38th parallel north
|38th parallel north|
The 38th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 38 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses Europe, the Mediterranean Sea, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America, and the Atlantic Ocean. The 38th parallel north formed the border between North and South Korea prior to the Korean War.
Around the world
Starting at the Prime Meridian heading eastwards, the 38th parallel north passes through:
When Japan surrendered in August 1945, the 38th parallel was established as the boundary between Soviet and American occupation zones. This parallel divides the Korean peninsula roughly in the middle. In 1948, this parallel became the boundary between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) and the Republic of Korea (South Korea), both of which claim to be the government of the whole of Korea. On 25 June 1950, after a series of cross-border raids and gunfire from both the Northern and the Southern sides, the North Korean Army crossed the parallel and invaded South Korea. This sparked a United Nations resolution against the aggression and the Korean War, with United Nations troops (mostly Americans) helping to defend South Korea.
After the Armistice ended the Korean War in 1953, a new border was established based on the territory that each side held at that point. This Military Demarcation Line is surrounded by a Demilitarized Zone. It crosses the 38th parallel, from the southwest to the northeast. The new border is still often described as the 38th parallel, but this is not accurate.
- Nash, Gary B., The American People (6th edition), Pearson Longman (New York), 2008.
- Oberdorfer, Don. The Two Koreas: A Contemporary History. (1997)
- 38th parallel (geopolitics) at the Encyclopædia Britannica