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Great saphenous vein thrombosis 05091312009.jpg
Radiological image showing thrombosis of the great saphenous vein.
Classification and external resources
Specialty cardiology
ICD-10 I80, I82.1
ICD-9-CM 451
MedlinePlus 001108
MeSH D013924

Thrombophlebitis is phlebitis or vein inflammation related to a thrombus, which is a blood clot.[1] When it occurs repeatedly in different locations, it is known as thrombophlebitis migrans, (migrating thrombophlebitis) indicated by the Trousseau sign of malignancy.[2]

Signs and symptoms[edit]

The following symptoms/signs are often, but not always, associated with thrombophlebitis:[3]Although,one should note that thrombophlebitis is not restricted to the veins of the lower limbs (leg).[4]


Deep vein thrombosis of the right leg

Thrombophlebitis causes include disorders related to increased tendency for blood clotting and reduced speed of blood in the veins such as prolonged immobility; prolonged traveling (sitting) may promote a blood clot leading to thrombophlebitis but this occurs relatively less High estrogen states such as pregnancy, estrogen replacement therapy, or oral contraceptives are associated with an increased risk of thrombophlebitis.[5][3][4]Specific disorders associated with thrombophlebitis include superficial thrombophlebitis which affects veins near the skin surface, deep venous thrombosis which affects deeper veins, and pulmonary embolism.[6] Those with familial clotting disorders such as protein S deficiency, protein C deficiency, or factor V Leiden are also at increased risk of thrombophlebitis. Thrombophlebitis can be found in people with vasculitis including Behçet's disease. Thrombophlebitis migrans can be a sign of malignancies such as pancreatic carcinoma.[medical citation needed]


In terms of complications, one of the most serious occurs when the superficial blood clot is associated with a deeper venous thrombosis; this can then dislodge, traveling through the heart and occluding the dense capillary network of the lungs This is a pulmonary embolism which can be life-threatening to the affected individual.[7]


The diagnosis for thrombophlebitis is primarily based on the appearance of the affected area. Frequent checks of the pulse, blood pressure,and temperature may be required.If the cause is not readily identifiable, tests may be performed to determine the cause, including the following:[3][4]


Prevention consists of walking, drinking fluids and if currently hospitalized, changing of IV lines.[3] Walking is especially suggested after a long period seated, particularly when one travels.[8]


Ibuprofen (NSAID)

In terms of treatment for this condition the individual may be advised to do the following: raise the affected area to decrease swelling, and maintain pressure off of affected area so it will encounter less pain. In certain circumstances drainage of the clot might be an option. In general, treatment may include the following:[7][3][4]


Thrombophlebitis occurs almost equally between women and men though males do have higher possibility. The age of 54 is average age for men and 58 for women, in terms of incidents of thrombophlebitis[7]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Torpy JM, Burke AE, Glass RM (July 2006). "JAMA patient page. Thrombophlebitis". JAMA. 296 (4): 468. doi:10.1001/jama.296.4.468. PMID 16868304. 
  2. ^ Varki, Ajit (15 September 2007). "Trousseau's syndrome: multiple definitions and multiple mechanisms". Blood. 110 (6): 1723–1729. doi:10.1182/blood-2006-10-053736. ISSN 0006-4971. Retrieved 23 October 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c d e "Thrombophlebitis: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". Retrieved 23 September 2016. 
  4. ^ a b c d "Thrombophlebitis Clinical Presentation: History, Physical Examination, Causes". Retrieved 23 October 2016. 
  5. ^ Philbrick, John T.; Shumate, Rebecca; Siadaty, Mir S.; Becker, Daniel M. (23 October 2016). "Air Travel and Venous Thromboembolism: A Systematic Review". Journal of General Internal Medicine. 22 (1): 107–114. doi:10.1007/s11606-006-0016-0. ISSN 0884-8734. Retrieved 23 October 2016. 
  6. ^ "Superficial Thrombophlebitis: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology". eMedicine. Medscape. 12 July 2016. Retrieved 23 October 2016. 
  7. ^ a b c Raval, P. (1 January 2014). "Thrombophlebitis☆". Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences. Elsevier. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-801238-3.05368-X. Retrieved 23 October 2016.  – via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)
  8. ^ Tamparo, Carol D. (2016). Diseases of the Human Body. F.A. Davis. p. 292. ISBN 9780803657915. Retrieved 23 October 2016. 

Further reading[edit]