This is a partial list of articles related to scientific skepticism. To explore all articles that have been tagged into this project, use the cleanup tool, or see the articles sorted by importance and quality.
- Why People Believe Weird Things: Pseudoscience, Superstition, and Other Confusions of Our Time
- The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience
- Denying History: Who Says the Holocaust Never Happened and Why Do They Say It?
- The Science of Good and Evil: Why People Cheat, Gossip, Care, Share, and Follow the Golden Rule
- Science Friction: Where the Known Meets the Unknown
- Why Darwin Matters: The Case Against Intelligent Design
- The Demon-Haunted World
- Flim-Flam! Psychics, ESP, Unicorns, and Other Delusions
- The Faith Healers
- Conjuring (book)
- An Encyclopedia of Claims, Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and Supernatural
- Voodoo Science
- Darwin's Dangerous Idea
- Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon
- The End of Faith
- Letter to a Christian Nation
- The Moral Landscape
- Bad Astronomy
- Death from the Skies!: These Are The Ways The World Will End...
Promoters of pseudoscientific ideas
This list includes promoters of all non-scientific claims, including those within the realms of pseudohistory, pseudomathetics, etc.
- Rosemary Altea - British author and self-proclaimed psychic.
- Dylan Avery - filmmaker, 9/11 truther and creator of the Loose Change series of films.
- Michael Behe - American biochemist, author, and intelligent design (ID) advocate.
- Tom Bethell - British journalist and author of The Politically Incorrect Guide to Science, which endorses HIV/AIDS denialism.
- Harvey Bialy - American molecular biologist and AIDS denialist.
- Sylvia Browne - American author and self-described psychic and spiritual medium.
- Rhonda Byrne - Australian author of The Secret, which promotes ideas related to the law of attraction.
- Kirk Cameron - American actor, evangelical Christian and creationist.
- Jim Carrey - Canadian-American actor and advocate for the MMR vaccine-autism link and of the law of attraction.
- Hiram Caton - American Professor of politics and history, and AIDS denialist.
- Kristin Cavallari - American actress who refuses to vaccinate her children, owing to fears of a vaccine-autism link.
- Exene Cervenka - American singer and conspiracy theorist who stated that the 2014 Isla Vista killings were a U.S. government conspiracy.
- Deepak Chopra - Indian-American author and alternative medicine/New Age guru, promoter of "quantum healing", and opponent of "militant skepticism".
- Ray Comfort - New Zealand-born Christian minister and evangelist and creationist.
- Philip Cooney - climate change denialist, former fossil fuel lobbyist, climate team leader at the American Petroleum Institute and President George W. Bush's chief of staff of the Council on Environmental Quality.
- Anne Coulter - American lawyer, conservative political commentator, and writer, who calls evolution "bogus science" in her 2006 book Godless: The Church of Liberalism, and who advocates radiation as cancer vaccine.
- Étienne de Harven - Belgian-born pathologist, electron microscopist and AIDS denialist.
- William A. Dembski - American mathematician, philosopher, theologian and proponent of intelligent design.
- Peter Duesberg - German-American professor of molecular and cell biology and AIDS denialist.
- John Edward - American television personality and professional psychic medium, known for his TV show Crossing Over with John Edward.
- Celia Farber - American journalist, author, and AIDS denialist.
- Martin Fleischmann - British electrochemist, known for his work with Stanley Pons on cold fusion in the 1980s and '90s.
- Stanton Friedman - American nuclear physicist and Ufologist.
- Richard Gage - architect, 9/11 truther and founder of Architects & Engineers for 9/11 Truth.
- Uri Geller - magician, television personality, and self-proclaimed psychic, known for his trademark performances of spoon bending and other supposed psychic effects.
- Hutton Gibson - Father of actor/ director Mel Gibson, conspiracy theorist, Holocaust denier and 9/11 truther.
- Duane Gish - American biochemist, Young Earth Creationist, former vice-president of the Institute for Creation Research (ICR) and the author of numerous publications about creation science.
- David Ray Griffin - retired American professor of philosophy of religion and theology, and author of 9/11 truther books.
- Pierre Guillaume - French political activist and distributor of Holocaust denial literature.
- Phillip E. Johnson - UC Berkeley law professor, author, and AIDS denialist
- Ken Ham - Australian young Earth creationist, known as the president of Answers in Genesis, a Christian apologetics ministry which operates the Creation Museum.
- Daniel Hamburg - former U.S. Congressman and 9/11 truther.
- Jim Hoffman - 9/11 truther and creator of the website 9-11 Research.
- David Hoggan - American professor of history, and Holocaust denier.
- Kent Hovind - American young Earth creationist and conspiracy theorist.
- David Irving - English writer and Holocaust denier, who specializes in the military and political history of World War II, with a focus on Nazi Germany.
- Alex Jones (radio host) - radio host and conspiracy theorist.
- Steven E. Jones - American physicist, 9/11 truther and cofounder of Scholars for 9/11 Truth.
- Peter Joseph - filmmaker and creator of the film Zeitgeist: The Movie.
- J. Z. Knight - American mystic teacher and author, and is known for claiming to be channel of a spiritual entity named Ramtha.
- Serge Lang - French-American mathematician and AIDS denalist.
- John Lauritsen - retired market research analyst, author and AIDS denialist.
- Shirley MacLaine - American actress, and a promoter in ideas such as reincarnation, New Age spirituality, and Ufology. She has stated to have had alien encounters and witnessed, and that in a previous life in Atlantis, she was the brother to a 35,000 year old spirit named Ramtha channeled by J. Z. Knight.
- Christine Maggiore - American AIDS denialist who died of AIDS.
- Lynn Margulis - American biologist and AIDS denialist.
- Thabo Mbeki - former President of South Africa and AIDS denialist.
- Jenny McCarthy - promoter of a link between the MMR vaccine and autism, and of chelation therapy as a remedy.
- Kary Mullis - Nobel Prize-winning American biochemist, author, and promoter of AIDS denialism, climate change denial and astrology.
- Andrew Neel - filmmaker and creator of the documentary on the 9/11 Truth movement, New World Order.
- Isaac Newton - English physicist and mathematician who also believed in and wrote on biblical chronology, alchemy and eschatology.
- Gary Null American talk radio host, author, documentary film and television producer, and advocate for alternative medicine and naturopathy.
- Rosie O'Donnell - 9/11 truther who publicly disputed the official explanation for the destruction of the World Trade Center.
- Adnan Oktar - Turkish author who, under the professional name Harun Yahya, published the Islamic creationist book Atlas of Creation.
- Mehmet Oz - Physician who supports ideas such as faith healing, mediumship, Transcendental Meditation and use of garcinia extract as an antiobesity remedy.
- Peter Phillips - 9/11 truther and president of Project Censored.
- Stanley Pons - American-French electrochemist known for his work with Martin Fleischmann on cold fusion in the 1980s and '90s.
- Peter Popoff - German American televangelist, and self-proclaimed prophet and faith healer.
- David Rasnick - chemist, biologist and AIDS denialist.
- Matthias Rath - German doctor, and vitamin salesman who promotes use of dietary supplements to treat or cure diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and HIV/AIDS.
- Hugh Ross (creationist) - Canadian American astrophysicist, Christian apologist, and old earth creationist.
- Charlie Sheen - 9/11 conspiracy truther and narrator of the film Loose Change.
- Andrew Schlafly - creationist and creator of Conservapedia, a wiki that promotes pseudoscientific views on topics such as evolution and abortion.
- Frederick Seitz - American physicist, pioneer of solid state physics and climate change denialist.
- Rupert Sheldrake - English author, lecturer, and researcher in the field of parapsychology, known for advocating his "morphic resonance" concept.
- Ben Stein - conservative speech writer, actor and game show host, opponent of scientific materialism and co-writer and star of the anti-evolution 2008 film Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed.
- Whitley Strieber - American horror author who claimed to have been abducted by non-human beings.
- Giorgio A. Tsoukalos - Swiss-born Greek writer, television personality, and proponent of the idea that ancient astronauts interacted with ancient humans.
- James Van Praagh - American author and self-described clairvoyant and spiritual medium.
- Immanuel Velikovsky - Russian-Jewish psychiatrist and promoter of pseudohistorical ideas, most notably in the book Worlds in Collision.
- Jesse Ventura - former professional wrestler, politician and 9/11 truther who has advocated controlled demolition theories for the destruction of the World Trade Center.
- Andreas von Bülow - 9/11 conspiracy theorist and author of The CIA and September 11.
- Erich Von Daniken - Swiss author of books promoting claims of extraterrestrial influences on early human culture, most notably the best-selling Chariots of the Gods?
- Andrew Wakefield - British former surgeon and medical researcher, known for his fraudulent 1998 research paper in support of the now-discredited claim linking the MMR vaccine autism and bowel disease.
- Travis Walton - American logger who claimed to have been abducted by aliens in 1975.
- Montel Williams - talk show host promoter of Sylvia Browne, who had the medium as a regular guest on his talk show.
- Robert Willner - American doctor and AIDS denialist.
- Oprah Winfrey - TV talk show host, media mogul and promoter of Mehmet Oz.
- Maharishi Mahesh Yogi - developer of the Transcendental Meditation technique, and spiritual advisor to the Beatles.
Former promoters of pseudoscientific ideas
Victims of pseudoscientific ideas
- Eliza Jane Scovill - daughter of HIV-positive AIDS denialist Christine Maggiore, who died of AIDS at age 3, following a pregnancy in which her mother refused to take antiretroviral drugs or other measures which reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.
Events in pseudoscience
Health and healing
Paranormal and science denial
- Ad hominem An ad hominem argument, also known as argumentum ad hominem (Latin: "argument to the person", "argument against the man") is a logical fallacy consisting of replying to an argument by attacking or appealing to the person making the argument, rather than by addressing the substance of the argument. It is most commonly used to refer specifically to the ad hominem abusive, or argumentum ad personam, which consists of criticizing or personally attacking an argument's proponent in an attempt to discredit that argument.
- Anecdotal evidence Information passed along by word-of-mouth but not documented scientifically is anecdotal evidence. In science, anecdotal evidence has been defined as: "information that is not based on facts or careful study" or "non-scientific observations or studies, which do not provide proof but may assist research efforts" or "reports or observations of usually unscientific observers" or "casual observations or indications rather than rigorous or scientific analysis"
- Anti-intellectualism Anti-intellectualism describes a sentiment of hostility towards, or mistrust of, intellectuals and intellectual pursuits. This may be expressed in various ways, such as an attack on the merits of science, education, or literature. Anti-intellectuals often perceive themselves as champions of the ordinary people and egalitarianism against elitism, especially academic elitism. These critics argue that heavily educated people form an insular social class that tends to dominate political discourse and higher education (academia).
- Antiscience Antiscience is a position critical of science and the scientific method. It has been considered the "self-defeating...essentially anti-intellectual, rhetoric of many activists."
- Charlatan A charlatan is a person practicing quackery or some similar confidence trick in order to obtain money or advantage by false pretenses. If the ascription is false, then "charlatan" is derogative; if it is true, then the description "charlatan" is not defamation.
- Confirmation bias In psychology and cognitive science, confirmation bias (or confirmatory bias) is a tendency to search for or interpret information in a way that confirms one's preconceptions, leading to statistical errors. Confirmation bias is a type of cognitive bias and represents an error of inductive inference toward confirmation of the hypothesis under study.
- Consciousness causes collapse Consciousness causes collapse is the theory that observation by a conscious observer is responsible for the wavefunction collapse in quantum mechanics. It is an attempt to solve the Wigner's friend paradox by simply stating that collapse occurs at the first "conscious" observer. Supporters claim this is not a revival of substance dualism, since (in a ramification of this view) consciousness and objects are entangled and cannot be considered as separate. Nevertheless, the doctrine that the world is made up of objects whose existence is independent of human consciousness turns out to be in conflict with Quantum Mechanics and with facts established by experiment."
- Controversial science The phrase controversial science describes ideas and theories at odds with mainstream science. These ideas have often been advanced by individuals either from outside the field of science, or by scientists outside the mainstream of their own disciplines.
- Crank (person) "Crank" is a pejorative term for a person who holds some belief which the vast majority of his contemporaries would consider false, clings to this belief in the face of all counterarguments or evidence presented to him. The term implies that a "cranky" belief is so wildly at variance with some commonly accepted truth as to be ludicrous, arguing with the crank is useless, because he will invariably dismiss all evidence or arguments which contradict his cranky belief. Common synonyms for "crank" include kook and crackpot.
- Folk science
- Fraud In the broadest sense, a fraud is a deception made for personal gain. The specific legal definition varies by legal jurisdiction. Fraud is a crime, and is also a civil law violation. Many hoaxes are fraudulent, although those not made for personal gain are not technically frauds. Defrauding people of money is presumably the most common type of fraud, but there have also been many fraudulent "discoveries" in art, archaeology, and science.
- Fringe science Fringe science is a phrase used to describe scientific inquiry in an established field that departs significantly from mainstream or orthodox theories.
- Intellectual dishonesty Intellectual dishonesty is the advocacy of a position known to be false. Rhetoric is used to advance an agenda or to reinforce one's deeply held beliefs in the face of overwhelming contrary evidence. If a person is aware of the evidence and the conclusion it portends, yet holds a contradictory view, it is intellectual dishonesty. If the person is unaware of the evidence, their position is ignorance, even if in agreement with the scientific conclusion.
- Junk science
- Logical fallacy
- Pathological science Pathological science is a neologism that describes the process in science in which people are tricked into false results by subjective effects, wishful thinking or threshold interactions. It found resonance among skeptical scientists, who enjoy debunking recurrent pseudoscientific views and claims.
- Plagiarism Plagiarism is the practice of claiming, or implying, original authorship, or incorporating material from someone else's written or creative work in whole or in part, into ones own, without adequate acknowledgment. The written or creative work which is plagiarized may be a book, article, musical score, film script, or other work. Unlike cases of forgery, in which the authenticity of the writing, document, or some other kind of object, itself is in question, plagiarism is concerned with the issue of false attribution.
- Pseudoscience Pseudoscience, or junk science, is any body of knowledge, methodology, belief, or practice that claims to be scientific but does not follow the scientific method. Pseudosciences may appear scientific, but they do not adhere to the testability requirement of the scientific method and are often in conflict with current scientific consensus.
- Quackery Quackery is a derogatory term that is defined as the "medical practice and advice based on observation and experience in ignorance of scientific findings. The dishonesty of a charlatan." A "quack" is "a fraudulent or ignorant pretender to medical skill. A person who pretends, professionally or publicly, to have skill, knowledge, or qualifications he or she does not possess; a charlatan." "Health fraud" is often used as a synonym for quackery, but this use can be problematic, since quackery can exist without fraud, a word which always implies deliberate deception. The word "quack" derives from "quacksalver," an archaic word originally of Dutch origin (spelled kwakzalver in contemporary Dutch), meaning "boaster who applies a salve." The correct meaning of the German word "quacksalber" is "questionable salesperson (literal translation: quack salver)." In the Middle Ages the word quack itself meant "shouting. The quacksalvers sold their wares on the market shouting in a loud voice."
- Scientific misconduct
- Self-deception Self-deception is a process of denying or rationalizing away the relevance, significance, or importance of opposing evidence and logical argument. When one can believe their own "lie" (i.e., their presentation that is biased toward their own self-interest), the theory goes, they will consequently be better able to persuade others of its "truth." Self-deception enables someone to believe their distortions, and they will not present such signs of deception and will therefore appear to be telling the truth.
- Self-serving bias A self-serving bias occurs when people are more likely to claim responsibility for successes than failures. It may also manifest itself as a tendency for people to evaluate ambiguous information in a way beneficial to their interests. This happens in a way that could be unknown consciously to the person, flattering their own views.
- Skepticism In ordinary usage, skepticism or scepticism (UK spelling) refers to an attitude of doubt or a disposition to incredulity either in general or toward a particular object, the doctrine that true knowledge or knowledge in a particular area is uncertain, or the method of suspended judgment, systematic doubt, or criticism that is characteristic of skeptics (Merriam–Webster). In philosophy, skepticism refers more specifically to any one of several propositions. These include propositions about the limitations of knowledge, a method of obtaining knowledge through systematic doubt and continual testing, the arbitrariness, relativity, or subjectivity of moral values, a method of intellectual caution and suspended judgment, a lack of confidence in positive motives for human conduct or positive outcomes for human enterprises, that is, cynicism and pessimism (Keeton, 1962).
- Straw man
- True-believer syndrome True-believer syndrome is a term used by skeptics to describe an irrational, persistent belief in the paranormal or concepts that have been proven by science to be false and unverified.
- Wishful thinking Wishful thinking is the formation of beliefs and making decisions according to what might be pleasing to imagine instead of by appealing to evidence or rationality.
- ^ Hurley, Patrick (2000). A Concise Introduction to Logic, Seventh Edition. Wadsworth, a division of Thompson Learning. pp. 125–128, 182. ISBN 0534520065.
- ^ Humbug! Online Personal Abuse Article.
- ^ Nizkor.org. Fallacy: Ad Hominem.
- ^ Nizkor.org. Fallacy: Circumstantial Ad Hominem.
- ^ Philosophy.lander.edu. Argumentum Ad Hominem
- ^ University of Winnipeg. Argumentation Schemes and Historical Origins of the Circumstantial Ad Hominen Argument
- ^ About.com. Argument Against the Person (Argumentum ad hominem)
- ^ The Fallacy Files. Argumentum ad Hominem
- ^ Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary
- ^ Dictionary.com
- ^ Merriam-Webster
- ^ YourDictionary.com
- ^ Anti-intellectualism in American Life, by Richard Hofstadter: ISBN 0-394-70317-0
- ^ Anti-Intellectualism in American Media, by Dane S. Claussen: New York: Peter Lang Publishing, 2004. ISBN 0-8204-5721-3
- ^ Evening Chats in Beijing: Probing China's Predicament, by Perry Link: New York,London: W.W. Norton & Company, 1991. ISBN 0393310655
- ^ Hinton, William. Hundred Day War: The Cultural Revolution at Tsinghua University. New York: New York UP, 1972. ISBN 0-85345-281-4.
- ^ Moynihan Commission Report, Appendix A, 7. The Cold War, footnote 103 quoted from Robert Warshow, The Legacy of the 30’s: Middle-Class Mass Culture and the Intellectuals’ Problem, Commentary Magazine (December 1947): 538.
- ^ "Action Will be Taken" Left Anti-Intelectualism and its Discontents by Liza Featherstone, Doug Henwood, and Christian Parenti (Left Business Observer)
- ^ Robert A. Aronowitz "Pure or Impure Science?" Ann. Int. Med. 1997 127(3), 250-254
- ^ Definition of charlatan
- ^ Wason, P.C. (1960). On the failure to eliminate hypotheses in a conceptual task. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 12, 129-140.
- ^ Wason, P.C. (1966). Reasoning. In B. M. Foss (Ed.), New horizons in psychology I, 135-151. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.
- ^ Wason, P.C. (1968). Reasoning about a rule. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 20, 273-281.
- ^ Mynatt, C.R., Doherty, M.E., & Tweney, R.D. (1977). Confirmation bias in a simulated research environment: an experimental study of scientific inference. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 29, 85-95.
- ^ Griggs, R.A. & Cox, J.R. (1982). The elusive thematic materials effect in the Wason selection task. British Journal of Psychology, 73, 407-420.
- ^ Nickerson, R.S. (1998). Confirmation bias: A ubiquitous phenomenon in many guises. Review of General Psychology, 2, 175-220.
- ^ Fugelsang, J., Stein, C., Green, A., & Dunbar, K. (2004). Theory and data interactions of the scientific mind: Evidence from the molecular and the cognitive laboratory. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58, 132-141.
- ^ Skeptic's Dictionary: confirmation bias Teaching about confirmation bias
- ^ Bernard d'Espagnat, Scientific American, Nov. 1979. The Quantum Theory and Reality 158-181
- ^ Controversial Science: From Content to Contention by Thomas Brante et al.
- ^ Communicating uncertainty: Media coverage of new and controversial science by Sharon Dunwoody et al.
- ^ Dudley, Underwood (1987). A Budget of Trisections. New York: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0-387-96568-8.
- ^ Dudley, Underwood (1992). Mathematical Cranks. Washington, D.C.: Mathematical Association of America. ISBN 0-88385-507-0.
- ^ Dudley, Underwood (1996). The Trisectors. Washington, D.C.: Mathematical Association of America. ISBN 0-88385-514-3.
- ^ Dudley, Underwood (1997). Numerology: Or, What Pythagoras Wrought. Washington, D.C.: Mathematical Association of America. ISBN 0-88385-524-0.
- ^ Eves, Howard (1972). Mathematical Circles Squared; A Third Collection of Mathematical Stories and Anecdotes. Boston: Prindle, Weber & Schmidt. ISBN 0-87150-154-6.
- ^ Gardner, Martin (1957). Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science. New York: Dover. ISBN 0-486-20394-8 LCCN 57-3844.
- ^ Kruger, Justin & David Dunning (1989). "Unskilled and Unaware of It: How Difficulties in Recognizing One's Own Incompetence Lead to Inflated Self-Assessments" (PDF). J. Pers. and Soc. Psych. 71: 1121–1134. A classic paper on a common phenomenon in social psychiatry which in extreme cases is strongly associated with crackpottery.
- ^ William F. Williams, editor (2000) Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience: From Alien Abductions to Zone Therapy Facts on File ISBN 0-8160-3351-X
- ^ Folk Science http://agham.asti.dost.gov.ph/1998/8th/extras/sophia/article.htm Article
- ^ Scientific American: Folk Science http://www.sciam.com/print_version.cfm?articleID=000A760C-14A5-14C1-94A583414B7F0181 Article
- ^ BrainConnection.com - Education and Neuroscience: Bridging the Gap - Page 2 http://www.brainconnection.com/topics/?main=fa/education-neuroscience2 Article
- ^ Podgor, Ellen S. Criminal Fraud, (1999) Vol, 48, No. 4 American Law Review 1 Review Fraud - Alex Copola
- ^ CSI On-line: Scientifically Investigating Paranormal and Fringe Science Claims fringe science investigators
- ^ Intellectual Dishonesty Meanings Definition
- ^ Center for Informed Decision Making, Sound Science versus Junk Science Article
- ^ Dictionary: Junk Science
- ^ A Textbook Case of Junk Science
- ^ Logical Fallacies-a semi ordered list with definitions
- ^ Fallacies - ESGS. Europeean Society for General Semantics
- ^ Logical Fallacies .Info
- ^ Logical Fallacies and the Art of Debate
- ^ Logic & Fallacies: Constructing a Logical Argument
- ^ Wiktionary - pejorative
- ^ Definition
- ^ Cambridge Dictionaries Online - Cambridge University Press - Definition
- ^ Irving Langmuir, "Colloquium on Pathological Science", held at The Knolls Research Laboratory, December 18, 1953. Kenneth Steiglitz, Professor of Computer Science, Princeton University. Transcript See also: I. Langmuir, "Pathological Science", General Electric, (Distribution Unit, Bldg. 5, Room 345, Research and Development Center, P. O. Box 8, Schenectady, NY 12301), 68-C-035 (1968); I. Langmuir, "Pathological Science", (1989) Physics Today, Volume 42, Issue 10, October 1989, pp.36-48
- ^ UK Student Portal - Academic Directory: Plagiarism
- ^ Plagiarism Stoppers : A Teachers Guide
- ^ What is plagiarism?
- ^ "Pseudoscientific - pretending to be scientific, falsely represented as being scientific", from the Oxford American Dictionary, published by the Oxford English Dictionary.
- ^ For example, Hewitt et al. Conceptual Physical Science Addison Wesley; 3 edition (July 18, 2003) ISBN 0-321-05173-4, Bennett et al. The Cosmic Perspective 3e Addison Wesley; 3 edition (July 25, 2003) ISBN 0-8053-8738-2
- ^ "Marcello Truzzi, On Pseudo-Skepticism" Zetetic Scholar (1987) No. 12/13, 3-4.
- ^ Definition of Quackery - Online dictionary
- ^ Definition of quack - Online dictionary
- ^ Quackery: How Should It Be Defined?
- ^ quacksalver- American Heritage Dictionary
- ^ German-English Glossary of Idioms
- ^ Definition of Scientific Misconduct
- ^ Defining Misconduct in Science
- ^ Rethinking Unscientific Attitudes About Scientific Misconduct
- ^ Self-deception article
- ^ Self-Deception (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
- ^ Sample Chapter for Mele, A.R.: Self-Deception Unmasked.
- ^ Miller, D. T., & Ross, M. (1975). Self-serving biases in the attribution of causality: Fact or fiction? Psychological Bulletin, 82, 213-225.
- ^ Babcock, L. & Loewenstein, G., (1997). Explaining Bargaining Impasse: The Role of Self-Serving Biases, Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 11(1), 109-26
- ^ Responding to Skepticism, by Keith DeRose. Introduction to Skepticism: A Contemporary Reader (Oxford University Press, 1999). Describes the main lines of response to philosophical skepticism.
- ^ Skepticism and the Veil of Perception, book about philosophical skepticism & perceptual knowledge
- ^ James Randi Educational Foundation
- ^ Skepticality
- ^ Skeptic Report
- ^ Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal
- ^ Rationalist International
- ^ Skeptics Society
- ^ Peter Suber, Classical Skepticism. An exposition of Pyrrho's skepticism through the writings of Sextus Empiricus.
- ^ Outstanding skeptics of the 20th century - Skeptical Inquirer Magazine
- ^ Examples of False Positioning (Humbug! Online)
- ^ Nizkor: Straw man
- ^ W. Sumer Davis. Just Smoke and Mirrors: Religion, Fear and Superstition in Our Modern World. pp. 11–12. ISBN 0-595-26523-5.
- ^ A study demonstrating wishful thinking in memory
- ^ Examples of Wishful Thinking @ Humbug! Online.
Media promoting pseudoscience