Wanjiwalku

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The Wanjiwalku were an indigenous Australian people of the state of New South Wales.

Language[edit]

Norman Tindale, who had worked intensely with his informant George Dutton on the Wanjiwalku language, argued that, though separate tribes, both the Wanjiwalku and their western neighbours, the Malyangapa, spoke the same dialect.[1] Later studies by Luise Hercus and Peter Austin have determined that Wanjiwalku was a dialect of Paakantyi, while Malyangapa was morphological almost identical to the language spoken by the Yardliyawara, and to be classified as a member of the Yarli dialect cluster.[2]

Map of Wanjiwalku Lands.

Country[edit]

The Wanjiwalku were estimated by Tindale to have had around 8,000 square miles (21,000 km2) of tribal land extending from the vicinity of Milparinka to White Cliffs, and running east from close to Mount Arrowsmith as far as the area near Tongo Lake. Their lands took in Yancannia and the area east of Lake Bancannia.[1]

Edward Micklethwaite Curr describing the tough environment of Wanjiwalku lands wrote that the earliest white explorer Charles Sturt almost expired there:-

The country of the Pono forms a portion of the interior traversed by Captain Sturt in 1845 and described in such dismal colours as destined to be for ever uninhabitable by civilized people. It was here that, living in an underground room as a protection against the intense heat, his nails ceased to grow; the hairs of his head split at the end; Lucifer matches dropped, from the hand, light of themselves on reaching the ground, and so on; and yet this country has been found for several years to make good sheep-runs.[3]

Alternative names[edit]

  • Weyneubulkoo
  • Wonipalku
  • Wanyabalku
  • Wonjimalku
  • Pono
  • Pernowie, Pernowrie
  • Kongait
  • Tongaranka[1]

Some words[edit]

  • chukeroo(kangaroo)
  • koonai. (tame dog)
  • thirita. (wild dog)
  • kooma. (father)
  • ngumma. (mother)
  • birre-birre.' (whiteman)[4]

Migration and DNA link[edit]

A new study of Indigenous Australian DNA suggests there was some form of migration from India to Australia about 4,000 years ago.[5] Aboriginal people first inhabited Australia about 40,000 years ago and researchers had previously thought them to be isolated from the rest of the world for thousands of years. Dr Stoneking says it has taken a while for the Indian influence to be discovered because Indigenous Australians have been hesitant to participate in these kinds of genetic studies.[6] The Pallar and peoples of Palawan have a similar subdivisions. Pallar have names such as Anjgna pallar, Aniya pallar, Mallar, Kongu Pallar, Perumal, Andi, Ayi. Pallar means people of plains or low land (pallam). The Pallars are an Agrarian labour society in Tamil Nadu, India and could be descendants Australian Aboriginals. Agriculture started around 12,000 years ago and if the Wurdi Youang stone arrangement site dates back to around then, perhaps Aboriginal people were some of the first.[7] The last wave of migration and the earliest population in the Americas happened roughly 14,000 years ago, are known as Paleo-Indians. The prefix "paleo-" comes from the Greek adjective palaios (παλαιός), meaning "old" or "ancient".[8] "Palaya" also means old in Tamil.

Chronology of Language and speculations[edit]

Parts of southern India was once referred to as "Pandi" Naadu meaning old country. The country of the Pandyas was described as Pandyas by Megasthenes, Pandi Mandala in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea and described as Pandya Mediterranea and Modura Regia Pandionis by Ptolemy. The Pandyas initially ruled from "Korkai". Maritime History of aborigines is very ancient. According to Orissa Balu Historian, ancient sailors followed turtle migration routes, used knowledge of astronomy and sea currents to navigate. They hopped between nearby islands. Indian gooseberry was used to control sea sickness. Nuts, herbs were used to manage drinking water. Crow and falcons were send from boats to locate shores.[9] Ancient tamil literary sources mentions several sunken islands in Indian ocean.

The Recorded history is very less before 3,500 BC. A first deluge was said to have happened close to 12,000 BP. This could have triggered migration and spread. Language activities were held in three phases or sangams starting from ~12,000 BP to close to emerge of Christianity.[10] Language development started out from a place called Then Madurai.[11] Many ancient cities have names such as "Mudraya"/"Musraya"/"Thinis". "Thinai / Tharai / Thara", are words related to land in Tamil. As per Iravatham Mahadevan, a 2nd-century BCE Tamil-Brahmi inscription refers to the city as matiray, an Old Tamil word meaning a "walled city". Astronomical dots could have been converted to drawings/sign language.[12]

A second language development activity was started out from a place called Kapata. The city was lost to a deluge 4000 BP.[13] A third language development activity was held in Madurai (South India) close to emerge of Christianity.

Tamil language has 13 vowels and 18 consonants. out of the 13 vowels 5 are essential vowels, 7 vowels are elated pronunciations of 5 vowel and one special letter called "akku" (just dots).[14] The Tamil language has 247 letters/sounds made with a combination of vowels and consonants similar to Linear B languages.[15]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

Citations[edit]

Sources[edit]