5 cent euro coin

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5 cent
European Union[1]
Value 0.05 euro
Mass 3.92 g
Diameter 21.25 mm
Thickness 1.67 mm
Edge Smooth
Composition Copper-covered steel
Years of minting 2002–present
Obverse
Design 24 variations, see below.
Designer Various
Design date Various
Reverse
Design Globe with the EU-15 highlighted next to the denomination shown in Latin characters
Designer Luc Luycx
Design date 2002

The 5 cent euro coin (€0.05) has a value of one twentieth of a euro and is composed of copper-covered steel. All coins have a common reverse and country-specific (national) obverse. The coin has been used since 2002 and was not redesigned in 2007 as was the case with the higher value coins.

History[edit]

The coin dates from 2002, when euro coins and banknotes were introduced in the 12 member eurozone and its related territories. The common side was designed by Luc Luycx, a Belgian artist who won a Europe-wide competition to design the new coins. The design of the 1 to 5 cent coins was intended to show the European Union's (EU) place in the world (relative to Africa and Asia) while the one and two euro coins showed the 15 states as one and the 10 to 50 cent coins showed separate EU states.

The design of the national sides, then fifteen (eurozone plus Monaco, San Marino and the Vatican who could also mint their own coins) was the subject of national competitions, but was subject to some uniform specifications such as the requirement to include twelve stars (see euro coins for more). National designs were not allowed to change until the end of 2008, unless a monarch (whose portrait usually appears on the coins) dies or abdicates. This happened in Monaco and the Vatican City, resulting in three new designs in circulation (the Vatican had an interim design until the new Pope was elected). National designs have seen some changes as new rules required that national designs should include the name of the issuing country: neither Finland and Belgium had shown their name, and so made minor changes.

As the EU's membership has since expanded in 2004 and 2007, with further expansions envisaged, the common face of all euro coins from the value of 10 cent and above were redesigned in 2007 to show a new map. The 1 to 5 cent coins however did not change, as the highlighting of the old members over the globe was so faint it was not considered worth the cost. However new national coin designs were added in 2007 with the entry of Slovenia, in 2008 with Cyprus and Malta and Slovakia in 2009.

Design[edit]

Edge of all 5 cent coins

The coins are composed of copper-covered steel, with a diameter of 21.25 mm, a 1.67 mm thickness and a mass of 3.92 grams. Coincidentally, the dimensions (though not the mass or composition) are nearly identical to those of Canadian and United States 5 cent coins. The coins' edges are smooth. The coins have been used from 2002, though some are dated 1999 which is the year the euro was created as a currency, but not put into general circulation.

Reverse (common) side[edit]

The reverse was designed by Luc Luycx and displays a globe in the bottom right. The (then 15) members of the EU are lightly highlighted and the northern part of Africa and the western part of Asia (including the Middle East) are shown. Six fine lines cut diagonally behind the globe from each side of the coin and have twelve stars at their ends (reflective of the flag of Europe). To the top left is a large number 5 followed, in smaller text, by the words "Euro Cent". The designers initials, LL, appear to the right of the globe.

Obverse (national) sides[edit]

The obverse side of the coin depends on the issuing country. All have to include twelve stars (in most cases arranged in a circle around the edge), the engraver's initials and the year of issue. New designs also have to include the name or initials of the issuing country. The side cannot repeat the denomination of the coin unless the issuing country uses an alphabet other than Latin (currently, Greece and Cyprus are the only such countries, hence Greece engraves "5 ΛΕΠΤΑ" (5 lepta) on its coins).

Description Image
 Austria:
The Austrian design features an Alpine primrose as a symbol of Austria's part in developing EU environmental policy. The words "FÜNF EURO CENT" (five euro cent) appear at the top with a hatched Austrian flag below with the date.
 Belgium:
The Belgian design was chosen by a panel of leading Belgian officials, artisans and experts in numismatics. They chose an effigy of King Albert II designed by Jan Alfons Keustermans, Director of the Municipal Academy of Fine Arts of Turnhout. To the right hand side among the stars was the king's monogram, a letter "A", underneath a crown. The year was lower down, also among the stars. The 2008 redesign included the letters BE (standing for Belgium) beneath the monogram, which was moved out of the stars into the centre circle but still to the right of the King's portrait. The date was also moved out and placed beneath the effigy and included two symbols either side (left: signature mark of the master of the mint, right: mint mark).

1st Series (2002–2007)

2nd Series (2008–2013)

3rd Series (2013-)
 Cyprus:
The Cypriot design features two Mouflons, a species of wild sheep on Cyprus that represents the island's wildlife. It includes, in a semicircle to the top right, the name of Cyprus in Greek and Turkish (ΚΥΠΡΟΣ and KIBRIS) each side of the date. It has been used since Cyprus adopted the euro in 2008. It was chosen in a public vote and the exact design was created by Erik Maell and Tatiana Soteropoulos.
 Estonia:
The Estonian design is a design by Lembit Lõhmus and features a geographical image of Estonia and the word “Eesti”, which means “Estonia”. The twelve stars, symbols of the EU, are surrounding the map. This was the winning design in a public vote of ten announced in December 2004. The design will start to circulate in 2011.
 Finland:
The Finnish design depicts the heraldic lion of Finland found on the coat of arms of Finland. It is a reproduction of a design by the sculptor Heikki Häiväoja and has been used on previous Finnish coins such as the 1 markka between 1964 and 2001. The first series included the initial of the mint master of the Mint of Finland, Raimo Makkonen (an M), on the bottom left side of the lion and the date to the left. When the coins were redesigned to meet the new design requirements, the initial was replaced by the mint mark and moved to the left, with the letters FI (for Finland) in the bottom right.

1st Series (2002–2006)

2nd Series (2007–)
 France:
The French design features Marianne, the feminine representation of France, its state and its values. It is the most prominent representation of France and its ideals of liberty and reason, dating from 1848. The depiction is young and determined, embodying France's desire for a sound and lasting Europe. The letters RF (République française), stylised, appear to the right above the year. The depiction was designed by Fabienne Courtiade of the Paris Mint.
 Germany:
The German design depicts an oak twig, an image carried over from the previous pfennig. The year and mint mark are shown at the bottom and the image was designed by Professor Rolf Lederbogen.
 Greece:
The Greek design shows a modern cargo tanker symbolising modern Greek enterprise. Above it is the denomination in Greek and the year. It was designed by Georgios Stamatopoulos.
 Ireland:
The Irish design shows an Irish harp (the Cláirseach, see Clàrsach) used as a national symbol (for example, on the Seal of the President of Ireland). Vertically on the left hand side is the word "Éire" (Ireland in the Irish language) and on the right hand side is the date. The harp motif was designed by Jarlath Hayes.
 Italy:
The Italian design is a depiction of the Flavian Amphitheatre (the Colosseum), built in the first century by Emperors Vespasian and Titus. The elliptical amphitheatre in the heart of Rome is Italy's most famous landmark and is one of the greatest works of architecture and engineering of the Roman Empire and the world. The interpretation[clarification needed] for the coin was engraved by Ettore Lorenzo Frapiccini and it includes the interconnected letters IR (Repubblica Italiana) to the top right and the year at the bottom.
 Luxembourg:
The Luxembourg design contains a stylised effigy of Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg designed by Yvette Gastauer-Claire in consultation with the government and monarchy of Luxembourg. The name Lëtzebuerg (Luxembourg in Luxembourgish) and the year is written round the bottom of the coin.
 Malta:
The Maltese design depicts an altar of the prehistoric megalith Mnajdra temples. The temples were built in the fourth millennium BCE on the southern coast overlooking the sea. Beneath the depiction is the name Malta and the year. The arms were the third most popular in a public vote and were designed by Noel Galea Bason. It has been used since Malta switched to the euro in 2008.
 Monaco:
The first Monegasque design contained the coat of arms of Monaco with the name MONACO across the top of the coin's outer circle and the year across the bottom of the outer circle with the mint marks. When Prince Albert II succeeded Prince Rainier III in 2005, the overall design was kept but the name and the year were moved within the circle to bring it in line with the new designs of the other coins that had changed significantly.

1st Series (2002–2005)

2nd Series (2006–)
 Netherlands:
The Dutch design displays a stylised profile of Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands surrounded by the twelve stars and other dots, with the inscription "Beatrix Queen of The Netherlands" in Dutch around the edge. The date and mint marks are located at the bottom.
 Portugal:
The Portuguese design shows the royal seal of 1134 (stylised "Portugal") surrounded by the country's castles and five escutcheons with silver bezants set in relation to the surrounding European stars, and is intended to symbolise dialogue, exchange of values and dynamics in the building of Europe. Between the castles are the numbers of the year towards the bottom and the letters of the name Portugal between the upper icons. The stars are inset on a ridge.
 San Marino:
The San Marino design features the first of the Three Towers of San Marino: Guaita. In a semicircle above the tower to the right are the words San Marino and to the left, the date. The mint marks are shown to the lower right.
 Slovakia:
The Slovak design depicts Kriváň, a notable peak of the Tatra mountains. Kriváň symbolises Slovakia's sovereignty. Below is the name SLOVENSKO (Slovakia), then the year and the coat of arms of Slovakia with the mint marks either side. The coin came into use in 2009 when Slovakia adopted the euro and it was designed by Ján Černaj and Pavol Károly, chosen by a public competition and vote in 2005.
 Slovenia:
The Slovenian design depicts an interpretation of Ivan Grohar's painting of a sower. Grohar (1867–1911) was an Impressionist painter and is considered one of the leading figures of Slovene impressionism. The sower is a frequent motif in paintings and Grohar's image is embellished with round seeds and stars that, when scattered, float above the earth in elliptical patterns giving the impression of planets, drawing the sower close to the creator. The scattered stars join up with the twelve stars around the design (as in all the coins) and the number together reaches twenty-seven, the number of EU states that there were when Slovenia adopted the euro. Between each star round the right hand edge are the letters SLOVENIJA (Slovenia) with the date after it to the lower left. The design came into use in 2007 when Slovenia adopted the euro and it was designed by Miljenko Licul, Maja Licul and Janez Boljka.
 Spain:
The Spanish design displays the Obradoiro façade of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, a prime example of Spanish Baroque architecture started in 1667 by Jose del Toro and Domingo de Andrade and completed in the 18th century by Fernando Casas y Novoa. The cathedral, which is Romanesque and dates from 1128, is a major pilgrimage destination. The name España (Spain) is shown to the top left and the top left five stars are indented on a raised area, inverting the effect of the rest of the coin. The date is shown to the top right.

1st Series (1999–2009)

2nd Series (2010-)
  Vatican City:
The Vatican design has changed twice. The first displayed an effigy of Pope John Paul II. The name CITTA DEL VATICANO (Vatican City) was written to his left, the date and mint mark below and the stars grouped together on his right. Following the death of John Paul II in 2005, a new coin was issued during the sedes vacans until a new Pope was chosen. This contained the insignia of the Apostolic Chamber and the coat of arms of the Cardinal Chamberlain. After Pope Benedict XVI was elected, his effigy appeared on the coins, with the name of the city now above his head with the year and mint mark in the middle to his right. After the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI and the election of Pope Francis, a new effigy of Francis appeared on the new series of Vatican euro coins, with the 5 euro cent displaying the portrait of Francis in a left profile.

1st Series (2002–2005)

2nd Series (2005–2006)

3rd Series (2006–2013)

4th Series (2013-)

Planned designs[edit]

Austria, Germany and Greece will also at some point need to update their designs to comply with guidelines stating they must include the issuing state's name or initials, and not repeat the denomination of the coin.

In addition, there are several EU states that have not yet adopted the euro; some of them have already agreed upon their coin designs, however it is not known if or when they will adopt the currency, and hence these are not yet minted. See enlargement of the Eurozone for expected entry dates of these countries.

Nicknames[edit]

In the Netherlands, the coin carries the nickname stuiver, carried over from the previous currency. The three copper coins are also nicknamed koper, ros or rostjes in Flemish.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Institutions and the Eurozone countries

External links[edit]