The Proletariat

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The Proletariat
The Proletariat's original lineup, left to right: Tom McKnight, Frank Michaels, Peter Bevilacqua, and Richard Brown.
The Proletariat's original lineup, left to right: Tom McKnight, Frank Michaels, Peter Bevilacqua, and Richard Brown.
Background information
OriginSoutheastern Massachusetts, United States
Years active1980–1985, 2016–Present[3][4][5]
  • Richard Brown
  • Peter Bevilacqua
  • Tom McKnight
  • Don Sanders
Past members
  • Frank Michaels
  • Laurel Ann Bowman †
  • Steve Welch

The Proletariat are a punk rock band from Southeastern Massachusetts, whose heyday was during the 1980s, when they were active in the early Boston hardcore scene, sharing the bill with many of the best punk and hardcore punk acts of the time,[7] despite their recorded output having a decidedly non-hardcore aesthetic; the Proletariat show more strongly the musical influences of early British post-punk bands such as Wire and the Gang of Four[8][9][10] in their fractured guitar sound and Marxist-themed lyrics.[11][12][13][14][15]


Early years (1980-mid-1982)[edit]

Formed in early 1980, the Proletariat started as a cover band playing at hardcore punk shows in the Boston area,[16][17] just as the local scene was breaking. Belligerent British-sounding American singer Richard Brown fronted the group with two friends, both former classmates of his at Apponequet Regional High School: guitarist Frank Michaels and bassist Peter Bevilacqua. The three had enrolled at Southeastern Massachusetts University together, where they studied history, finance, and industrial relations, respectively, but, after exposure to left-wing politics, and despite having no previous musical experience, all dropped out of college during their senior year to form a punk band,[18] which Brown would name the Proletariat.[12] In wanting to align themselves with the working class, Brown took work as a delivery truck driver, and Bevilacqua as a supermarket clerk; Michaels, for his part, devoted himself to managing the band.[12]

Brown initially played snare drum standing up while he sang, until the slightly younger high-schooler Tom McKnight, who worked as a gas station attendant, completed the band as their drummer in September 1980, occasionally accompanied by Brown on cowbell.[16][19][20] After a few months of practicing at Brown's parental home in Assonet, the group played their first gig on February 14, 1981 at the Lafayette Club in Taunton.[7][16] By mid-1981, after playing a few shows in Southeastern Massachusetts, doing mostly Sex Pistols covers, the Proletariat evolved a new sound that melded the straight-ahead sound of early records by the Clash with more angular rhythms, and agitprop political rhetoric under the influence of the Gang of Four.[1] They grew into a sound unlike other Boston punk or hardcore bands, characterized by drums holding an almost militaristic steadiness while guitars alternated between jarring upstrokes and overdriven chords.[21] People drew comparisons of the band's music to that of the anarchist group Crass and post-punk group the Fall, bands that the Proletariat's members only listened to after fans tipped them off to it.[16]

Between November 1981 and March 1982, they recorded material at Boston's Radiobeat Studios with producers Jimmy Dufour and Lou Giordano,[22] and brought a couple of songs as reels for airplay on local radio, making some stations' top-ten lists.[16] In July 1982, after the group gained national exposure via the hardcore punk audience on This is Boston, Not L.A., a compilation of bands from the local scene just released in May of that year by Newbury Comics' Modern Method Records label, they self-released a limited edition seven-song cassette EP called Distortion,[9][12] which received positive response from local critics and DJs. In the late summer of 1982, the band would appear on Unsafe at Any Speed, the six-song follow-up compilation EP to This is Boston, Not L.A.[12][13][23][24]

"The Proletariat were a Hardcore band that had a backbeat you could dance to, the most slam-danceable — they had that serious marching beat down. They were given the Hardcore tag because they wrote short songs and kinda fit in."

— Edward "Shred" Jacobs, former DJ at Boston's WERS and WBCN radio stations[25]

Repute and Soma Holiday (late 1982–1983)[edit]

As a live band the Proletariat were making a name for themselves after becoming finalists in the 1982 Rock 'n' Roll Rumble competition hosted by Boston commercial radio station WBCN, and haranguing the oppressive management of Boston's Paradise Rock Club.[12][16] Because of their proximity to Rhode Island, they gigged more frequently in Providence and Pawtucket, where they had a devoted following.[19] The group also received monetary contributions from benefactors who wanted to support the Proletariat's music and politics.[16]

Four songs from the Proletariat's earlier demo tape surfaced on vinyl along with 14 more songs to comprise the band's first LP, Soma Holiday, hailed by rock critic Robert Christgau as "the hardcore debut of 1983", even as Christgau noted their sound was not hardcore per se.[26] Named for the drug in Aldous Huxley's Brave New World,[10] the album demonstrates the band's art punk roots, with lyrics examining social issues from Brown's distant Marxist perspective, critiquing capitalism without embracing determinist revolutionary dogma.[21] The band's members were themselves members of the working class, most of whom had dropped out of college to drive trucks and labor elsewhere.[12][21]

In the 1983 Boston Rock magazine's year-end poll, the Proletariat placed first as best local band, second for best record, and fourth as best national band.[27][28][29]

"The Proletariat played offbeat post-Punk with Hardcore intensity and a radical twist. Frontman Richard Brown wrote oblique lyrics, part Ginsberg, part Mao ... 1983's Soma Holiday LP ... came off light years ahead of its time..."[nb 1]

Breakup and Indifference (1984-85)[edit]

In 1984, the Proletariat returned to Radiobeat Studios to record another album with Dufour and Giordano, assisted by Josiah McElheny. An early version of "An Uneasy Peace", a song composed for the upcoming album, brought the band international attention via its inclusion on the P.E.A.C.E. compilation, a hardcore punk collection released on Dave Dictor's R Radical Records label that included more well known bands like the Dead Kennedys, Crass, and MDC.[21] On June 30, 1984, the Proletariat performed what would be their final show with their original lineup at Chet's Last Call in Boston, sharing the bill with the Volcano Suns and fellow Radiobeat labelmates Sorry.[7][19] Later that year, before their second album was completed, Brown quit the band, as did McKnight who was studying engineering at Bristol Community College.[12][17][29] The two would be replaced by female singer Laurel Ann Bowman and drummer Steve Welch; both of whom performed on recordings of two songs for the new album.[6][13][17][20][30] This lineup was short-lived, and the Proletariat disbanded shortly after performing a pair of shows on July 1, 1985 with Italian band Raw Power and the local act Rash of Stabbings, at the Living Room rock club in Providence, Rhode Island.[7][17][20][31]

The band's new recordings were released as the album Indifference and its lead single titled "Marketplace" on Homestead Records in 1985. Both the album and single showed another side of the band, including layered melodies and featuring a guest appearance by Roger Miller of Mission of Burma playing piano on an updated version of "An Uneasy Peace", as well as Laurel Bowman's soft-toned voice in sharp contrast with Brown's staccato pronouncements.[13][21][29]

Churn and reissued discography (1995-1998)[edit]

In early 1995, after ten years of not playing together, Brown, Bevilacqua, and Michaels, with new drummer Jack Prascovics, formed a new band called Churn.[17][20][32][33][34] By mid-1996, McKnight joined them to replace a previous drummer, with the result that all the original members of the Proletariat got reunited in Churn,[35] albeit for a short time. In 1997, after continued lineup problems,[17] the group broke up,[20][34] having only released a five-song CD titled Heated Couplings in the Sun in 1995.[8][17][20][33][35][36][37]

In 1998, all of the Proletariat's recorded material, including four previously unreleased tracks, was compiled on Voodoo Economics and Other American Tragedies, a double CD collection released on Taang! Records.[9][13]

Reformation (2016-present)[edit]

After a three-decade hiatus, the Proletariat reformed for a series of shows in the fall of 2016.[3][4][5][10] Original members Richard Brown, Peter Bevilacqua and Tom McKnight were joined by guitarist Don Sanders,[38] former member of the Providence early hardcore punk band Idle Rich.[4][39] The band's return was accompanied by the vinyl reissue, on Sacramento-based label Ss Records, of their 1983 debut album, Soma Holiday.[3][4][5][10][11][40]

In the spring of 2017, the Proletariat performed a handful of shows in the United States and Canada, including an appearance on March 25 at the fifth edition of Bleak Outlook, the annual citywide weekend music festival of Tacoma, Washington.[41][42][43]

Recently, the band have confirmed tour dates, including a festival appearance in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, for the second half of 2017.[44] Also, they have announced the recording of a new EP in August, and a new studio album in the works for early 2018.[44][45][46]


Besides the Proletariat's official output, there are recordings of three live performances they did on Metrowave, a show that ran on Sunday nights from 9pm to midnight on Emerson College's FM radio station, WERS. At least two of those radio sessions, broadcast on December 6, 1981 and 29 May 1983, respectively, have made the rounds in tape trading circles and on the Internet.[7][21][47] "It's More Than Soil", one of the four previously unreleased songs featured on the Voodoo Economics and Other American Tragedies anthology, was taken from one of the WERS sessions.[48]

Studio albums



Compilations The 2CD compilation Voodoo Economics and Other American Tragedies (1998, Taang!) contains all their recorded work, including the previously unreleased tracks "Ten Years", "Abstain", "Choice", and "It's More Than Soil" (live in studio).

Compilation appearances


  1. ^ As originally worded, in the first edition of American Hardcore: A Tribal History, this same paragraph reads: "The Proletariat played vicious [hardcore] fused with a jagged Gang Of Four/Killing Joke edge. Frontman Richard Brown wrote poetically oblique lyrics with a distinct Marxist bent – part Burroughs, part Mao. Soma Holiday, their '83 LP, was way ahead of its time..."[14]


  1. ^ a b c d Sheppard, Oliver (October 5, 2016). "An interview with The Proletariat on their "Soma Holiday" reissue". Cvlt Nation. Retrieved October 9, 2016.
  2. ^ Sheppard, Oliver (September 10, 2012). "Pioneers of Postpunk". Souciant. Retrieved March 4, 2016.
  3. ^ a b c Marotta, Michael (August 12, 2016). "Anti-Indifference: Hardcore punk band The Proletariat return after three-decade hiatus". Vanyaland. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  4. ^ a b c d Jones, AJ "Phink" (August 19, 2016). "The Proletariat Reform and Announce First Reunion Shows". ThePunkSite. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  5. ^ a b c Sperry-Fromm, Rob (September 8, 2016). "The Proletariat reissuing debut, going on reunion tour; Gang Green playing shows too". BrooklynVegan. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
  6. ^ a b "Laurel Ann Bowman" (obituary). Whittier-Porter Funeral Home. Retrieved March 4, 2016.
  7. ^ a b c d e "The Proletariat: Show List". Official Website of the Proletariat and Churn. Archived from the original on October 12, 2016.
  8. ^ a b Shirley, David (November 1996). Churn, Heated Couplings in the Sun, review. Option.
  9. ^ a b c Anderson, Rick. "Voodoo Economics and Other American Tragedies: AllMusic Review by Rick Anderson". AllMusic. Retrieved April 23, 2016.
  10. ^ a b c d Carnes, Aaron (October 25, 2016). "The Return of Boston Hardcore Anomaly, The Proletariat" (interview). Vice. Retrieved July 10, 2021.
  11. ^ a b Scott, Tim (September 4, 2016). "How The Proletariat Became One Of the Most Incendiary Bands in Reagan’s America" (interview). Vice. Retrieved July 10, 2021.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h Millman, Joyce (August 24, 1982). "Cellars by starlight - The dictatorship of the Proletariat". The Boston Phoenix.
  13. ^ a b c d e Suburban Voice (ca. 2000). "The Proletariat: Voodoo Economics and Other American Tragedies (Taang! Dbl CD)" (review). Suburban Voice (43).
  14. ^ a b Blush 2001, p. 168.
  15. ^ "The Proletariat: Lyrics". The Proletariat (official website). Retrieved February 20, 2017.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g Sheena (September 1982). "The Proletariat: From Each According to His Ability". Boston Rock (32). Archived from the original on November 7, 2016.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g "The Proletariat: Biography". Official Website of the Proletariat and Churn. Archived from the original on January 23, 2017.
  18. ^ Giusti, Bob (December 15–22, 1982). "The Proletariat Take the Stand". The NewPaper.
  19. ^ a b c Baylies, Eric (September 1, 2016). "The Proletariat". The Noise. Retrieved February 20, 2017.
  20. ^ a b c d e f Foley, Ryan. "The Proletariat". The Music Museum of New England. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
  21. ^ a b c d e f "The Proletariat"[Usurped!]. Kill from the Heart. Archived from the original[Usurped!] on May 5, 2016.
  22. ^ The Proletariat, Distortion, 1982 MC EP insert art. Official Website of the Proletariat and Churn. Archived from the original on October 9, 2016.
  23. ^ Hurchalla 2016, p. 197.
  24. ^ Quint, Al (September 1982). "Various Artists: Unsafe at Any Speed (Modern Method)". Suburban Punk (1).
  25. ^ a b Blush 2010, p. 187.
  26. ^ Christgau, Robert (1984). "Consumer Guide Feb. 21, 1984". Retrieved 2008-04-06. The hardcore debut of 1983 doesn't sound very hardcore [...] [T]his is like a more rigorous, less cosmic PIL. ... B+
  27. ^ Boston Rock (December 1983). "Boston Rock readers' poll". Boston Rock (47).
  28. ^ Milano, Brett (March 6, 1984). "Review music – Proletariat's highly skilled labor". The Boston Globe.
  29. ^ a b c Hurchalla 2016, p. 208.
  30. ^ Eddy, Chuck (September 9, 1986). "The Proletariat: RIch Men Poor Men". The Village Voice XXXI (36).
  31. ^ "Rash of Stabbings" (profile). Rhode Island Rocks. Archived from the original on October 13, 2016.
  32. ^ Caito, Michael (March 24, 1995). "Rare Air – Churn: Live at Club Babyhead, Providence, RI 3/18/95". The Providence Phoenix.
  33. ^ a b Suburban Voice (ca. 1995). "Churn: Heated Couplings in the Sun (Earmark, EP)" (review). Suburban Voice (39).
  34. ^ a b "Official Home Page of Churn". Official Website of the Proletariat and Churn. Archived from the original on November 7, 2016.
  35. ^ a b Milano, Brett (July 18, 1996). "New grooves - Reunion (almost)". The Boston Phoenix. Archived from the original on May 16, 2017.
  36. ^ "Churn: Heated Couplings in the Sun". Official Website of the Proletariat and Churn. Archived from the original on October 2, 2016.
  37. ^ Milano, Brett (April 18, 1996). "Churn: Heated Couplings in the Sun (Earmark)". The Boston Phoenix. Archived from the original on May 16, 2017.
  38. ^ Milano, Brett (October 28, 2016). "Return of the working-man band". Boston Herald. Archived from the original on October 29, 2016.
  39. ^ Blush 2010, p. 280-281.
  40. ^ "The Proletariat - Soma Holiday LP". Ss Records - Sol Re Sol Records. Retrieved October 22, 2016.
  41. ^ Jones, AJ "Phink" (September 13, 2016). "The Proletariat Confirm Further Reunion Tour Dates". ThePunkSite. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
  42. ^ Jones, AJ "Phink" (January 28, 2017). "The Proletariat Confirm US Spring Tour". ThePunkSite. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
  43. ^ Navarre Allen, Stevie (February 2, 2017). "The Proletariat announce short tour". Punknews. Retrieved February 3, 2017.
  44. ^ a b Navarre Allen, Stevie (July 11, 2017). "The Proletariat announce PA shows, new EP and LP in the works". Punknews. Retrieved July 14, 2017.
  45. ^ Foster, John (May 31, 2019). "Trump-Era Agitprop". Souciant. Retrieved October 16, 2019.
  46. ^ Mann, Jackson Albert (August 24, 2019). "Proletarian Punk: An Interview with the Proletariat's Richard Brown" (interview). Boston Hassle. Retrieved October 18, 2019.
  47. ^ Von Havoc, Felix (July 1996). "And It Was Written - Top Ten". HeartattaCk.
  48. ^ The Proletariat (1998), Voodoo Economics and Other American Tragedies. Taang! Records. #TAANG! 127. Liner notes.

Works cited[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Hurchalla, George (Zuo Press, 2005). Going Underground: American Punk 1979–1989. Second ed., 2016. Oakland, California: PM Press. ISBN 9781629631134. pp. 205–208.

External links[edit]