United States Senate elections, 1840 and 1841

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United States Senate elections, 1840 and 1841
United States
1838 / 1839 ←
Various dates → 1842 / 1843

18 of the 52 seats in the United States Senate (with special elections)
27 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Whig Democratic
Last election 20 seats 28 seats
Seats before 21 29
Seats won 11 6
Seats after 27 22
Seat change Increase 6 Decrease 7
Seats up 5 13

Majority Party before election

Democratic

Elected Majority Party

Whig

The United States Senate elections of 1840 and 1841 were elections which, corresponding with their Party's success in the 1840 Presidential election, had the Whig Party take control of the United States Senate.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures..

Results summary[edit]

Senate Party Division, 27th Congress (1841–1843)

  • Majority Party: Whig (29)
  • Minority Party: Democratic (22–20)
  • Other Parties: (0)
  • Vacant: (1–3)
  • Total Seats: 52

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

After the November 25, 1840 special elections in North Carolina.

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6
D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7
D17
Ran
D18
Ran
D19
Ran
D20
Ran
D21
Ran
D22
Unknown
D23
Unknown
D24
Retired
D25
Retired
D26
Retired
Majority → D27
Retired
W17
Retired
W18
Ran
W19
Resigned
W20
Retired
W21
Ran
V2 V1 D29
Ran
D28
Ran
W16 W15 W14 W13 W12 W11 W10 W9 W8 W7
W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6

After the elections[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6
D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7
D17
Re-elected
D18
Re-elected
D19
Re-elected
D20
Hold
D21
Hold
D22
Re-elected
V3
D Loss
V2 V1 W27
Gain
Majority →
W17
Hold
W18
Re-elected
W19
Hold
W20
Hold
W21
Re-elected
W22
Gain
W23
Gain
W24
Gain
W25
Gain
W26
Gain
W16 W15 W14 W13 W12 W11 W10 W9 W8 W7
W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6

Beginning of the next Congress[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6
D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7
D17 D18 D19 D20 D21 D22 V2 W29
Gain
W28
Gain
W27
Majority →
W17 W18 W19 W20 W21 W22 W23 W24 W25 W26
W16 W15 W14 W13 W12 W11 W10 W9 W8 W7
W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6
Key:
D# Democratic
W# Whig
V# Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Special elections during the 26th Congress[edit]

In these elections, the winners were elected during 1840 or in 1841 before March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Pennsylvania
(Class 1)
Vacant since 1839. Democratic incumbent Samuel McKean's term had expired and no successor was elected due to the legislature's failure to elect.
Winner elected January 14, 1840.
Democratic gain.
Daniel Sturgeon (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Michigan
(Class 1)
Vacant since 1839. Democratic incumbent Lucius Lyon had retired, his term expired, and no successor was elected due to the legislature's failure to elect.
Winner elected January 20, 1840.
Whig gain.
Augustus S. Porter (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New York
(Class 1)
Vacant since 1839. Democratic incumbent Nathaniel P. Tallmadge's term had expired and no successor was elected due to the legislature's failure to elect.
Incumbent re-elected January 27, 1840 to his former position in a different party.
Whig gain.
Nathaniel P. Tallmadge (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Tennessee
(Class 2)
Hugh Lawson White Whig 1825 (Special)
1829
1835
Incumbent resigned January 13, 1840 after refusing to vote for the Subtreasury Bill as demanded by the Tennessee legislature[1]
Winner elected February 26, 1840.
Democratic gain.
Winner would not be elected to the next term, see below.
Alexander O. Anderson (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Connecticut
(Class 1)
Thaddeus Betts Whig 1838 or 1839 Incumbent died April 7, 1840.
Winner elected May 4, 1840.
Whig hold.
Jabez W. Huntington (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
North Carolina
(Class 2)
Bedford Brown Democratic 1829 (Special)
1835
Incumbent resigned November 16, 1840 because he could not obey instructions of the North Carolina General Assembly.
Winner elected November 25, 1840.
Whig gain.
Winner would also be elected to the next term, see below.
Willie P. Mangum (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
North Carolina
(Class 3)
Robert Strange Democratic 1836 (Special)
1836
Incumbent resigned November 16, 1840 because he could not obey instructions of the North Carolina General Assembly.
Winner elected November 25, 1840.
Whig gain.
William A. Graham (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maryland
(Class 3)
John S. Spence Whig 1836 (Special)
1837
Incumbent died October 24, 1840.
Winner elected January 5, 1841.
Whig hold.
John L. Kerr (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Delaware
(Class 1)
Richard H. Bayard Whig 1836 (Special)
1838 or 1839
Incumbent resigned September 19, 1839 to become Chief Justice of the Delaware Supreme Court.
Winner elected January 12, 1841 to his former position.
Whig hold.
Richard H. Bayard (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Massachusetts
(Class 2)
John Davis Whig 1835 Incumbent resigned January 5, 1841 after being elected Governor of Massachusetts.
Winner elected January 13, 1841.
Whig hold.
Winner also elected to the next term, see below.
Isaac C. Bates (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Virginia
(Class 1)
Vacant since 1839. Democratic incumbent William C. Rives's term had expired and no successor was elected due to the legislature's failure to elect.
Incumbent re-elected January 18, 1841 to his former position in a different party.
Whig gain.
William C. Rives (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Massachusetts
(Class 1)
Daniel Webster Whig 1827
1833
1839
Incumbent resigned February 22, 1841 to become U.S. Secretary of State.
Winner elected February 23, 1841.
Whig hold.
Rufus Choate (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Races leading to the 27th Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winner was elected for the term beginning March 4, 1841; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Alabama William R. King Democratic 1819
1822
1828
1834
Incumbent re-elected in 1840. William R. King (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Arkansas William S. Fulton Democratic 1836 Incumbent re-elected in 1840. William S. Fulton (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Delaware Thomas Clayton Whig 1837 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1841. Thomas Clayton (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Georgia Wilson Lumpkin Democratic 1837 (Special) Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1840.
Whig gain.
John M. Berrien (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Illinois John M. Robinson Democratic 1830 (Special)
1835
Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1840 or 1841.
Democratic hold.
Samuel McRoberts (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Kentucky John J. Crittenden Whig 1835 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1841.
Whig hold.
James T. Morehead (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Louisiana Robert C. Nicholas Democratic 1836 (Special) Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1840.
Whig gain.
Alexander Barrow (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maine John Ruggles Democratic 1835 (Special)
1835
Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1840.
Whig gain.
George Evans (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Massachusetts John Davis Whig 1835 Incumbent resigned January 5, 1841 after being elected Governor of Massachusetts.
Winner elected January 13, 1841.
Whig hold.
Winner also elected to finish the current term, see above.
Isaac C. Bates (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Michigan John Norvell Democratic 1837 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1841.
Whig gain.
William Woodbridge (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Mississippi Robert J. Walker Democratic 1835 Incumbent re-elected in 1841. Robert J. Walker (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Hampshire Henry Hubbard Democratic 1835 Incumbent retired to run for New Hampshire Governor.
Winner elected in 1841.
Democratic hold.
Levi Woodbury (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Jersey Garret D. Wall Democratic 1835 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1840.
Whig gain.
Jacob W. Miller (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
North Carolina Willie Mangum Whig 1840 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1841. Willie Mangum (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Rhode Island Nehemiah R. Knight Whig 1821 (Special)
1823
1829
1835
Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1841.
Whig hold.
James F. Simmons (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
South Carolina John C. Calhoun Democratic 1832 (Special)
1834
Incumbent re-elected in 1840. John C. Calhoun (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Tennessee Alexander O. Anderson Democratic 1840 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Legislature failed to elect.
Democratic loss.
Seat would not be filled until 1843.
None.
Virginia William H. Roane Democratic 1837 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1840.
Whig gain.
William S. Archer (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Special elections during the 27th Congress[edit]

In this special election, the winner was elected in 1841 after March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Alabama
(Class 3)
Clement Comer Clay Democratic 1837 (Appointed) Incumbent resigned November 15, 1841.
Winner elected November 24, 1841.
Democratic hold.
Arthur P. Bagby (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Complete list of races[edit]

Massachusetts[edit]

Whig Isaac C. Bates was elected January 13, 1841 to finish the class 2 term of his Whig predecessor, John Davis, who had resigned to become Governor of Massachusetts. Bates was also elected, on the same day, to the next term. He would only serve, however, until he died March 16, 1845.

Whig Rufus Choate was elected February 23, 1841, to finish the class 1 term of his Whig predecessor, Daniel Webster, who had resigned to become U.S. Secretary of State.

New York[edit]

Nathaniel P. Tallmadge had been elected as a Jacksonian Democrat in 1833 to this seat, and his term expired March 3, 1839. An election was held February 5, 1839. Although Tallmadge received the most votes, no candidate received a majority and the seat was declared vacant due to the legislature's failure to elect.

At the State election in November 1839, 7 Whigs and 3 Democrats were elected to the State Senate, which gave the Whigs a majority, the first anti-Bucktails/Jacksonian/Democratic majority in 20 years. The 63rd New York State Legislature met from January 7 to May 14, 1840, at Albany, New York. The strength of the parties in the Assembly, as shown by the vote for Speaker, was: 68 for Whig George Washington Patterson and 56 for Democrat Levi S. Chatfield.

On January 14, 1840, Nathaniel P. Tallmadge received a majority in both the Assembly and the Senate, and was declared elected.

Candidate Party Senate
(32 members)
Assembly
(128 members)
Nathaniel P. Tallmadge Whig 19
Samuel Beardsley Democratic 2
Levi Beardsley Democratic 1
William C. Bouck Democratic 1
Benjamin F. Butler Democratic 1
Churchill C. Cambreleng Democratic 1
Hiram Denio Democratic 1
John A. Dix Democratic 1
Azariah C. Flagg Democratic 1
John Savage Democratic 1
John Tracy Democratic 1

Tallmadge re-took his seat on January 27, 1840,[2] and remained in office until June 17, 1844, when he resigned to be appointed Governor of Wisconsin Territory. Daniel S. Dickinson was appointed to fill the vacancy temporarily, and subsequently elected by the State Legislature to succeed Tallmadge.

Pennsylvania[edit]

The election was held on January 14, 1840, after the regularly scheduled election in December 1838 was postponed due to the Buckshot War. Daniel Sturgeon was elected by the Pennsylvania General Assembly to the United States Senate.[3][4]

Democrat Samuel McKean was elected by the Pennsylvania General Assembly, consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate, in the 1832-1833 Senate election. Sen. McKean's term was to expire on March 4, 1839, and an election would have occurred during the winter of 1838-1839 elect a Senator for the successive term. The election did not occur, however, due to significant political unrest in Harrisburg, the state capital, over disputed election returns during the Buckshot War. McKean's seat was vacated when his term expired in March 1839 and remained vacant until the General Assembly elected a new Senator in 1840.[3]

The Pennsylvania General Assembly convened on January 14, 1840, to elect a Senator to serve out the remainder of the term that began on March 4, 1839. The results of the vote of both houses combined are as follows:

State Legislature Results[4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Daniel Sturgeon 87 65.41
Whig Charles Ogle 26 19.55
Anti-Masonic Richard Biddle 17 12.78
N/A Not voting 3 2.26
Totals 133 100.00%

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rothrock, Mary (1972). The French Broad-Holston Country: A History of Knox County, Tennessee. Knoxville, Tennessee: East Tennessee Historical Society. pp. 501–02. 
  2. ^ Abridgment of the Debates of Congress, from 1789 to 1856: Dec. 16, 1839-March 3, 1841 (page 50)
  3. ^ a b "U.S. Senate Election - 1838-1839 - No election" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 22, 2012. 
  4. ^ a b "U.S. Senate Election - 14 January 1840" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 22, 2012.