Clockwise from top: Shijiazhuang skyline, Hebei Art Center, Shijiazhuang Zhengding International Airport, and Martyrs' Memorial
Location of Shijiazhuang City jurisdiction in Hebei
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|• Party Secretary||Sun Ruibin (孙瑞彬)|
|• Mayor||Ai Wenli (艾文礼)|
|• Prefecture-level city||15,722 km2 (6,070 sq mi)|
|• Urban||399.3 km2 (154.2 sq mi)|
|• Metro||1,917.3 km2 (740.3 sq mi)|
|Elevation||83 m (272 ft)|
|Population (2010 census)|
|• Prefecture-level city||10,163,788|
|• Density||650/km2 (1,700/sq mi)|
|• Urban density||6,900/km2 (18,000/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||2,500/km2 (6,400/sq mi)|
|Time zone||China Standard (UTC+8)|
|Licence plate prefixes||冀A|
|City Flower||Rosa Chinensis|
"Shijiazhuang", as written in Chinese
|Postal Map||Shikiachwang (present)
|Literal meaning||The Shi's Village|
Shijiazhuang (Chinese: 石家庄; pinyin: Shíjiāzhuāng), also written Shikiachwang or Shihkiachwang, is the capital and largest city of North China's Hebei province. Administratively a prefecture-level city, it is about 263 kilometres (163 mi) southwest of Beijing, and it administers 6 districts, 5 county-level cities, and 12 counties.
At the 2010 census, it had a total population of 10,163,788, with 2,766,614 in the urban area and 4,770,400 in the built-up (or metro) area comprising the 5 urban districts, the counties of Zhengding and Luancheng, Luquan City and now Gaocheng City largely conurbated with the Shijiazhuang metropolitan area as urbanization continues to proliferate. Shijiazhuang's total population ranked twelfth in mainland China.
Shijiazhuang is a modernizing and ever growing city. It experienced dramatic growth after the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949. The population of the metropolitan area has more than quadrupled in only 30 years as a result of fast industrialization and major infrastructural developments. Shijiazhuang is a major transportation hub in the region which has contributed to the city's fast growth and development. From 2008 to 2011, Shijiazhuang implemented a three-year plan which concluded with the reorganization of the city resulting in an increase of green areas and improved urbanization (new buildings, new roads and road plans). The three-year plan was a success and even after it ended, the city continues to benefit from the major projects that were implemented with the opening of a new train station, a new airport and a subway system. Even with the green areas, however, Shijiazhuang continues to suffer from pollution. The top ten cities that suffered the most days of severe pollution includes Shijiazhuang.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Administration divisions
- 4 Economy
- 5 Transportation
- 6 Military
- 7 Culture
- 8 Health
- 9 Education
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
The oldest name of the city was Shiyi. In pre-Han times (i.e., before 206 BC), it was the site of the city of Shiyi in the state of Zhao, and from Han (206 BC–AD 220) to Sui (581–618) times it was the site of a county town with the same name. With the reorganization of local government in the early period of the Tang dynasty (618–907), the county was abolished. Shijiazhuang then became little more than a local market town, subordinated to the flourishing city of Zhengding (modern Zhengding) a few miles to the north.
The growth of Shijiazhuang into one of China's major cities began in 1905, when the Beijing–Wuhan (Hankou) railway reached the area, stimulating much new trade and encouraging local farmers to grow cash crops. Two years later the town became the junction for the new Shitai line, running from Shijiazhuang to Taiyuan, Shanxi. This connection immediately transformed the town from a local collecting centre and market into a communications centre of national importance on the main route from Beijing and Tianjin to Shanxi and later, when the railway from Taiyuan was extended to the southwest to Shaanxi as well. The city also became the centre of an extensive road network. It is known as a city from the train.
Pre-World War II Shijiazhuang was a large railway town as well as a commercial and collecting centre for Shanxi and regions farther west and for agricultural produce of the North China Plain, particularly grain, tobacco, and cotton. By 1935 it had far outstripped Zhengding as an economic centre. At the end of World War II the character of the city changed once again. Not only did it assume an administrative role as the preeminent city in western Hebei, but it also developed into an industrial city. Some industries, such as match manufacturing, tobacco processing, and glassmaking, had already been established before the war.
On November 12, 1947, the city was captured by Communist force. In 1948 the city, formerly known as Shímén (石門), was renamed Shijiazhuang.
Xibaipo, a village about 90 km (56 mi) from downtown Shijiazhuang, in Pingshan County was the location of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the headquarters of the People's Liberation Army during the decisive stages of the Chinese Civil War between May 26, 1948 and March 23, 1949, at which point they were moved to Beijing. Today, the area is a memorial site.
After 1949 the planned industrialisation of the city gathered momentum. Its population more than tripled in the decade 1948–58. In the 1950s, the city experienced a major expansion in the textile industry, with large-scale cotton spinning, weaving, printing, and dyeing works. In addition there are various plants processing local farm produce. In the 1960s it was also the site of a new chemical industry, with plants producing fertilizer and caustic soda. Shijiazhuang also became an engineering base, with a tractor-accessory plant. There are important coal deposits at Jingxing and Huailu, now named Luquan, a few miles to the west in the foothills of the Taihang Mountains, which provide fuel for a thermal-generating plant supplying power to local industries. The city's role as a transport centre has been supplemented by the construction of an airport handling regular domestic flights.
In 1967, Tianjin was again carved out of Hebei, remaining a separate entity today, and thus the provincial capital was moved to Baoding. It was chaotic in the midst of the Cultural Revolution, and under the direction of Mao Zedong, in 1968, to "prepare for war and natural disasters", Shijiazhuang became the provincial capital.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Shijiazhuang is located in south-central Hebei, and is part of the Bohai Economic Rim. Its administrative area ranges in latitude from 37° 27' to 38° 47' N, and the longitude 113° 30' to 115° 20' E. The prefecture-level city reaches a 148 kilometres (92 mi) north-south extent and a 175 kilometres (109 mi) wide from east to west. The prefecture has borders stretching 760 kilometres (472 mi) long and covers an area of 15,722 square kilometres (6,070 sq mi). Bordering prefecture-level cities in Hebei are Hengshui (E), Xingtai (S), and Baoding (N/NE). To the west lies the province of Shanxi.
The city stands at the edge of the North China Plain, which rises to the Taihang Mountains to the west of the city, and lies south of the Hutuo River (Chinese: 滹沱河; pinyin: Hūtuó hé). From west to east, the topography can be summarised as moderately high mountains, then low-lying mountains, hills, basin, and finally plains. Out of the eight east–west routes across the Taihang Mountains, the fifth, the Niangzi Pass, connects the city directly with Taiyuan, Shanxi.
The city has a continental, monsoon-influenced semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk), characterised by hot, humid summers due to the East Asian monsoon, and generally cold, windy, very dry winters that reflect the influence of the vast Siberian anticyclone. Spring can bear witness to sandstorms blowing in from the Mongolian steppe, accompanied by rapidly warming, but generally dry, conditions. Autumn is similar to spring in temperature and lack of rainfall. January averages −2.3 °C (27.9 °F), while July averages 26.8 °C (80.2 °F); the annual mean is 13.38 °C (56.1 °F). With the monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 45 percent in July to 61 percent in May, the city receives 2,427 hours of sunshine annually. More than half of the annual rainfall occurs in July and August alone.
|Climate data for Shijiazhuang (1971–2000)|
|Record high °C (°F)||18.0
|Average high °C (°F)||3.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−2.3
|Average low °C (°F)||−6.6
|Record low °C (°F)||−19.6
|Precipitation mm (inches)||3.9
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||2.2||2.8||3.6||4.1||6.2||8.4||13.1||12.3||7.3||5.5||3.8||2.0||71.3|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||174.0||176.8||205.9||236.0||265.8||247.6||201.0||198.3||206.7||193.5||164.1||157.3||2,427|
|Percent possible sunshine||58||58||56||60||61||56||45||47||56||56||54||53||55|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration|
As air pollution in China is at an all-time high, Shijiazhuang and surrounding Hebei cities are among one of the most polluted cities and has one of the worst air quality in China. Caution has been advised towards the residents of Shijiazhuang.
In 2004, China's environmental watchdog released the Most polluted cities in China blacklist for the first time, and Shijiazhuang ranked seventh in the list. According to the National Environmental Analysis released by Tsinghua University and The Asian Development Bank in January 2013, Shijiazhuang is among one of ten most air polluted cities in the world. Also according to this report, 7 of 10 most air polluted cities are in China, including Taiyuan, Beijing, Urumqi, Lanzhou, Chongqing, Jinan and Shijiazhuang.
Reporting on China's airpocalypse has been accompanied by what seems like a monochromatic slideshow of the country's several cities smothered in thick smog. Being one of the cities offended worst by the smog in China, Shijiazhuang has an average PM2.5 reading of 393 in early 2013 over a 30-day period. At the end of January, the grim reading in Shijiazhuang was at PM500 for nearly a week. According to a survey made by "Global voices China" in February 2013, Shijiazhuang and 6 surrounding Hebei cities including Xingtai, Baoding, Langfang, Handan, Hengshui and Tangshan, are among China's 10 most polluted cities, while Shijiazhuang itself ranked second in the list.
Shijiazhuang has direct administrative jurisdiction over:
|Map||Name||Simplified Chinese||Hanyu Pinyin||Population (2010)||Area (km²)||Density (/km²)|
|Chang'an District||长安区||Cháng'ān Qū||560,643||110||4,362|
|Qiaoxi District||桥西区||Qiáoxī Qū||596,164||53||11,248|
|Xinhua District||新华区||Xīnhuá Qū||625,119||92||6,795|
|Yuhua District||裕华区||Yùhuá Qū||574,572||101||4,888|
|Jingxing Mining District||井陉矿区||Jǐngxíng Kuàngqū||95,170||56||1,699|
|Zhengding County||正定县||Zhèngdìng Xiàn||466,807||568||822|
|Luancheng County||栾城县||Luánchéng Xiàn||328,933||347||948|
|Xinji City||辛集市||Xīnjí Shì||615,919||951||648|
|Gaocheng City||藁城市||Gàochéng Shì||775,110||836||927|
|Jinzhou City||晋州市||Jìnzhōu Shì||537,679||619||868|
|Xinle City||新乐市||Xīnlè Shì||487,652||625||780|
|Luquan City||鹿泉市||Lùquán Shì||432,936||603||718|
|Jingxing County||井陉县||Jǐngxíng Xiàn||309,882||1,381||224|
|Xingtang County||行唐县||Xíngtáng Xiàn||406,353||1,025||396|
|Lingshou County||灵寿县||Língshòu Xiàn||333,558||1,546||216|
|Gaoyi County||高邑县||Gāoyì Xiàn||186,478||222||840|
|Shenze County||深泽县||Shēnzé Xiàn||250,264||296||845|
|Zanhuang County||赞皇县||Zànhuáng Xiàn||244,799||1,210||202|
|Wuji County||无极县||Wújí Xiàn||502,662||524||959|
|Pingshan County||平山县||Píngshān Xiàn||433,429||2,951||147|
|Yuanshi County||元氏县||Yuánshì Xiàn||418,466||849||493|
|Zhao County||赵县||Zhào Xiàn||571,077||714||800|
- Defunct: Qiaodong District (桥东区; Qiáodōng Qū)
In 2011, the GDP of Shijiazhuang reached RMB 408.7 billion, an increase of 12 percent over the previous year.
Salaries continue to experience relatively rapid growth as well. The city continues to strive to create an economic atmosphere encouraging investment and growth. Total fixed investment reached RMB 172.7 billion.
Shijiazhuang has become a major industrial city in North China and is considered to be the economic center of Hebei province. The city is the largest base for the pharmaceutical industry and is also one of the most important textile industry bases. Other main sectors include machinery and chemicals, building materials, light industry and electronics. With abundant agricultural resources, Shijiazhuang has 590,000 hectares of cultivated land and is the main source of high quality cotton, pears, dates and walnuts in Hebei province.
In 2008, total imports reached US$1.393 billion, an increase of 42.1 percent over the previous year. Exports increased by 34.9 percent to US$5.596 billion.
The Shijiazhuang municipal government reports that higher education and vocational education continue to experience rapid development, while compulsory education has experienced an increase in quality. A 2006 World Bank reports that Shijiazhuang spends less than RMB400 per capita on education, as opposed to Beijing (RMB1,044) and Weihai (RMB1,631).
- Shijiazhuang High-Tech Industrial Development Zone
The zone was established in March 1991 as a State-level development zone and is divided into three districts. Several National Highways like 107, 207, 307, 308 pass through the zone, and it is 15 km (9.3 mi) away from Shijiazhuang Railway Station, 105 km (65 mi) away from Tianjin Port. The zone has comprehensive infrastructure and industries encouraged include pharmaceuticals, electronic information, mechanical production, automobile manufacturing, chemicals production and logistics.
The Eastern District, located in the eastern part of Shijiazhuang, covers an area of 5.8 km2 (2.2 sq mi), and serves as the primary section of the New High-tech Industrial Development Zone. The district focuses on the establishment of new high-tech enterprises. There are plans to expand the district into an area of 9.8 km2 (3.8 sq mi). A special railway line operated by Shijiazhuang Oil Refinery runs through the zone from north to south, making it easy for enterprises in the zone to build lines of their own if necessary.
The Western District, located in the southwest of Shijiazhuang, covers an area of 8.2 km2 (3.2 sq mi). It focuses on small- and medium-sized technology enterprises and technology incubation. Liangcun District, which borders the Western District, covers 4 km2 (1.5 sq mi), and focuses on the pharmaceutical industry and the petrochemical industry. All three districts are subject to the same policies and regulations.
Since their/its foundation, 2,560 enterprises have settled in the zone, of which 185 are foreign-funded enterprises. At present, firms from Japan, the US, the Republic of Korea, Germany, Italy, Canada, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan have all established themselves in the zone.
The city is an important centre for the dairy trade, being the headquarters of the Sanlu Group. Sanlu became Shijiazhuang's largest taxpayer since it had become the largest formula seller in China for a continuous 15 year period. Richard McGregor, author of The Party: The Secret World of China's Communist Rulers, said that Sanlu became "an invaluable asset for a city otherwise struggling to attract industry and investment on a par with China's premier metropolises."
Both the dairy trade and Sanlu were affected by the 2008 Chinese milk scandal. Chairman and General Manager of Sanlu, and several party officials, including vice mayor in charge of food and agriculture, Zhang Fawang, were reportedly removed from office. Mayor Ji Chuntang reportedly resigned on 17 September;
Since Sanlu, the region's largest purchaser of milk, was ordered to halt production, farmers in Hebei are suffering hardship because of the lack of purchasers for their milk. Many are said to be contemplating selling their cows into a buyerless market.
In 2001, the city received approval from the World Bank for a US$100 million loan for the Shijiazhuang Urban Transport Project, which was designed to foster the development of an efficient and environmentally sustainable urban transport system while providing a wider set of travel choices for users. The project is scheduled to be completed by December 31, 2008, with a total estimated cost of US$266 million. Major elements of the project include the upgrading of 25 kilometers of peripheral roads linking the city to the surrounding provincial highways, the upgrading and construction of 52 kilometers of urban major arterial roads, and the construction of six multi-level interchanges, two major rail overpasses, and 21 pedestrian crossing facilities.
Started by construction in 2012 Shijiazhuang Metro will open in 2017 with first line and then will be extended to three lines.
Rail and roads
Shijiazhuang is a transportation hub: it is at the intersection point of the Beijing–Guangzhou, Taiyuan–Dezhou, and Shuozhou–Huanghua railroads. The new Shijiazhuang Railway Station (opened December 2012) has a rare distinction of being served by both the "conventional" Beijing–Guangzhou Railway and the new Beijing–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway. Such an arrangement is fairly uncommon on China's high-speed rail network, as typically high-speed lines are constructed to bypass city cores, where the older "conventional" train stations are. In Shijiazhuang's case, to make it possible to bring the new high-speed railway into the central city, a 5 km (3.1 mi) long railway tunnel was constructed under the city. This is the first time a high-speed railway has been run under a Chinese city. There is also a smaller Shijiazhuang North Railway Station, used by trains going west toward Taiyuan without entering Shijiazhuang's city center.
Rain leak accident
On August 28, 2014, the newly built Shijiazhuang Railway station failed to pass the test of heavy rain. Rain leaked in from the roof of the waiting room of the station and passengers had to open their umbrellas inside the railway station.
The Shijiazhuang Zhengding International Airport is the province’s center of air transportation. It is located about 30 kilometers northeast of the city and can accommodate all types of medium and large-sized aircraft. Presently there are 32 domestic routes arriving at and departing from Shijiazhuang, including destinations such as Shanghai, Shenzhen, Dalian, Hong Kong, and other medium and large cities. In addition, the airport services 12 international destinations including four routes to Russia. The airport is currently being expanded and will be capable of being an alternate airport to Beijing Capital International Airport.
With the opening of the Beijing–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway at the end of 2012, the airport got its own train station, making available fast, although infrequent, train service between the airport and Shijiazhuang Railway Station, as well as other stations in the region.
As a young industrial city, Shijiazhuang city proper is generally considered to have relatively few sights of historical or cultural interest. Exceptions are:
- Martyrs' Memorial (Chinese: 烈士陵园; pinyin: Lièshì Língyuán, ) dedicated to Norman Bethune, Eric Liddell, and Dwarkanath Kotnis
- Hebei Museum (Chinese: 河北省博物馆; pinyin: Hébĕi Shĕng Bówùguǎn, )
However, several sites of historical and cultural significance are located in the surrounding area, including:
- Longxing Monastery in Zhengding, 15 kilometers to the north
- Mount Cangyan, 50 km (31 mi) to the southwest
- Zhaozhou Bridge, 40 km (25 mi) to the southeast
- Bailin (Cypress Grove) Temple (Chinese: 柏林禅寺; pinyin: Bǎilín Chán Sì; literally: "Cypress Forest Zen Temple", ), 40 km (25 mi) to the southeast, known as one of the ten most renowned Buddhist temples in China.
Shijiazhuang is also famous for its rock cultures. Several underground rock bands are active in this city, mostly performing in pubs. Two nationwide rock magazines, SoRock (Chinese: 我爱摇滚乐; pinyin: Wǒ ài yáogǔnyuè) and XMusic (Chinese: 通俗歌曲; pinyin: Tōngsú Gēqǔ) are based in Shijiazhuang and act as major platforms promoting rock music in China.
- The First Hospital of Shijiazhuang City
Universities and colleges
- "Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions". PRC Central Government Official Website. Retrieved 2014-05-17.
- "最新中国城市人口数量排名（根据2010年第六次人口普查）". www.elivecity.cn. 2012. Retrieved 2014-05-28.
- "Nine Chinese cities suffered more days of severe smog than Beijing". The Guardian.
- Kenneth Pomeranz (July 22, 2010), Musings on a Museum: A Trip to Xibaipo
- 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集（1971－2000年） (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2015-01-15.
- Qin, Jize (2004-07-15). "Most polluted cities in China blacklisted". China Daily.
- "WEATHER & EXTREME EVENTS 7 of 10 Most Air-Polluted Cities Are in China". JAN 16, 2013 (Imaginechina/Corbis). http://news.discovery.com. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
- Coonan, Clifford (March 6, 2013). "Pollution in China: tasting the air". allianz.com. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
- Bildner, Eli (February 27, 2013). "Interactive Maps of China’s Most–and Least–Polluted Places". Global Voices China. http://newsmotion.org. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
- "China Expat city Guide". China Expat. 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-08.
- RightSite.asia | Shijiazhuang High-Tech Industrial Development Zone
- McGregor, Richard (2012). The Party: The Secret World of China's Communist Rulers. New York: Harper Perennial. p. 182. ISBN 978-0-06-170876-3.
- Klaudia Lee, "Tests find tainted baby milk at 21 more firms", Page A1, South China Morning Post (17 September 2008)
- Xinhua, "Officials, company manager sacked following baby milk powder scandal", chinaview.cn (16 September 2008)
- Lee Spears, China Revokes `Inspection-Free' Right as Milk Scandal Spreads, Bloomberg, (17 September 2008)
- Death toll rises to four in tainted baby formula scandal in China, Xinhua (18 September 2008)
- Gillian Wong, China's dairy farmers fret as milk scandal grows, Associated Press (22 September 2008)[dead link]
- Hung, Wing-tat; Brunello, Lara; Bunker, Jonathan, Critical Issues of High Speed Rail Development in China, p. 4
- Meyer, Anna-Maria; Frühauf, Johannes; Gao, Jinfa (2011), "Inner-city construction of a new high-speed railway line in China - Shijiazhuang City Tunnel and new Terminal as part of the Beijing-Shijiazhuang-Wuhan PDL", Geotechnik 34 (4): 285–290, doi:10.1002/gete.201100014
- Chinese high speed: in the wake of Wenzhou, by Han Qiao, 2012-07-01
- "Newly-built Shijiazhuang railway station fails to pass test of rain". Sina English. ecns.cn. 2014-08-29. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- 坐飞机报销火车票 航空业死磕高铁 (Air passengers can have their train tickets reimbursed: Air transportation industry's fight for survival), 2012-12-28
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shijiazhuang.|
- Shijiazhuang official government website
- Shijiazhuang Urban Network – Shijiazhuang, Hebei's portal
- Shijiazhuang Daily News
- Shijiazhuang blog