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Umar at Fatimah's house

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Umar at Fatimah's house refers to the event where Umar and his supporters went to the house of Fatimah, the daughter of the prophet Muhammad, in order to get the allegiance of Ali and his followers. This event has been recorded in both Shia and Sunni books and is said to be the cause of Fatimah's miscarriage of Muhsin ibn Ali,[1][2] as well as Fatimah's death shortly after.[3]

Background

Succession to Muhammad

A few months prior to his death, at a place known as Ghadir Khumm, the Islamic prophet Muhammad gathered all the Muslims who were with him and delivered a long sermon. The sermon included the famous statement, "to whomsoever I am Mawla, Ali is also their Mawla." After the end of the sermon, the Muslims were commanded to pledge allegiance to Ali. According to both Shia and Sunni sources, Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman were all among the many who pledged allegiance to Ali at the event of Ghadir Khumm.[4][5][6][7][8]

Muhammad passed away a few months after the event of Ghadir Khumm. As Ali buried Muhammad and led his funeral prayer, a group of Muslims gathered at Saqifa. At Saqifa, Umar pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr,[9][10] despite the sermon that the Prophet had delivered at Ghadir Khumm, and despite Umar's pledge of allegiance to Ali. A group of Muslims supported Abu Bakr, and became known as the Sunni; another group of Muslims kept their allegiance to Ali and became known as the Shia.

Fadak

Fadak was a garden oasis in Khaybar, a tract of land in northern Arabia; it is now part of Saudi Arabia. Situated approximately 140 km (87 mi) from Medina, Fadak was known for its water wells, dates, and handicrafts. The Prophet Mohammed had found out that the People of Fadak had collected in order to fight the Muslims alongside the Khaybar Jews. Therefore, he sent Ali to them.[11] The people of Fadak surrendered without a fight, and pleaded for a peace treaty in exchange for giving away half their land and wealth to Mohammed.[12]

Fadak became Mohammad’s private property, as there was no Muslim fighters involved in Fadak to share the booty with. Mohammed gave the wealth away to orphans and also used it to finance the marriage of needy young men.[13][14][15] After Muhammad's death, Abu Bakr confiscated Fatima's share in Fadak that this confiscation continued in Umar up era, the reason for this work, was that Fadak had been assigned to needs and emergencies of Muhammad and now it was just accessible for the ruler of Muslims. According to Madelung, Umar's saying about the communal property of Muslims in Fadak may be challenging since Abu Bakr made a gift from his share to his daughter Aiesha.[16][17][18]

Event

After the gathering at Saqifa, Umar and his supporters went to the house of Fatimah; Ali, his family (including Fatimah), and some of his supporters (such as Ammar ibn Yasir, Abu Dhar al-Ghifari, Miqdad ibn Aswad, Salman al-Farsi, Ibn Abbas, al-Abbas, Utbah ibn Abi Lahab, Bara Ibn Azib, Ubay ibn Ka'b, Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas, Talha and Zubayr ibn al-Awam) were in the house.[19][20][21][22][23][24] Umar went to the door of Fatimah's house and said, "By Allah, I shall burn down (the house) over you unless you come out and give the oath of allegiance (to Abu Bakr)."[25][26][27][28][29] Zubayr ibn al-Awam, who had been in Ali's house, came out of the house with his sword drawn but reportedly tripped on something, after which Umar's supporters attacked him.[30][31][32][33]

Umar, who was then in front of the door to Fatimah's house, said to Fatimah, "I know that the Prophet of God did not love anyone more than you, but this will not stop me from carrying out my decision. If these people stay in your house, I will burn the door in front of you."[34][35] According to another narration, Umar asked for wood, and then told those inside the house, "I swear by Allah who has my soul in his hand, that if you do not come out, I will burn the house." Umar was then informed that Fatimah was inside the house, to which he responded, "So what! It doesn’t matter to me who is in the house."[36][37][38]

It is reported that when Fatimah heard the voices of Umar and his supporters threatening to attack the house, she cried out, "O father, O Messenger of Allah, how are Umar Ibn al-Khattab and Abu Bakr Ibn Abi Quhafah treating us after you and how do they meet us."[4]

The house was then attacked.[39] Umar and his supporters burned the door of the house; they crushed Fatimah between the door and the wall of the house, they killed Moshin, the baby in her stomach, and they forced Ali out of the house against his will.[40][41] According to some narrations, a rope was tied around Ali's neck.[42][43][44][45][46][47]

The famous historian Abul Hasan Ali Ibn al-Husayn al-Mas’udi wrote the following in his book Isbaat al-Wasiyyah:

They surrounded ‘Ali (as) and burned the door of his house and pulled him out against his will and pressed the leader of all women (Hadhrat Fatimah (sa)) between the door and the wall killing Mohsin (the male-child she was carrying in her womb for six months).

The Sunni historian Salahuddin Khalil al-Safadi wrote in his book Waafi al- Wafiyyaat that "Umar hit Fatimah (sa) on the stomach such that child in her womb died."[48]

Umar and his companions dragged Ali away. Fatimah urged them to stop, saying, "I will not permit Ali (a.s.) to be dragged with such cruelty and injustice. Woe be upon you, O people! How soon did you usurp our rights in relation to Allah and His Prophet (s.a.w.)." Umar then ordered Qunfuz to whip Fatimah. According to some narrations, Qunfuz whipped her back and her arms;[49] according to another, he struck her face;[50] according to another, he pushed her so hard that he smashed her ribs.[42] According to another report, Khalid bin Walid struck Fatimah with his sword; another report states that Moghayrah Ibne’ Sho’bah struck her with his sword.[42]

Narration of the event in early Sunni historical books

Tarikh al-Tabari

The Sunni historian Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, in his Tarikhlink writes:

Al-Milal wa al-Nihal (Al-Shahrastani)

Al-Shahrastani writes in his book Al-Milal wa al-Nihal(link):

Al-Iqd ul-Fareed (Ibn Abd Rabboh)

Ibn Abed Rabboh, in his book Al-Iqd ul-Fareed(link), writes:

As for Ali, Abbas and Zubair, they stayed in the house of Fatima until Abu Bakr sent Umar to get them out of Fatima's house and told him: if they refuse, fight them. He took a torch to burn the house and Fatima met him and told him: are you here to burn our house? He said: yes, or you enter what the Ummah has entered (i.e swear allegiance).[51]

Tarikh al-Ya’qoubi

“..When Abu Bakr and Umar heard the news that a party of the Ansar and the Muhajirin have gathered with ‘Ali at the house of the daughter of the Prophet, they went with a group of people and attacked the house…” [52]

Aftermath

Fatimah's displeasure

Both Shia and Sunni sources agree that, on a number of occasions, Muhammad had said, "Fatimah is a part of me. Whoever makes her angry, makes me angry." This has been recorded in both Sahih Bukhari (Arabic-English, Volume 5, Traditions 61 and 111) and Sahih Muslim (in the section on the virtues of Fatimah, Volume 4, pages 1904-1905), two of the most important Hadith books to Sunnis. It is also recorded in Sahih Bukhari Chapter of "The battle of Khaibar", Arabic-English, v5, tradition #546, pp 381–383, also v4, Tradition #325) that Fatimah was angry with Abu Bakr and did not speak to him before she died.

Fatimah is also reported to have said, according to Sunni sources, about Abu Bakr and Umar, "I take Allah and the angels to be my witness that you have not pleased me; on the other hand, you have angered me. When I shall meet the Prophet (S) I will complain about you two."[53]

Fatimah's death

According to a number of sources, Fatimah was killed as a result of injuries sustained when her house was attacked and burned by Umar.[54][55][56][57] She died between 75 and 95 days after the death of Muhammad.[58][59][60][61][62][63] According to many Muslim historians and scholars, including the likes of the Sunni Tabari and the Shia Morteza Motahhari, Fatimah asked Ali to bury her at night to ensure none of her enemies participated in her funeral.[64]

See also

References

  1. ^ Al-Masudi. Isbaat al-Wilaayah. p. 142. They attacked Fatimah’s (s.a.) house. They crushed the Chief of All Women behind the door so violently that it resulted in the miscarriage of Mohsin.
  2. ^ al-Shahrastaani, Muhammad. Al-Milal wa al-Nehal, Volume 1. p. 57. Umar struck Fatimah violently in the abdomen (on the Day of Allegiance) so much so that she fell on her abdomen (resulting in the infant’s death).
  3. ^ Bihar al-Anwar, Volume 43. p. 171. ‘Fatimah’s (s.a.) death resulted from being pierced by the sword which claimed (the unborn) Mohsin’s life. The perpetrator of this crime was Qunfuz, who was acting on his master – Umar’s explicit command…’
  4. ^ a b "A Shi'ite Encyclopedia". Al-Islam.org. Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project.
  5. ^ Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Volume 4. p. 281.
  6. ^ al-Razi, Fakhr. Tafsir al-Kabir, Volume 12. pp. 49–50.
  7. ^ al-Tabrizi, al-Khatib. Mishkat al-Masabih. p. 557.
  8. ^ Khand, Mir. Habib al-Siyar, Volume 1, Part 3. p. 144.
  9. ^ Al Qazwini, Sayed Hossein. "An Analysis of the event of Saqifa". mohamedridha. Retrieved 25 February 2018.
  10. ^ Ja'fari, Sayyid Husayn Muhammad. The Origins and Early Development of Shia Islam. Oxford University Press; 1 edition (4 April 2002). ISBN 978-0195793871.
  11. ^ Ibn Muhammad, Sa'd. Ibn-Saʿd's Kitab Al-tabaqat Al-kabir, Volume 2. Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd (24 January 2000). p. 110-111. ISBN 978-1897940914.
  12. ^ "When The Moon Split". Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  13. ^ "Atlas Al-sīrah Al-Nabawīyah". Retrieved 17 December 2014.
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  15. ^ "The Origins of the Islamic State". Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  16. ^ Madelung, Wilferd. The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate. Cambridge University Press (12 Jan. 2008). p. 362. ISBN 978-0521646963.
  17. ^ al- Buḫārī, Muḥammad Ibn-Ismāīl. ""The battle of Khaibar" v8". The Translation of the Meanings of Sahih Al-Bukhari: Arabic-English (English and Arabic Edition). Dar-us-Salam Publications; 1 edition (1 June 1997). p. 381-383. ISBN 978-9960717319.
  18. ^ Meri, Josef W. Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia (Routledge Encyclopedias of the Middle Ages). Routledge; 1 edition (31 October 2005). p. 249. ISBN 978-0415966900.
  19. ^ Cortese , Calderini, Delia , Simonetta. Women And the Fatimids in the World of Islam. Edinburgh University Press; 1 edition (5 January 2006). p. 8. ISBN 978-0748617333.
  20. ^ Tarikh al-Ya’qoubi (in Urdu). 2. Karachi, Pakistan: Nafees Academy. p. 199. When Abu Bakr and Umar heard the news that a party of the Ansar and the Muhajirin have gathered with ‘Ali at the house of the daughter of the Prophet, they went with a group of people and attacked the house...
  21. ^ Sahih Bukhari, Arabic-English, Volume 8, Tradition 817. Umar said: "And no doubt after the death of theProphet we were informed that the Ansar disagreed with us and gathered in the shed of Bani Sa'da. 'Ali and Zubair and whoever was with them opposed us, while the emigrants gathered with Abu Bakr."
  22. ^ Ibn Hisham. Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, Volume 4. p. 309.
  23. ^ History of Tabari, Volume 1 (in Arabic). p. 1822.
  24. ^ History of Tabari, Volume 9. p. 192.
  25. ^ History of Tabari, Volume 1. pp. 1118–1120.
  26. ^ History of Ibn Athir, Volume 2. p. 325.
  27. ^ Ibn Abd Al-Barr. al-Isti’ab, Volume 3. p. 975.
  28. ^ Ibn Qutaybah. Tarikh al-Kulafa, Volume 1. p. 20.
  29. ^ Ibn Qutaybah. al-Imamah wal-Siyasah, Volume 1. pp. 19–20.
  30. ^ Ibn Qutaybah (276 AH / 889 CE). al-Imama wa al-Siyasa. Egypt: Maktabt al-Tijaria al-Kubra. p. 13. Umar said: 'I swear by He who controls the life of Umar, either you come out or I will burn this house down!' The people said: 'Abu'l Hafs, Fatima is also in this house'. Umar replied: 'Even if she is...
  31. ^ History of Tabari, Volume 9. pp. 186–187.
  32. ^ Madelung, Wilferd. The Succession to Muhammad. pp. 43–44.
  33. ^ Ibn Abed Rabboh. Al-Iqd al-Farīd كتاب: العقد الفريد **|نداء الإيمان (in Arabic). Al-eman.com. Retrieved 4 March 2012. As for Ali, Abbas and Zubair, they stayed in the house of Fatima until Abu Bakr sent Umar to get them out of Fatima's house and told him: if they refuse, fight them. He took a torch to burn the house and Fatima met him and told him: are you here to burn our house? He said: yes, or you enter what the Ummah has entered (i.e swear allegiance).
  34. ^ Ibn Abi Shayba (235 AH / 849 CE) (1989). al-Musanaf. 7. Beirut: Dar al-Taj. p. 432. Umar came to the house of Fatima and said: "O' Daughter of the Prophet of God! I swear by God that we love no one more than your father, and after him we love no one more than you. Yet I swear by God that that won't stop me from gathering these people and commanding them to burn this house down!
  35. ^ Kanz al-Ummal, Volume 3. p. 140.
  36. ^ Meri, Josef W. Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia (Routledge Encyclopedias of the Middle Ages). Routledge; 1 edition (31 October 2005). p. 248. ISBN 978-0415966900.
  37. ^ Ibn Qutaybah. al-Imamah wa al-Siyasah, Volume 1. p. 3.
  38. ^ Ibn Qutaybah. al-Imamah wa al-Siyasah, Volume 1. pp. 19–20.
  39. ^ al-Baladhuri (297 AH / 892 CE) (1959). Ansab al-Ashraf. 1. Cairo: Dar al-Ma'arif. p. 586. Abu Bakr sent for Ali so that he can give allegiance but he didn't. So Umar came [to the house] and Fatima met him at the door. She said: 'ibn Khattab you want to burn my door down?' Umar replied: 'Yes, in order to strengthen the religion your father brought.'
  40. ^ Buehler, Arthur F. (2014). "Fatima". In Coeli Fitzpatrick; Adam Hani Walker. Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God. 1. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 186. ISBN 978-1-61069-178-9.
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  49. ^ Ilmul Yaqeen, Volume 2. p. 677.
  50. ^ Seeratul Aimmah Isna Ashar, Volume 1. p. 145.
  51. ^ Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari. History of the Prophets and Kings. مكتبة مشكاة الاسلامية - Almeshkat.net. Retrieved 4 March 2012. Umar Ibn al-Khattab came to the house of Ali. Talhah and Zubayr and some of the immigrants were also in the house. Umar cried out: "By God, either you come out to render the oath of allegiance, or I will set the house on fire." al-Zubair came out with his sword drawn. As he stumbled (upon something), the sword fell from his hand so they jumped over him and seized him.
  52. ^ Tarikh al-Ya’qoubi, Volume 2, p 199, Nafees Academy, Karachi, Pakistan (Urdu Translation)
  53. ^ Ibn Qutaybah. al-Imamah wa al-Siyasah, Volume 1. p. 14.
  54. ^ Labaf, Ali. The color of blood(revolve in Texts martyrdom of Hazrat Zahra). p. 19,17.
  55. ^ Labaf, Ali. And the fire flared up(Burning bit Fatima (as) Shia sources). p. 16.
  56. ^ Labaf, Ali. Eternal Legacy(Study and analysis about the attack against the house of Fatima). p. 19.
  57. ^ Babawayh, Ibn. Al-Amali (Shia sources).
  58. ^ Vahid Khorasani, Hossein. Connection chain Prophecy and emamate. p. 73,74.
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  64. ^ Motahhari, Morteza. Seiry dar sirey'e nabavi (A Journey through the Prophetic Conduct).