambient, ballroom, hauntology, plunderphonics, sampledelia
InstrumentsComputer, sampler, turntable
Years active1996–present
LabelsV/Vm Test Records, History Always Favours The Winners
Associated actsV/Vm
WebsiteOfficial site

The Caretaker was a long-running project by English electronic musician Leyland James Kirby (born 9 May 1974). His work under the Caretaker moniker has been characterised as exploring memory and the gradual deterioration of it, nostalgia, and melancholia.[1] Initially, the project was inspired by the haunted ballroom scene in the 1980 film The Shining, with his first several releases consisting of treated and manipulated samples of '30s ballroom pop recordings.[1]

His works have received critical acclaim in publications such as The Wire, the New York Times,[2] and BBC Music.[3]


Haunted Ballroom trilogy (1999–2003)[edit]

Simon Reynolds refers to the Caretaker's first three releases as "the haunted ballroom trilogy",[4] spanning 1999-2003: Selected Memories From The Haunted Ballroom, A Stairway To The Stars, We'll All Go Riding On A Rainbow.

Jon Fletcher described the sound as

"instantly recognisable musical identity of British tea-room pop (dance-band and swing music from the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s) plugged into a multitude of effects to create a Proustian Replicant inverse. It's a stranger’s past relocated within your own memories, a re-imagined history from an alien past. The mannered romantic swing of a bygone era is rendered beguilingly uncanny....These first releases flitted from bursts of noise (September 1939) to gaseous ambience (We Cannot Escape The Past) to subtly-soaked moments of outright beauty (Stardust - a moment so captivating that this writer got married to it (not to the song itself, oh you know what I mean))... despite the uncanny affect and despite the eeriness, there is something warmly seductive about this debut triptych. Kubrick’s film, like the best horror, still injects a thrill and there a remnant of comfort in being haunted, a strange warmth. These early forays have the allure you find in childhood ghost stories. By the time of the third release though, it was hard to imagine what more could be done with the project. Never less than beautiful, it was just hard to conceive of actually needing any more of it."[5]

Amnesia period (2005–2008)[edit]

Theoretically pure anterograde amnesia was released in 2005 as a series of 72 free MP3 downloads. The release found much critical acclaim. Reynolds identifies it as a shift in the sound, "disorienting in its scale and abstraction", with his period 2005-2008 "explor[ing] similar zones of queasy amorphousness".[4] Doran also sees the album as "a change in direction for the project conceptually, as it started to explore different aspects of memory loss as the music itself became more texturally and structurally complex."[6]

Jon Fletcher describes the release as "the labyrinthian set is a k-hole for the mind. Vague clouds of noise, barely flickering signals of life, only the starkest traces of past romanticism (no matter how poignant)- nothing to cling onto."[5] Mark Fisher contrasts this album with the Caretaker's previous output: "If his earlier records suggested spaces that were mildewed but still magnificent - grand hotels gone to seed, long-abandoned ballrooms - Theoretically Pure Anteretrograde Amnesia invokes sites that have deteriorated into total dereliction, where every unidentified noise is pregnant with menace."[7]

persistent repetition of phrases combines overt interest in amnesia and memory distortion, with a more melodic piano-centered atmosphere, with fewer recogniseable samples than the Haunted Ballroom period: "After a few minutes you realise that something is stuck...Each song is tightly looped, a single event, chasing its own resignation. No development, no narrative, no story. Not every locked groove is entirely hopeless. Rosy retrospection fixates on an event with a sense of less-bereft nostalgia - the memory trap seemingly resting on a happy moment.".[5] Kirby described it as "a lot warmer and more gentle...Not all memories are necessarily bad or disturbing memories".[8] At the time, this album was seen as his masterpiece, with Kirby describing himself as "surprised" by the level of reception, as it was created in a "bleak" and difficult period of his life.[9]

2011: Breakthrough and An Empty Bliss Beyond This World[edit]

After 2008, the Caretaker's website announced that "work has begun on a new release for early 2010 which will shift focus completely towards the brain and brain function, recall and error".[10] However, his next release was in many ways a culmination of his previous sound: combining the syrupy comfort of the haunted ballroom era, the looping of persistent phrases and the noise music of anteretrograde amnesia, while also looking forward and exploring Alzheimers for the first time. During this time, Kirby released Sadly, the Future Is No Longer What It Was under his own name, which was described by Pitchfork as "music of stasis that doesn't announce itself as much as it seeps."[11]

Kirby's focus at this time was on another album, and did not plan out making another Caretaker record of this kind - the album was made because of "pure chance in action at all times.".[10] The critical impact of An Empty Bliss Beyond This World is explored in detail on its page.

He also completed the OST for Grant Gee's film Patience (After Sebald) (2012) in this period. Kirby's score for the film uses a 1927 record of Franz Schubert's piano-and-voice-only composition Winterreise (1828) as its main audio source. It also differs from other works of the project where hissing sounds are used instead of crackles, the loops are shorter in lengths, and the non-musical aspects of each track (the hiss sounds) serve as the foreground of the mix.

2016–present: Everywhere at the End of Time[edit]

After another break, the Caretaker returned with his final project, intended as an end to the Caretaker persona. He conceived of six interlinked releases, which would explore the progression of dementia stage by stage to its end. Later stages reprise loops and motifs from both earlier albums in the series, and from throughout the Caretaker's back catalogue.[6]

Kirby has always been driven by innovation and frustration with his own past, saying "I can’t carry on for another ten years looping old 1920s music"[6] and seeking to make a final break, and expressing a quixotic desire to frustrate fans of his earlier work, describing them as "a certain type of listener who will be buying this for a particular type of sound".[6] Everywhere at the End of Time is also influenced by technological changes since 1999, most notably advances in recording and mixing technology, and the new opportunities of sourcing music cuts online rather than scavenging in a physical record store.[6]

Everywhere at the End of Time was released to wide critical acclaim, explored in detail on its own page.

The series was broken by Take care. It's a desert out there... (2017), following the suicide of long-term Caretaker collaborator Mark Fisher.[12] The album features a single 45 minute track, reminiscent of Theoretically Pure Anteretrograde Amnesia's noise music. The release was originally intended to be limited only to those who had attended the live performance, but in response to event attendees selling the CD for high prices online, it was also released digitally, with proceeds going to the mental health charity Mind.[13]

Kirby's last release as The Caretaker was Everywhere, an empty bliss (2019), a collection of unreleased archival works.


The Caretaker describes himself as "fascinated by memory and its recall", as well as suggesting the project is "a kind of audio black comedy".[14] As well as The Shining, The Caretaker names Dennis Potter's Pennies from Heaven as an influence, which also appropriates music of the era in a new way with a "sadness in the lyrics to keep telling the story", as well as Carnival of Souls (1962)[14] and the music itself:

"most of that music is about ghosts and loss as it was recorded between both the world wars. it's of a totally different era and had more or less been forgotten. Titles inspired new ideas as did the audio itself"[14]

He cites Al Bowlly specifically, whose music is featured prominently in The Shining, as a key touchstone:

"He was the golden voice of his generation, but he was killed by a parachute mine outside his London home. Bowlly always sang as if haunted; his voice is otherworldly. It's very strange music from this time between the two world wars: optimistic, but also very much about loss and longing, ghosts and torment. It seems haunted by the spirits of those who went to the trenches and never returned"[4]

For his work on amnesia and dementia, he also drew from books and research on the topic.[6]

The Caretaker's original website suggested it to "fans of the darker isolationist ambient work of modern composers such as William Basinski, Nurse With Wound, Aphex Twin, Fennesz and Brian Eno".[15] Fisher notes that the project is "rooted in Britishness",[16] with the Caretaker generally choosing to focus on only British source material. Fletcher suggests "Roxy Music's early weirdness"[5]

The Caretaker sees his work as a collaborative processed, stressing the importance of LUPO's mastering, the visuals of, and longtime album-artist Ivan Seal as a key part of his process.[17] Theorist Mark Fisher had a symbiotic relationship with the Caretaker, contributing the liner notes to Theoretically Pure Antiretrograde Amnesia as well as putting his work in critical context, often taking the Caretaker as a jumping off point for his political ideas. Following Fisher's death, the Caretaker released Take Care, It's a Desert Out There as a memorial album, after one of the writer's quotes, with proceeds going to the mental health charity Mind.[18]

Critical response[edit]

Mark Fisher played a major role[19] in theorising the Caretaker's sound. He names the Caretaker as a key hauntology artist, alongside "William Basinski, the Ghost Box label...Burial, Mordant Music, Philip Jeck, amongst others" who had "converged on a certain terrain without directly influencing one another...suffused with an overwhelming melancholy; and they were preoccupied with the way in which technology materialised memory" - in the Caretaker's case, that of vinyl records.[20] He identifies the "crackle" of vinyl as "the principle sonic signature of hauntology" which "makes us aware that we are listening to a time that is out of joint",[20] signalling "the return of a certain sense of loss" which "invokes the past and marks our distance from it".[21] Fisher connects the Caretaker's sound to his wider project of describing capitalist realism - the political idea that "not only has the future not arrived, it no longer seems possible", and hauntology's melancholia to capitalist realism's "closed horizons". Fisher contributed liner notes to Theoretically Pure Antiretrograde Amnesia, describing it as "uneasy listening"; in contrast to the Caretaker's earlier works, "the threat is no longer the deadly sweet seduction of nostalgia. The problem is not, any more, the longing to get *to* the past but the inability to get *out* of it".[22]

Jon Fletcher similarly describes his work as "a hideously clear analysis of the post-modern condition - the sheer ephemerality of contemporary culture degenerating into a hopelessness - a sickness so debilitating that we forget the moment whilst it is still taking place…"[5]

Kirby's own press releases also welcome political understandings of his work. With British-born Kirby having lived and worked for many years in Berlin and Krakow, the press release for Everywhere at the End of Time compares the project to Brexit:

"Both started in 2016 and are due to wrap up in spring 2019. It should be no stretch of the imagination to read into their parallel progression from nostalgia and historic/collective amnesia, to progressive dementia and complete obliteration of (the) sense(s)"[23]

Adam Scovell focuses on the "spatial qualities" of Take Care, It's a Desert Out There - contrasting it with the Caretaker's earlier evocation of old tea rooms and hotels with "transporting the listener into a void of sorts". He describes it as:

"almost weather-like which is appropriate as depression is in some sense meteorological...Everything is dampened, nothing is spared. There is only the "now" when the weather is bad. Bones are damp, thoughts are damp and the dry land that others inhabit is seemingly inconceivable."[12]


Jon Fletcher described the Caretaker as "one of this decade's most innovative, heartbreaking and downright eerie musical projects has been playing to shadows under dimmed lights for the past 12 years.".[5]

The Caretaker's final project, Everywhere at the End of Time, is amongst his best known. Pitchfork called the album "the musical equivalent of a permanent smile."[17] The Quietus, who very frequently features Kirby's projects, named it the top of its 100 Reissues list in 2019[24] In 2020, the completed Everywhere At The End Of Time went viral on TikTok, with users challenging one another to listen to the entire six-and-a-half-hour album series in one sitting.[25]

In October 2017, a group of over 90 artists released Memories Overlooked: A Tribute To The Caretaker, with 100% of digital proceeds going to the Alzheimer's Association, as well as a physical release on cassette.[26]

Various people[who?] have made fan albums based on Everywhere at the End of Time, such as Nowhere At the Millenium Of Space.[citation needed]


As The Caretaker[edit]

As Leyland Kirby[edit]

  • Sadly, the Future is No Longer What it Was (2009)
  • Eager to Tear Apart the Stars (2011)
  • Breaks My Heart Each Time (2014)
  • We Drink to Forget the Coming Storm (2014)
  • Intrigue & Stuff (2014)
  • We, So Tired Of All The Darkness In Our Lives (2017)

As The Stranger[edit]

  • The Stranger (1997)
  • Bleaklow (2008)
  • Bleaklow: Remastered Edition (2014)
  • Watching Dead Empires in Decay (2013)

As V/Vm[edit]

  • Up-Link Data Transmissions (1996)
  • Machine Component 1 (1997)
  • Machine Component 2 (1997)
  • Machine Component 3 (1997)
  • Machine Component 4 (1997)
  • Shoplift (1997)
  • Third Eye Foundation, V/VM* Split Series #1 (1997)
  • Obsessive Eye Vol. 3(1998)
  • Steuea, Goodiepal, Goodiebag #1VU (1998)
  • Pig(1999)
  • Schwarz-Gelb Ist Borussia(2000)
  • Sick-Love (2000)
  • The Green Door (2000)
  • Masters of The Absurd (2000)
  • Sometimes, Good Things Happen (Blu)(2002)
  • Sometimes, Good Things Happen (Sep)(2002)
  • Untitled(2002)
  • Dimitri Shostakovich "The Missing Symphony" (2003)
  • Stigma (2004)
  • I Wanna Fuck Miss Nicky Trax (2005)
  • The Death of Rave (The Source) [256] (2006, 2020, 2020, 2020)
  • White Death (2006, 2006, 2011, 2017)
  • The Death of Rave (Additional) (2006)
  • V/Vm 365 (2006)
  • Red Carpet Narcissism Vol.1 (2006)
  • Sabam (2006)
  • Radio Mix 2003 (2007)
  • There Was A Fish... In... The Percolator (2008)
  • The Death of Rave (A Partial Flashback) (2014)[38]
  • Total Eclipse of The Heart (2014[?])
  • Between Nothingness & Eternity (2016)
  • The Christmess Stocking (2016)

As Pole[edit]

  • Fatcat Influential Split #8 (2000) (with Plotkin)

As The Notorious P.I.G[edit]

  • "Sound of the Pig" from Falco Tribute (1999)
  • "Hanging On The Telephone" from Parallel Lives: A Tribute to Blondie (2000)

As Van Gaal[edit]

  • Ph/antasy (2018)

As Dr. Fred[edit]

  • Dr. Fred Plays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . His Favourite Medical Drama Theme Tunes (2001)

As Billy Ray Cyrix[edit]

  • Achy Breaky Hard Drive (2001)


  1. ^ a b Phares, Heather. "Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved 16 June 2017. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  2. ^ Marcus, Ezra. "Why Are TikTok Teens Listening to an Album About Dementia?". Retrieved 24 October 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  3. ^ Siebelt, Olli (20 November 2002). "The Caretaker – A Stairway". BBC. Archived from the original on 24 December 2007. Retrieved 29 May 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  4. ^ a b c Reynolds, Simon (2011). Retromania. Faber and Faber. p. 356. ISBN 9780865479944.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Fletcher, Jon. "In Extremis - Jon Fletcher Gets To Grips With The Caretaker". the Quietus. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Doran, John. "Out Of Time: Leyland James Kirby And The Death Of A Caretaker". The Quietus. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
  7. ^ Fisher, Mark (2014). Ghosts of My Life. Zero Books. p. 113. ISBN 9781780992266.
  8. ^ Fisher, Mark (2014). Ghosts of My Life. Zero Books. p. 119. ISBN 9781780992266.
  9. ^ Davenport, Joe. "James Kirby (The Caretaker)". Tiny Mix Tapes. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
  10. ^ a b "Releases". The Caretaker @ Brainwashed. Archived from the original on 11 January 2010. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
  11. ^ "Leyland Kirby: Sadly, the Future Is No Longer What It Once Was". Pitchfork. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  12. ^ a b Scovell, Adam. the Quietus Retrieved 26 November 2020. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  13. ^ "take care, it's a desert out there". Boomkat. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
  14. ^ a b c Fisher, Mark (2014). Ghosts of My Life. Zero Books. p. 116. ISBN 9781780992266.
  15. ^ Kirby, Leyland. "The Caretaker". Brainwashed. Archived from the original on 10 October 2010. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
  16. ^ Fisher, Mark (2014). Ghosts of My Life. Zero Books. p. 115. ISBN 9781780992266.
  17. ^ a b Bates, Landon. "The Process: The Caretaker". The Believer. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
  18. ^ Eede, Christian. "The Caretaker Releases Album Dedicated To Mark Fisher". The Quietus. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
  19. ^ Scovell, Adam. "Remembering Mark Fisher With The Caretaker's "Take Care. It's A Desert Out There..."". The Quietus. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
  20. ^ a b Fisher, Mark (2014). Ghosts of My Life. Zero Books. p. 20. ISBN 9781780992266.
  21. ^ Fisher, Mark (2014). Ghosts of My Life. Zero Books. p. 144. ISBN 9781780992266.
  22. ^ Fisher, Mark (2014). Ghosts of My Life. Zero Books. p. 111. ISBN 9781780992266.
  23. ^ Clarke, Patrick. "Phase Five Of The Caretaker's Everywhere At The End Of Time". the Quietus. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
  24. ^ Clarke, Patrick. "Quietus Reissues etc. Of The Year 2019 (In Association With Norman Records)". the Quietus. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
  25. ^ Clarke, Patrick. "'Everywhere At The End Of Time' Becomes TikTok Challenge". Retrieved 26 November 2020.
  26. ^ "CaretakerTribute @ Bandcamp". bandcamp. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
  27. ^ "Selected Memories From The Haunted Ballroom, by The Caretaker". The Caretaker. Retrieved 5 October 2020.
  28. ^ "A stairway to the stars, by The Caretaker". The Caretaker. Retrieved 5 October 2020.
  29. ^ "We'll all go riding on a rainbow, by The Caretaker". The Caretaker. Retrieved 5 October 2020.
  30. ^ "Theoretically pure anterograde amnesia, by The Caretaker". The Caretaker. Retrieved 5 October 2020.
  31. ^ "Deleted scenes, forgotten dreams, by The Caretaker". The Caretaker. Retrieved 5 October 2020.
  32. ^ "The Caretaker - persistent repetition of phrases". Retrieved 26 May 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  33. ^ "memories from the museum of garden history". Caretaker Website. Archived from the original on 17 March 2010. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
  34. ^ "The Caretaker - an empty bliss beyond this world". Retrieved 26 May 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  35. ^ "The Caretaker - Patience (After Sebald)". Retrieved 26 May 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  36. ^ "Everywhere at the end of time, by The Caretaker". Retrieved 26 May 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  37. ^ "Everywhere, an empty bliss, by The Caretaker". The Caretaker. Retrieved 5 October 2020.
  38. ^ "The Death of Rave (A Partial Flashback), by V/Vm". Leyland Kirby. Retrieved 18 December 2020.

External links[edit]