Samarkand Kufic Quran
The Samarkand Kufic Quran (also known as the Uthman Quran, Samarkand codex, Samarkand manuscript and Tashkent Quran) is an 8th or 9th century manuscript Quran written in the territory of modern Iraq in the Kufic script. Today it is kept in the Hast Imam library, in Tashkent, Uzbekistan.
Dating the Manuscript
The copy of the Quran is traditionally considered to be one of a group commissioned by the third caliph Uthman; however, this attribution has been questioned, although no evidence was proffered. In 651, 19 years after the death of the Islamic Prophet, Muhammad, Uthman commissioned a committee to produce a standard copy of the text of the Quran (see Origin and development of the Quran). Five of these authoritative Qurans were sent to the major Muslim cities of the era, and Uthman kept one for his own use in Medina, although the Samarkand Quran is most likely not one of those copies. The only other surviving copy was thought to be the one held in Topkapı Palace in Turkey, but studies have shown that the Topkapı manuscript is also not from the 7th century, but from much later.
Uthman was succeeded by Ali, who took the uthmanic Quran to Kufa, now in Iraq. The subsequent history of the Quran is known only from legends. According to one of them, when Tamerlane destroyed the area, he took the Quran to his capital, Samarkand, as a treasure. According to another, the Quran was brought from the caliph of Rum to Samarkand by Khoja Ahrar, a Turkestani sufi master, as a gift after he had cured the caliph.
The Quran remained in the Khoja Ahrar Mosque of Samarkand for four centuries until 1869, when the Russian general Abramov bought it from the mullahs of the mosque and gave it to Konstantin von Kaufman, Governor-General of Turkestan, who in turn sent it to the Imperial Library in St. Petersburg (now the Russian National Library). It attracted the attention of Orientalists and eventually a facsimile edition was published in Saint-Petersburg in 1905. The 50 copies soon became rarities. The first thorough description and dating of the manuscript was undertaken by the Russian Orientalist Shebunin in 1891.
After the October Revolution, Vladimir Lenin, in an act of goodwill to the Muslims of Russia, gave the Quran to the people of Ufa, Bashkortostan. After repeated appeals by the people of the Turkestan ASSR, the Quran was returned to Central Asia, to Tashkent, in 1924, where it has since remained.
The parchment manuscript now is held in the library of the Telyashayakh Mosque, in the old "Hast-Imam" (Khazrati Imom) area of Tashkent, Uzbekistan, close to the grave of Kaffal Shashi, a 10th-century Islamic scholar.
The manuscript is incomplete: it begins in the middle of verse 7 of the second sura and ends at Surah 43:10. The manuscript has between eight and twelve lines to the page and, showing its antiquity, the text is devoid of vocalisation.
- Ian MacWilliam (2006-01-05). "Tashkent's hidden Islamic relic". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-05-27.
- "The "Qur'ān Of ʿUthmān" At Tashkent (Samarqand), Uzbekistan, From 2nd Century Hijra". Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- E. A. Rezvan, "On The Dating Of An “'Uthmanic Qur'an” From St. Petersburg", Manuscripta Orientalia, 2000, Volume 6, No. 3, pp. 19-22.
- Kodex Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi at corpus coranicum
- Mushaf Topkapi
- W. Ouspensky, S. Pissaref, ed. (1905). Coran coufique de Samarcand (facsimile) = Самаркандский куфический Коран (факсимиле). St. Pétersbourg: Institut Archéologique de St. Pétersbourg.
- (Russian) Шебунин, А. Ф. Куфический Коран СПб. Публичной Библиотеки // Записки Восточного отделения Императорского Русского археологического общества. — Вып. 1—4. — СПб., 1892. — Т. VI. — С. 76—77.
- Самаркандский куфический Коран (in Russian). RARUS'S GALLERY. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
- "Memory of the World Register - Nomination Form Uzbekistan - Holy Koran Mushaf of Othman" (PDF). UNESCO. Retrieved 26 September 2012.