Romania and the euro

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eurozone participation
  European Union member states (eurozone) – 18
  European Union member state in ERM II scheduled to join on 1 January 2015 – Lithuania
  European Union member states not in ERM II but obliged to join – 7
  European Union member state in ERM II with an opt-outDenmark
  European Union member state not in ERM II with an opt-out – United Kingdom
  non-European Union member states using the euro with a monetary agreement – 4
  non-European Union member states using the euro unilaterally – 2

Romania is required to replace the current national currency, the Romanian leu, with the euro once Romania fulfils the euro convergence criteria. According to the Romanian government, it will strive to comply with the first four convergence criteria by 2013, but will not be ready to join the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM-II) before 2013–2014.[1] The fifth euro adoption criterion is that the country has been an ERM-II member for a minimum of two years, making the earliest possible year for Romania to qualify for euro adoption is 2015, with the earliest date for adoption on 1 January 2016. However, the eurozone crisis could delay adoption.

EIU analysts suggested in May 2012, that 2016-2017 would be the earliest realistic dates for Romania's adoption of the euro.[2] The governor of the National Bank of Romania confirmed in November 2012, that Romania would not meet its previous target of joining the eurozone in 2015. He mentioned that it had been a financial benefit for Romania to not be a part of the euro area during the European debt-crisis, but that the country in the years ahead would strive to comply with all the convergence criteria.[3] In April 2013 Romania submitted their annual Convergence Programme to the European Commission, which for the first time did not specify a target date for euro adoption.[4][5] Prime Minister Victor Ponta has stated that "eurozone entry remains a fundamental objective for Romania but we can't enter poorly prepared", and that 2020 was a more realistic target.[5] In April 2013, the Banca Naţională a României (BNR) submitted draft amendments to the Romanian Constitution to the European Central Bank (ECB) for review. The amendments would make the BNR's statue an organic law to ensure "institutional and functional stability", and would allow for the "transfer of BNR tasks to the ECB and the introduction of the euro as legal tender" using organic law.[6] The following year, Romania's Convergence Report set a target date of 1 January 2019 for euro adoption.[7][8]

To simplify future adjustments to ATMs after the adoption of the euro, when the Romanian new leu replaced the old leu in 2005 (at 10,000 old lei to 1 new leu) the new banknotes were the same physical dimensions as euro banknotes, except the 200 lei bill, which had no euro size correspondent, and the 500 lei bill, which was the same dimension as the €200 bill.[9]

Coins design[edit]

Romanian euro coins have not yet been designed. Romanian law requires that the coat of arms of the country be used on coin designs.[10] The European currency is called in Romanian euro [ˈe.uro], and its subunit eurocent [e.uroˈt͡ʃent].

Public opinion[edit]

According to a eurobarometer poll in April 2014, 74 per cent of Romanians are in favor of introducing the euro while 24 per cent are opposed.[11]

Status[edit]

The Maastricht Treaty originally required that all members of the European Union join the euro once certain economic criteria are met. As of April 2014, Romania meets 5 out of the 7 criteria.


Convergence criteria
Assessment month Country HICP inflation rate[12][nb 1] Excessive deficit procedure[13] Budget deficit to GDP[14] Debt-to-GDP ratio Exchange rate Long-term interest rate[15][nb 2]
ERM II member[16] Change in rate[17][18][nb 3]
2012 ECB Report[nb 4] Reference values max. 3.1%[nb 5]
(as of 31 Mar 2012)
None open
(as of 31 March 2012)
max. 3.0%
(Fiscal year 2011)[20]
max. 60%
(Fiscal year 2011)[20]
min. 2 years
(as of 31 Mar 2012)
max. ±15%[nb 6]
(for 2011)
max. 5.80%[nb 7]
(as of 31 Mar 2012)
 Romania 4.6% Open 5.2% 33.3% No -0.6% 7.25%
2013 ECB Report[nb 8] Reference values max. 2.7%[nb 9]
(as of 30 Apr 2013)
None open
(as of 30 Apr 2013)
max. 3.0%
(Fiscal year 2012)[22]
max. 60%
(Fiscal year 2012)[22]
min. 2 years
(as of 30 Apr 2013)
max. ±15%[nb 6]
(for 2012)
max. 5.5%[nb 9]
(as of 30 Apr 2013)
 Romania 4.1% Open
(Closed in June 2013)
2.9% 37.8% No -5.2% 6.36%
2014 ECB Report[nb 10] Reference values max. 1.7%[nb 11]
(as of 30 Apr 2014)
None open
(as of 30 Apr 2014)
max. 3.0%
(Fiscal year 2013)[24]
max. 60%
(Fiscal year 2013)[24]
min. 2 years
(as of 30 Apr 2014)
max. ±15%[nb 6]
(for 2013)
max. 6.2%[nb 11]
(as of 30 Apr 2014)
 Romania 2.1% None 2.3% 38.4% No 0.9% 5.26%


  Criterion fulfilled
  Criterion potentially fulfilled: If the budget deficit exceeds the 3% limit, but is "close" to this value (the European Commission has deemed 3.5% to be close by in the past),[25] then the criteria can still potentially be fulfilled if either the deficits in the previous two years are significantly declining towards the 3% limit, or if the excessive deficit is the result of exceptional circumstances which are temporary in nature (i.e. one-off expenditures triggered by a significant economic downturn, or by the implementation of economic reforms that are expected to deliver a significant positive impact on the government's future fiscal budgets). However, even if such "special circumstances" are found to exist, additional criteria must also be met to comply with the fiscal budget criterion.[26][27] Additionally, if the debt-to-GDP ratio exceeds 60% but is "sufficiently diminishing and approaching the reference value at a satisfactory pace" it can be deemed to be in compliance.[28]
  Criterion not fulfilled


Notes
  1. ^ The 12-months average for the annual HICP inflation rate must be no more than 1.5% larger than the unweighted arithmetic average of the similar HICP inflation rates in the 3 EU member states with the lowest HICP inflation. If any of these 3 states have a HICP rate significantly below the similarly averaged HICP rate for the eurozone (which according to ECB practice means more than 2% below), and if this low HICP rate has been primarily caused by exceptional circumstances (i.e. severe wage cuts or a strong recession), then such a state is not included in the calculation of the reference value and is replaced by the EU state with the fourth lowest HICP rate.
  2. ^ The annual average for the yield of 10-year government bonds must be no more than 2.0% larger than the unweighted arithmetic average of the bond yields in the 3 EU member states with the lowest HICP inflation. If any of these states have bond yields which are significantly larger than the similarly averaged yield for the eurozone (which according to previous ECB reports means more than 2% above) and at the same time does not have complete funding access to financial markets (which is the case for as long as a government receives bailout funds), then such a state is not be included in the calculation of the reference value.
  3. ^ The change in the annual average exchange rate against the euro.
  4. ^ Reference values from the ECB convergence report of May 2012.[19]
  5. ^ Sweden, Ireland and Slovenia were the reference states.[19]
  6. ^ a b c The maximum allowed change in rate is ± 2.25% for Denmark.
  7. ^ Sweden and Slovenia were the reference states, with Ireland excluded as an outlier.[19]
  8. ^ Reference values from the ECB convergence report of June 2013.[21]
  9. ^ a b Sweden, Latvia and Ireland were the reference states.[21]
  10. ^ Reference values from the ECB convergence report of June 2014.[23]
  11. ^ a b Latvia, Portugal and Ireland were the reference states.[23]

Earlier evaluations on the target year for euro adoption[edit]

In May 2006, it was announced that the Romanian government planned to join ERM II, only after 2012.[29] The president of the ECB said in June 2007, that "Romania has a lot of homework to do ... over a number of years" before joining ERM II.[30] The Romanian government announced in December 2009, that they now officially planned to join the eurozone by 1 January 2015.[31] However, in October 2012, Valentin Lazea, the NBR chief economist, said that "the adherence of Romania to euro currency in 2015 is difficult for Romania". In 2014, Romania's Convergence Report set a target date of 1 January 2019 for euro adoption.[7][8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://business-review.ro/news/update-new-euro-adoption-target-to-be-set-by-the-end-of-the-month-pm/11455/
  2. ^ "The EIU view on Romania joining the Eurozone". 2012-05-17. Retrieved 2012-10-25. 
  3. ^ "Resilient Romania Finds a Currency Advantage in a Crisis". The New York Times. 3 November 2012. Retrieved 5 November 2012. 
  4. ^ "Government of Romania - Convergence Programme - 2013-2016". Government of Romania. April 2013. 
  5. ^ a b Trotman, Andrew (2013-04-18). "Romania abandons target date for joining euro". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2013-05-01. 
  6. ^ "Opinion of the European Central Bank of 7 May 2013: On strengthening Banca Naţională a României’s institutional role and independence (CON/2013/31)". ECB. 7 May 2013. Retrieved 11 May 2013. 
  7. ^ a b "Guvernul Romaniei - Programul de convergenta - 2014-2017". Government of Romania. April 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-14. 
  8. ^ a b "Romania Sets 2019 as Target Date to Join Euro Area, Voinea Says". Bloomberg. 2014-05-06. Retrieved 2014-05-14. 
  9. ^ "Coins and notes in circulation". The National Bank of Romania. Retrieved 25 December 2012. 
  10. ^ Chamber of Deputies of Romania, Law No. 102/September 21, 1992 regarding the Country Coat of Arms and the State Seal, Article 4
  11. ^ http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/flash/fl_400_en.pdf
  12. ^ "HICP (2005=100): Monthly data (12-month average rate of annual change)". Eurostat. 16 August 2012. Retrieved 6 September 2012. 
  13. ^ "The corrective arm". European Commission. Retrieved 2014-07-05. 
  14. ^ "Government deficit/surplus data". Eurostat. 22 April 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2013. 
  15. ^ "Long-term interest rate statistics for EU Member States (monthly data for the average of the past year)". Eurostat. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  16. ^ "What is ERM II?". European Commission. 31 July 2012. Retrieved 8 September 2012. 
  17. ^ "Euro/ECU exchange rates - annual data (average)". Eurostat. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  18. ^ "Former euro area national currencies vs. euro/ECU - annual data (average)". Eurostat. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  19. ^ a b c "Convergence Report May 2012". European Central Bank. May 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-20. 
  20. ^ a b "European economic forecast - spring 2012" (PDF). European Commission. 1 May 2012. Retrieved 1 September 2012. 
  21. ^ a b "Convergence Report". European Central Bank. June 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  22. ^ a b "European economic forecast - spring 2013" (PDF). European Commission. February 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2014. 
  23. ^ a b "Convergence Report". European Central Bank. June 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-05. 
  24. ^ a b "European economic forecast - spring 2014" (PDF). European Commission. March 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  25. ^ "Luxembourg Report prepared in accordance with Article 126(3) of the Treaty" (PDF). European Commission. 12 May 2010. Retrieved 18 November 2012. 
  26. ^ "EMI Annual Report 1994" (PDF). European Monetary Institute (EMI). April 1995. Retrieved 22 November 2012. 
  27. ^ "Progress towards convergence - Nov. 1995 (report prepared in accordance with article 7 of the EMI statute)" (PDF). European Monetary Institute (EMI). November 1995. Retrieved 22 November 2012. 
  28. ^ "Progress towards convergence - November 1995 (report prepared in accordance with article 7 of the EMI statute)" (PDF). European Monetary Institute (EMI). November 1995. Retrieved 17 March 2013. 
  29. ^ "Isarescu: Trecem la euro dupa 2012" (in Romanian). 2006-05-18. Retrieved 2011-02-01. 
  30. ^ "ECB: Introductory statement with Q&A". ECB. 2007-06-06. Retrieved 2009-01-06. 
  31. ^ "Raport privind situația macroeconomică" (PDF). Government of Romania. Retrieved 2009-12-31.