User:DerbyCountyinNZ/1810s in New Zealand

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DerbyCountyinNZ/1810s in New Zealand
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There is a drastic decline in the number of ships visiting New Zealand from the previous decade. An economic depression starts in New South Wales in 1810 as a result of the escalation of war in Europe and continues until 1815. As a consequence there is a reduction in the number of convicts being transported.[1] In March 1810 news of the Boyd massacre reaches Port Jackson and a punitive expedition is sent to New Zealand and bombards the village of the incorrectly blamed chief, Te Pahi. Few whaling ships visit during 1810 but when the full story of the massacre is learned, and with the ships that do visit being treated well, the visits increase again, but not to previous levels until later in the decade. The War of 1812 reduces the number of American ships in the region for a few years (they avoid [[Port Jackson] entirely until it is learned that the war is over).[1]

Sealing in Foveaux Strait declines as the rookeries are exhausted. With the discovery of Campbell Island at the beginning of the 1810, and Macquarie Island later the same year, by the same sealing ship, sealers transfer their attention there. The Sealers' War also discourages ships from landing and those that do so usually stop in Foveaux Strait. By the end of 1815 visits by sealers virtually cease.[1]

With fewer ship visits there are fewer Māori taking passage but a few still visit Reverend Marsden at Port Jackson. The death of his most senior contact in New Zealand, the Ngāpuhi chief Te Pahi in 1810 temporarily delays plans to send the lay missionaries to the Bay of Islands but Te Pahi's replacement Ruatara is also keen to strengthen contact with Europeans. The missionaries are finally brought to New Zealand at the end of 1814 and the first mission established early the following year. The more successful second mission at Kerikeri is established in 1819.

Incumbents[edit]

Regal and vice regal[edit]

The colony of New South Wales nominally encompasses New Zealand from 1788 to 1840. Therefore the head of state is the monarch of the United Kingdom, represented by the Governor of New South Wales. However, British sovereignty is not established over New Zealand per se until 1840, at which point the Treaty of Waitangi retroactively recognised that it had been an independent territory until then. Furthermore, the Declaration of the Independence of New Zealand signed by a number of Māori chiefs in 1835 is formally recognised by the British government at the time, indicating that British sovereignty did not extend to New Zealand before then.[2]

Events[edit]

1810[edit]

  • 2 January – The Active (first ship of the name), Captain John Bader, arrives at Open Bay Islands off the south West Coast. The ship departs on 26 February, leaving a sealing gang on one of the isalnds, and is never seen again. The sealing gang is not rescued until 1813.[1][3]
  • 4 January – The sealing ship Perseverance, Captain Hasselberg, discovers Campbell Island. On 11 July the ship discovers Macquarie Island.[1]
  • 6 January – Boyd massacre: Captain Berry, of the City of Edinburgh, drafts a letter to Governor Macquaruie, which blames the Boyd massacre on chief Te Pahi. He leaves this letter, and copies of a notice warning visiting ships of what has happened, with chief Tara. The City of Edinburgh then leaves for Valparaiso with the 4 survivors of the Boyd. From the end of the month to the end of February several visiting ships are shown Berry's letter and news of the massacre reaches [[Port Jackson on 9 March. On 26 March 5 ships, having heard the story of the Boyd from a local woman, attack Te Pahi’s pa on Te Puna island. Approximately 60 Māori are killed and Te Pahi is wounded (he dies a few weeks later from unrelated wounds).[1][4][5]
  • 10 January – The sealer Sydney Cove, Captain Charles McLaren, lands a sealing gang on Stewart Island.[1] Around November/December the ship anchors in Otago Harbour. The theft of a red shirt and other articles by local chief Te Wahia sparks what becomes known as The Sealers' War or The War of the Shirt, which lasts until 1823. One of her sealers kills Te Wahia which incenses Māori. The Sydney Cove flees south and one of her crew, James Caddell, is captured by Māori at the Clutha mouth.[6]
  • 28 February – The convict ship Ann (second ship of the name), Captain Charles Clarke, arrives in Port Jackson with Samuel Marsden, William Hall, John King and Ruatara. Ruatara stays with Marsden for the next 18 months. The news of the Boyd massacre delays Marsden’s plans for a mission in New Zealand for some time.[1][7][8][9][10]
  • 2 March – The Brothers leaves Port Jackson for Open Bay. On 3 May the ship collects the two men dropped on islands on what is now the Dunedin coast at Port Daniel (Otago Harbour) in 1809 , including William Tucker. Tucker is sent to look for other sealers from the Brothers at Stewart Island. It is probably at this time, on the shores of Foveaux Strait, that he steals the Māori preserved head that he later sells in Port Jackson, thus inaugurating the retail trade of such items.[1]
  • 17 March – The Experiment, Captain Joseph Dodds, leaves Port Jackson taking a party headed by William Leith to set up a flax-collecting settlement in the North Island. Also on board is Lieutenant-Governor Joseph Foveaux. On 27 March the Governor Bligh, Captain Chace, leaves Port Jackson with supplies for the Experiment. When it is discovered that the Leith party has already returned to Port Jackson, Captain Chace decides to return via Foveaux Strait, where (around June) the ship collects the sealing gang left by the Fox in October 1809.[1]
Undated

1811[edit]

  • 7 October – The Frederick, Captain Bodie, leaves Port Jackson to go whaling and then return to London. Captain Bodie has agreed with Samuel Marsden to return Ruatara, Te Pahi’s son and 2 other Māori to New Zealand. Marsden has given Ruatara 2 saws, some other tools and some seed wheat to take with him. After provisioning at North Cape the Frederick goes whaling for 6 months. The ship returns for more provisions around April 1812 but Brodie does not allow Ruatara and the other Māori to land as promised. He then proceeds to Norfolk Island promising to land the Māori in New Zealand on his way back to England but abandons them at Norfolk Island (without pay) and forcibly takes Te Pahi’s son with him.[1]

1812[edit]

  • March – The whaling ship King George, Captain Lasco Jones, calls at the Bay of Islands. John Besent, an American in the crew, deserts the ship worried that locals will hear about ill-treatment of a Māori crew member by the Captain and massacre the crew as happened with the Boyd. He stays with the Ngāpuhi for 12 months and during that time hears a detailed account of what happened with the Boyd from chief Te Aara (who speaks fluent English). He later reports the ill-treatment by Captain Lasco and relates the Boyd account to the authorities in Port Jackson.[1]
  • 1 August – The Ann arrives at Port Jackson with Ruatara. During his subsequent stay with Reverend Marsden at Parramatta Ruatara asks that someone be sent to the Bay of Islands to teach reading and writing. On 19 September the Ann leaves Port Jackson and returns Ruatara home early the following year. With the death during his absence of Te Pahi and his (Ruatara's) elder brother, Ruatara is made paramount chief of the Ngāpuhi. Ruatara plans to grow wheat to sell to visiting ships, but he has nothing to grind the wheat with until Marsden sends him a hand mill in 1814.[1][8][7]

1813[edit]

  • 19 April – The Perseverance, leaves Sydney looking for flax trading possibilities in the south of the South Island. During the trip she is the first ship known to have entered Bluff Harbour.[1][12] On 2 May she collects the sealing gang left on Solander Island in western Foveaux Strait in 1809 by the Fox.[1]
  • May – After waiting for nearly 5 years Thomas Kendall and his family finally depart England for New Zealand (via New South Wales). They arrive in Port Jackson in October.[13][10][14]
  • 27 November – The Governor Bligh Captain John Grono, collects the sealing gang left marooned on the Open Bay islands since 1810.[1]
1813 or 1814[15]
  • 6 lascars from the Matilda desert the ship at ‘Port Daniel’(Otago Harbour). One later takes the moko and is still living with Māori on Stewart Island in 1844. Robert Brown and 7 others of the Matilda sail from Stewart Island in a ship’s boat to search the east coast of the South Island as far as Moeraki and Oamaru looking for the missing lascars. They are all killed and, presumably, eaten. Despite this, when the Matilda returns to Otago Harbour in 1815 in desperate need of fresh food and water, its crew are welcomed and assisted by local Māori without incident.[1]

1814[edit]

  • February – Reverend Marsden buys the Active, for £1400, after the Church Missionary Society refuses to provide funds for a ship. On 14 March the ship, under Captain Dillon, with Thomas Kendall and William Hall aboard leaves Sydney to explore the Bay of Islands for a suitable mission site. Also with them is Tui (Tupaea), younger brother of the Ngāpuhi chief Korokoro, who has been staying with Kendall in Sydney. On 10 June the ship achors off Rangihoua Bay and until she departs on 25 July Kendall and Hall meet a number of Ngāpuhi chiefs including Kawiti, Ruatara, Tara (of Kororareka), Pomare, Hauraki (aka Te Wera, of Kerikeri), and Hongi Hika. Several of these chiefs join the ship for its return to Sydney where it arrives on 22 August[9][16][14][13][17][8][18][7]
  • 12 November – Thomas Kendall appointed Justice of the Peace for New Zealand by Governor Macquarie.[14]
  • 28 November – The Active finally departs Port Jackson on its way to establish the mission at Rangihoua, having been delayed for 9 days due to bad weather. She passes North Cape on 15 December and stops at Matauri Bay on 20 December where Marsden persuades Ngāti Uru and Ngāpuhi to make peace.[1][10][9]
  • 22 December – The Active arrives in the Bay of Islands. On board are Reverend Marsden; missionaries Thomas Kendall, William Hall and John King and their families; John Liddiard Nicholas (later author of Narrative of Voyage to New Zealand)[19] and Ruatara, Hongi Hika, Korokoro, Te Nganaga, Tui and Maui. The Active’s captain is now Thomas Hansen Snr who is accompanied by his wife and son, Thomas Jnr.[17][8][18][7]
  • 25 December – Reverend Marsden preaches the first sermon in New Zealand.[16]

1815[edit]

  • 9[16] or 13 January[9] – Reverend Marsden, with a number of Māori including Te Morenga (as interpreter), Ruatara and Tui, leaves the Bay of Islands on the Active, commanded by Thomas Hansen Snr, to prospect the coast as far as Thames. On 16 January [20][21][22] On 16 January the Active anchors off Whakatiwai pā on the Firth of Thames coast where Marsden meets Ngāti Paoa chief Te Haupa. During her return to the Bay of Islands the Active calls into Whangarei on 19 January, apparently only the second ever European vessel to do so, after the Venus in 1806. The following day she calls at Pataua, just north of Whangarei, where the passengers and crew meet Mohanga who had gone to England in 1805. She returns Rangihoua Bay on 22 January.[1][16]
  • 28 January - The Active anchors at the mouth of the Kawakawa river to collect flax and timber. She leaves for Port Jackson on 15 February.[1][9]
  • 21 February – Thomas Holloway King is the first European born in New Zealand but he dies less than 4 years later on 21 November 1818 and is buried at Rangihoua.[23][24]
  • 24 February – Having completed the purchase of 200 acres for the mission site at Rangihoua, Reverend Marsden leaves for Port Jackson accompanied by chiefs Te Morenga and Te Pehi(Tupe).[9][21]
  • 3 March – Ngāpuhi chief Ruatara dies. His protection of the mission at Rangihoua passes to his uncle Hongi Hika. Ruatara’s plans to trade in wheat die with him.[7][18][8]
Undated
  • Thomas Kendall has the first book printed in Māori, A korao no New Zealand; or, the New Zealander's first book; being an attempt to compose some lessons for the instruction of the natives, published in Sydney.[13]
  • Sealers from the Governor Bligh, Captain John Grono, are the first Europeans to land in Canterbury at Banks Peninsula.[19][25]
  • William Tucker returns to Otago Harbour, possibly on the Governor Bligh, and takes up residence at Whareakeake where he lives with a Māori woman.
  • The schooner The Brothers arrives in Port Jackson with a small cargo of Kauri gum, the first known export of minerals from New Zealand.[26]

1816[edit]

  • 22 January – Large numbers of Māori from North Cape, Whangaroa and Thames visit the mission at Rangihoua.[16]
  • February – Thomas and Elizabeth Hansen arrive at Oihi, Rangihoua from Port Jackson on the Active. They are the first non-missionary European family to settle in New Zealand.[27]
  • March – Tui and Titore, who have been staying wtih Reverend Marsden for the last year, leave Port Jackson (Sydney) for England in HMS Kangaroo. While there they may have helped Professor Samuel Lee start his Maori dictionary.[16]
  • 16 August – Thomas Kendall starts the first school in New Zealand, at Rangihoua. The opening roll is 33. By the following year the roll has increased to 70 but the school closes in 1818.[13][14]

1817[edit]

  • 11 January – Hannah King Hansen (later Letheridge, then Clapham) is born at Oihi, Rangihoua Bay. She is the second female European child born in New Zealand.[28] [29]
  • January – Hongi Hika leads 800 Ngāpuhi in a fleet of 30 canoes to make peace with the North Cape tribes. He quarrels with tribes at Whangaroa on the way and immediately returns to the Bay of Islands in case they attack the Rangihoua mission in his absence.[18][16]
  • 11 December – William Tucker returns to Otago Harbour from Hobart on the Sophia, Captain Kelly, with other intending settlers. They later land at Whareakeake but Tucker and 2 others are killed and eaten, probably as part of the Sealers' War. In retaliation Kelly fires on the Māori, killing as many as 70, and destroys the kainga (village) at nearby Otakou. The beach is subsequently given the name Murdering Beach.[30]

1818[edit]

  • January (early)[16] – In retaliation for events resulting from the visit of the Venus in 1806 Te Morenga leads 400 Ngāpuhi against Ngāiterangi and Ngāti Porou. They destroy the Matarehu pā on Motiti Island but the Ngāiterangi chief, Te Waru, is absent. They proceed to East Cape and campaign for several months against Ngāti Porou.[21][31]
  • 7 February[16] – A second Ngāpuhi raid resulting from the events of 1806 is led by Hongi Hika against Ngāti Porou. They ravage many villages in the Bay of Plenty before passing East Cape and attacking Ngāti Porou in Hicks Bay. They return in January the following year.[18]
Undated

1819[edit]

  • 5 May[23]Samuel Leigh arrives on the Active to recuperate from ill-health at Reverend Marsden’s invitation. He later mentions to Marsden that he proposes to establish a Wesleyan mission to the Māori. In response Marsden appoints John Gare Butler to head a second Church Missionary Society mission. Leigh returns to England before the end of the year.[32][33]
  • 24 July – Governor Macquarie appoints Reverend Butler Justice of the Peace for New Zealand.[34]
  • 12 August – Reverend Samuel Marsden arrives in New Zealand on the General Gates on his second visit accompanied by Reverend Butler and James Kemp and their families. Marsden accepts the offer of land at Kerikeri from Hongi Hika to start the second Church Missionary Society mission. Reverend Butler will be in charge. He is the first resident ordained clergyman in New Zealand. On 25 September Marsden plants the first grape vines in New Zealand. He leaves New Zealand on 9 NOvember.[34][9][35][36]
  • 20[34] or 21 December[37] – The Butlers and Kemps take up residence in Kerikeri.
Undated
  • Te Rauparaha joins a Ngāpuhi attack on Ngāti Maru in Taranaki. The Ngāpuhi have enough muskets to soon win several battles (the Ngāti Maru have never seen muskets before) and capture a number of pa before continuing on to Cook Strait. When they pass through Kawhia on their return the Ngāpuhi give the Ngāti Toa some muskets. Later in the year Ngāti Toa (possibly led by Te Rauparaha) return to the Cook Strait region looking for a new place to settle as they are under severe pressure from Waikato and Ngāti Maniapoto at Kawhia.[11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Salmond, Anne. Between Worlds. 1997. Penguin Books (NZ) Ltd. ISBN 0-670-87787-5.
  2. ^ New Zealand Ministry of Culture and Heritage
  3. ^ New Zealand Folk Song: The story of David Lowston, a pre-colonial NZ song
  4. ^ Dictionary of New Zealand Biography: Te Pahi
  5. ^ New Zealand Encyclopaedia 1966: Tapsell Biography
  6. ^ Peter Entwisle, Taka: a Vignette Life of William Tucker 1784-1817, Dunedin, NZ: Port Daniel Press, 2005, p.70
  7. ^ a b c d e New Zealand Encyclopaedia 1966: Ruatara Biography
  8. ^ a b c d e Dictionary of New Zealand Biography: Ruatara
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Dictionary of New Zealand Biography: Samuel Marsden Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "DNZBMarsden" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  10. ^ a b c New Zealand Encyclopaedia 1966: Samuel Marsden Biography
  11. ^ a b Dictionary of New Zealand Biography: Te Rauparaha Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "DNZBTeRauparaha" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  12. ^ Bluff History
  13. ^ a b c d e Dictionary of New Zealand Biography: Thomas Kendall
  14. ^ a b c d New Zealand Encyclopaedia 1966: Thomas Kendall Biography
  15. ^ Anne Salmond's Between Worlds describes in the narrative (p.312) the following two incidents as having taken place in 1814 (as do reports in the histories of Moeraki and Oamaru) but in the appendix (p.524) as having occurred after the Matilda left Port Jackson on 4 August 1813 and implying they happened later that year, as is the case in NZETC: The Matilda at Otago, 1813.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i NZETC: Maori Wars of the Nineteenth Century, 1814 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "NZETC" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "NZETC" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "NZETC" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  17. ^ a b Dictionary of New Zealand Biography: Hongi Hika
  18. ^ a b c d e New Zealand Encyclopaedia 1966: Hongi Hika Biography
  19. ^ a b Early Europeans in New Zealand
  20. ^ At this time “Thames” actually refers to all the east coast south from Cape Rodney to Firth of Thames and the west coast of Coromandel Peninsula. See Maori Wars of the Nineteenth Century, 1815a
  21. ^ a b c New Zealand Encuclopaedia 1966: Te Morenga Biography
  22. ^ A Manukau Timeline
  23. ^ a b Early European Visits to NZ
  24. ^ Wises New Zealand Guide, 7th Edition, 1979. p.309.
  25. ^ Early Christchurch
  26. ^ Dunmore, Patricia (ed.) (1977). The Dunmore Book of New Zealand Records. p. 21. ISBN 0-908564-08-2. 
  27. ^ Ancestry.com: Thomas Hansen Biography[dead link]
  28. ^ Ancestry.com: Hannah King Biography
  29. ^ Her gravestone at Christ Church in Russell claims she was the first female child, (as per Wises New Zealand Guide, 7th Edition, 1979. p.309), but she is certainly the first female child to reach adulthood and whose subsequent history is known.
  30. ^ Wises New Zealand Guide, 7th Edition, 1979. p.282.
  31. ^ Tauranga History Timeline
  32. ^ Chambers, W. A. "Leigh, Samuel 1785–1852". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 5 April 2011. 
  33. ^ New Zealand Encyclopaedia 1966: Samuel Leigh Biography
  34. ^ a b c New Zealand Encyclopaedia 1966: John Gare Butler Biography
  35. ^ Culinary Journeys
  36. ^ NZHistory: The Christian Missionaries
  37. ^ Wises New Zealand Guide, 7th Edition, 1979. p.185.