United States Senate elections, 1864 and 1865

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United States Senate elections, 1864 and 1865
United States
1862 / 1863 ←
Various dates → 1866 / 1867

24 of the 70 seats in the United States Senate (with special elections)
25 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Republican Democratic
Last election 32 seats 10 seats
Seats before 31 10
Seats won 11 3
Seats after 33 9
Seat change Increase 2 Decrease 1
Seats up 9 4

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Unconditional Unionist Unionist
Last election 1 seat 5 seats
Seats before 5 3
Seats won 0 0
Seats after 4 2
Seat change Decrease 1 Decrease 1
Seats up 1 1

Majority Party before election

Republican Party

Elected Majority Party

Republican Party

The United States Senate elections of 1864 and 1865 were elections corresponding with Abraham Lincoln's re-election, with the Republican Party gaining two seats in the United States Senate. As these elections occurred during the Civil War, most of the Southern States were absent.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by state legislatures.

Results summary[edit]

Senate Party Division, 39th Congress (1865–1867)

  • Majority Party: Republican (37)
  • Minority Party: Democratic (9)
  • Other Parties: Unconditional Unionist (1); Unionist (1)
  • Vacant: (24)
  • Total Seats: 72

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

V5
Seceded
V4
Seceded
V3
Seceded
V2 V1
V6
Seceded
V7
Seceded
V8
Seceded
V9
Seceded
V10
Seceded
V11
Seceded
D1 D2 D3 D4
UU5
Ran
U1 U2 U3
Retired
D10
Ran
D9
Retired
D8
Unknown
D7
Retired
D6 D5
UU4 UU3 UU2 UU1 R31
Ran
R30
Ran
R29
Retired
R28
Ran
R27
Ran
R26
Retired
Majority → R25
Unknown
R16 R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22 R23
Ran
R24
Ran
R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7 R6
V16 V15 V14 V13 V12 R1 R2 R3 R4 R5
V17 V18 V19 V20 V21

As a result of the elections[edit]

V5
Seceded
V4
Seceded
V3
Seceded
V2 V1
V6
Seceded
V7
Seceded
V8
Seceded
V9
Seceded
V10
Seceded
V11
Seceded
D1 D2 D3 D4
UU2 UU3 UU4 U1 U2 D9
Gain
D8
Hold
D7
Re-elected
D6 D5
UU1 R33
Gain
R32
Gain
R31
Re-elected
new party
R30
Hold
R29
Hold
R28
Hold
R27
Re-elected
R26
Re-elected
R25
Re-elected
Majority →
R15 R16 R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22 R23
Re-elected
R24
Re-elected
R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7 R6 R5
V17 V16 V15 V14 V13 V12
U Loss
R1 R2 R3 R4
V18 V19 V20 V21 V22

Beginning of the next Congress[edit]

V6 V5 V4 V3 V2 V1
V7 V8 V9 V10 V11 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5
R36
Changed
R37
Changed
UU1 V13
UU Loss
U1 V12
D Loss
D9
Gain
D8 D7 D6
R35
New state
R34
New state
R33 R32 R31 R30 R29 R28 R27 R26
Majority → R25
R16 R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24
R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7 R6
V18 V17 V16 V15 V14 R1 R2 R3 R4 R5
V19 V20 V21 V22 V23 V24
Key:
D# Democratic
R# Republican
UU# Unconditional Unionist
U# Unionist
V# Vacant

=

Race summaries[edit]

Special elections during the 38th Congress[edit]

In these elections, the winners were seated during 1864 or in 1865 before March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Maryland
(Class 3)
Thomas Holliday Hicks Unconditional Unionist 1862 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected January 11, 1864[1] to finish the term. Thomas Holliday Hicks (Unconditional Unionist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Delaware
(Class 1)
James A. Bayard, Jr. Democratic 1851
1857
1863
Incumbent resigned January 29, 1864 for unknown reason.
Winner elected January 29, 1864.
Democratic hold.
George R. Riddle (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Nevada
(Class 1)
New state Nevada's first Senators were elected February 1, 1865.
Republican gain.
William M. Stewart (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Nevada
(Class 3)
New state Nevada's first Senators were elected February 1, 1865.
Republican gain.
James W. Nye (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Virginia
(Class 1)
Lemuel J. Bowden Unionist 1863 Incumbent died January 2, 1864.
Winner elected sometime in 1865.
The Senate refused to seat him as it did not want to set a precedent for allowing premature re-entry of Confederate states.[2]
Unionist loss.
Seat remained vacant until 1870.
Joseph Segar (Unionist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Races leading to the 39th Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1865; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Alabama Vacant since January 21, 1861 when Clement Claiborne Clay (D) withdrew. Legislature failed to elect during Civil War and Reconstruction.
Seat remained vacant until 1868.
None.
Arkansas Vacant since July 11, 1861 when William K. Sebastian (D) was expelled. Legislature failed to elect during Civil War and Reconstruction.
Seat remained vacant until 1868.
None.
Delaware Willard Saulsbury, Sr. Democratic 1858 Incumbent re-elected in 1864. Willard Saulsbury, Sr. (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Georgia Vacant since February 4, 1861 when Robert Toombs (D) withdrew. Legislature failed to elect during Civil War and Reconstruction.
Seat remained vacant until 1871.
None.
Illinois William A. Richardson Democratic 1863 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1864 or 1865.
Republican gain.
Richard Yates (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Iowa James W. Grimes Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected January 11, 1864. James W. Grimes (Republican) 128
John D. Jennings 5
"Mr. Love" 1[3]
Kansas James H. Lane Republican 1861 Incumbent re-elected in 1865. James H. Lane (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Kentucky Lazarus W. Powell Democratic 1858 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1865.
Democratic hold.
James Guthrie (Democratic)
Lovell H. Rousseau (Unconditional Unionist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Louisiana Vacant since February 4, 1861 when Judah P. Benjamin (D) withdrew. Legislature failed to elect during Civil War and Reconstruction.
Seat remained vacant until 1868.
None.
Maine Nathan A. Farwell Republican 1864 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
Winner elected in 1864 or 1865.
Republican hold.
William P. Fessenden (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Massachusetts Henry Wilson Republican 1855 (Special)
1859
Incumbent re-elected in 1865. Henry Wilson (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Michigan Jacob M. Howard Republican 1862 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1865. Jacob M. Howard (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Minnesota Morton S. Wilkinson Republican 1858 or 1859 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1865.
Republican hold.
Daniel S. Norton (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Mississippi Vacant since January 12, 1861 when Albert G. Brown (D) withdrew. Legislature failed to elect during Civil War and Reconstruction.
Seat remained vacant until 1870.
None.
New Hampshire John P. Hale Republican 1846
1853 (Retired)
1855 (Special)
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1864.
Republican hold.
Aaron H. Cragin (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Jersey John C. Ten Eyck Republican 1858 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1864.
Democratic gain.
Election would later be disputed and seat declared vacant.
John P. Stockton (Democratic)
John C. Ten Eyck (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
North Carolina Vacant since March 6, 1861 when Thomas Bragg (D) resigned. Legislature failed to elect during Civil War and Reconstruction.
Seat remained vacant until 1868.
None.
Oregon Benjamin F. Harding Democratic 1862 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1864.
Republican gain.
George H. Williams (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Rhode Island Henry B. Anthony Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected in 1864. Henry B. Anthony (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
South Carolina Vacant since November 10, 1860 when James Chesnut, Jr. (D) withdrew. Legislature failed to elect during Civil War and Reconstruction.
Seat remained vacant until 1868.
None.
Tennessee Vacant since March 3, 1861 when Alfred O. P. Nicholson (D) withdrew. Legislature failed to elect during Civil War and Reconstruction.
Seat remained vacant until 1866.
None.
Texas Vacant since July 11, 1861 when John Hemphill (D) was expelled. Legislature failed to elect during Civil War and Reconstruction.
Seat remained vacant until 1870.
None.
Virginia John S. Carlile Unionist 1861 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1865.
The Senate refused to seat him as it did not want to set a precedent for allowing premature re-entry of Confederate states.[2]
Unionist loss.
Seat remained vacant until 1870.
John Curtiss Underwood (Unionist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
West Virginia Waitman T. Willey Unconditional Unionist 1863 Incumbent re-elected in 1865 as a Republican.
Republican gain.
Waitman T. Willey (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Elections during the 39th Congress[edit]

In this election, the winner was elected in 1865 after March 4.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Maryland
(Class 3)
Thomas Holliday Hicks Unconditional Unionist 1862 (Appointed)
1864 (Special)
Incumbent died February 14, 1865.
Winner elected March 9, 1865.
Unconditional Unionist hold.
John Creswell (Unconditional Unionist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Byrd & Wolff, page 120
  2. ^ a b "Musical Chairs (1861–1869)". United States Senate. Retrieved March 20, 2009. 
  3. ^ Clark, Dan Elbert (1913). "History of Senatorial Elections in Iowa". , page 131