Early Māori society
In the ancient Māori society, before the arrival of the Pākehā, a whānau consisted of the kaumātua (tribal elders), senior adults such as parents, uncles and aunts, and the sons and daughters together with their partners and children. Large whānau lived in their own compound in the pā. Whānau also had their own gardening plots and their own fishing and hunting spots. The whānau was economically self-sufficient. In warfare, it supported the iwi (tribe) or a hapū (sub-tribe).
Contemporary conceptions offer whānau in one of two ways:
- An “object or construction based on descent, cause or a mix of the two”; or
- “A collection of ideas”.
- Linklater, David (31 August 2008). "Keep the whanau smiling". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 3 December 2011.
- The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, 15 May 2013.
- Gray, K. A. P. (2008). Tāniko : public participation, young Māori women, & whānau health (Thesis). Massey Research Online. p. 10. hdl:10179/640.
- Moltzen, R.; Macfarlane, H. A. (2006). "New Zealand: gifted and talented Maori learners". In B. Wallace; G. Eriksson (eds.). Diversity in gifted education: International perspectives on global issues. New York, NY: Routledge. pp. 305–307.
- Thomas, T.; LaGrow, S. J (1994). "Whanau workers: Providing services for the indigenous people of New Zealand". Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness. 88 (1): 86–90 . doi:10.1177/0145482X9408800113. S2CID 220594467.
- Pere, R. (1984). "Te orange o te whanau: The health of the family". In Maori Health Planning Workshop (ed.). Hui Whakaoranga: Maori health planning workshop, Hoani Waititi Marae, 19-2 March, 1984. Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Department of Health.