Ulmus americana 'Independence'
|Origin||University of Wisconsin–Madison, USA|
The American Elm cultivar Ulmus americana 'Independence' was raised by Eugene B. Smalley and Donald T. Lester at the University of Wisconsin–Madison from a crossing of the American Elm cultivar Moline and American Elm clone W-185-21, to become one of the six clones forming the American Liberty series, and the only one to be patented (U. S. Plant Patent 6227).
Almost identical to the species.
Pests and diseases
'Independence' has proven only moderately resistant to Dutch elm disease after inoculation with the causal fungus, and is also susceptible to Elm Yellows. The species as a whole is also moderately preferred for feeding and reproduction by the adult Elm Leaf Beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola  , and highly preferred for feeding by the Japanese Beetle Popillia japonica    in the United States. U. americana is also the most susceptible of all the elms to verticillium wilt.
The tree is not known to be in cultivation beyond North America.
- Townsend, A. M., Bentz, S. E., and Douglass L. W. (2005). Evaluation of 19 American Elm Clones for Tolerance to Dutch Elm Disease. Journal of Environmental Horticulture, March 2005, Horticultural Research Institute, Washington, D.C.
- Miller, F. and Ware, G. (2001). Resistance of Temperate Chinese Elms (Ulmuss spp.) to Feeding of the Adult Elm Leaf Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 94 (1): 162-166. 2001. Entom. Soc.of America.
- Miller, F., Ware, G. and Jackson, J. (2001). Preference of Temperate Chinese Elms (Ulmuss spp.) for the Feeding of the Japanese Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 94 (2). pp 445-448. 2001. Entom. Soc.of America.
- Pegg, G. F. & Brady, B. L. (2002). Verticillium Wilts. CABI Publishing. ISBN 0-85199-529-2
- http://www.extension.iastate.edu/Publications/SUL4.pdf Summary, inc. photographs, of elms resistant to Dutch elm disease.