Akan people

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Akans
Akan people Mosaic..jpg
Total population
c. 20 million (est.)[N 1][1]
Regions with significant populations
Ghana 11.5 Million [N 2]
Ivory Coast 8.5 Million
Languages
First language
Akan
Second or third language
Religion
Akan religionChristianitySunni IslamScientology
Related ethnic groups
BedouinAfro-ArabBerberCoptAmharaOromo
Footnotes

Akans (or Akan: Akanfo) are a nation and ethnic group residing in the southern regions of Ghana on the Gulf of Guinea constituting 11.5 million people with an additional 8.5 million people residing in the southern regions of the Ivory Coast in West Africa Akans are the largest nation and ethnic group in both countries and have a population of roughly 20 million people, making Akans the 10th largest ethnic group in Africa and the 26th largest ethnic group in the World. There are additionally Akan sub-groups indigenously inhabiting South American sovereign states in Suriname, Guyana as well as French Guiana such as Ndyuka and there are Akan sub-groups indigenously inhabiting Caribbean sovereign states in Jamaica such as Coromantee. The Akan language (also known as Twi–Fante) is a group of dialects classified as within the Kwa branch of the Niger-Congo language family.[2] Also included under the term "Akan" are the Bia languages (in which case it is common to speak of "Akan languages", as a group of languages).

Subgroups of the Akan proper include: Asante, Akuapem and Akyem (the Asante, Akuapem and Akyem dialects are together known as Twi), Agona, Kwahu, Wassa, Fante (Fanti or Mfantse: Anomabo, Abura, Gomua) and Brong. Subgroups of the Bia-speaking groups include: the Anyin, Baoulé, Chakosi (Anufo), Sefwi (Sehwi), Nzema, Ahanta and Jwira-Pepesa. The Akan groups have cultural attributes in common, notably the tracing of descent, inheritance of property, and succession to high political office.

Name and terminology[edit]

Heiroglyph.jpg
P1200405 Louvre Nectanebo Ier 5 noms E10783 rwk.jpg
Metutu (hieroglyphs) making up the name Nebt Het the
Coptic (Late Kamit) dialectical version of the term Neb is
spelled Nim (neem). This is because the letters ‗m‘ and ‗b‘
interchange linguistically.[3]

In the Akan language, the etymology of the name "Akan" is traced back to two definitions of the root term kan: kan first; foremost kan to count; to reckon.[3] The Akan term "kan" meaning ‘first, foremost’ as well as meaning ‘to count or reckon’ is derived from the ancestral language of ancient Keneset and Kamit (Km).[3] The Akan language is believed to be directly derived of the languages of Keneset and Kamit Km (hieroglyph).[3] In the Akan language the suffix denoting plurality is –fo.[3] Thus "Akanfo" means Akan people/group and Abibirifo means Black (obibiri) people/group (fo).[3] In the language of Kamit (Kmt) however, the letter ‘u’ is used to denote plurality.[3] Thus Khn or Khnt is pluralized as Khntu or Khntiu and this is how the people of Khnt are designated in the metutu (hieroglyphs).[3] This term is properly written Khanitu or Khaniu –the (Akanni people).[3]

Origin and ethnogenesis[edit]

Akan migration pattern origin (genetic genealogy) and ethnogenesis; satellite imagery from outer space.
(click for larger image)

Detailed various aspects of Akan culture through linguistic, anthropological and cosmological analysis indicate that the Akan people originated in ancient East Afuraka/Afuraitkait (Africa) in the Hapi (Nile) valley of Keneset and Kamit (Nubia and Egypt), eventually migrating west to their current location from the Sahara desert and Sahel region of West Africa into the forested region between the 10th and 12th centuries, and many Akans tell their history as it started in the forested region of Eastern Guinean forests as this is where the ethnogenesis of the Akan as we know them today happened.[3][4][5][6] Akan Jews; practitioners of an Akan form of Judaism House of Israel in which Judaism resembles that of the Akan religion claim to be one of the Ten Lost Tribes of ancient Israel.[7]

The kingdom of Bonoman (or Brong-Ahafo) was established as early as the 11th century,[8] and between the 12th and 13th centuries a gold boom in the Akan area brought wealth to numerous Akans.[9]

During different phases of the Kingdom of Bonoman groups of Akans migrated out of the area to create numerous states based predominantly on gold mining and trading of cash crops.[10][11] This brought wealth to numerous Akan states like Akwamu,[12] (1550–1650) and ultimately led to the rise of the most well known Akan empire, the Empire of Ashanti,[13] (1700–1900), the most dominant of the Akan states.

History[edit]

Akan Empire of Ashanti army engaged in Warfare and Military Combat with the British forces under the command of Coll. Sutherland, July 11th 1824[14]

From the 15th century to the 19th century the Akan people dominated gold mining and trading in the region and, from the 17th century on, they were among the most powerful groups in west Africa.[15][16]

This wealth in gold attracted European traders. Initially the Europeans were Portuguese but, eventually the Dutch and British joined in the quest for Akan gold. Akan states waged wars on neighboring states in their geographic area to capture people and sell them as slaves to Europeans (Portuguese) who subsequently sold the enslaved people along with guns to Akans states in exchange for Akan gold.[17] Akan gold was also used to purchase slaves from further up north via the Trans-Saharan route. The Akan purchased slaves in order to help clear the dense forests within the Kingdom of Ashanti (or southern Ghana).[18] About a third of the population of many Akan states were enslaved people. The Akans went from buyers of slaves to selling slaves as the dynamics in the Gold Coast region and the New World changed. Thus, the Akan people played a considerable role in supplying Europeans with slaves for the trans-Atlantic slave trade.[19] Ghana later apologized to the descendents of slaves for the role some of its people may have played in the slave trade.[20]

Akan people, especially the Ashanti, fought against European colonists to maintain autonomy including many Anglo-Ashanti wars: the war of the Golden Stool, and other similar battles.[15][16][21]

By the early 1900s all of the Akan lands and territories (Western, Central, Ashanti, Eastern, Brong-Ahafo regions) was a colony or protectorate of the British while the lands in the Ivory Coast was under the French.[18] On 6 March 1957, following the decolonization from the British under the leadership of Kwame Nkrumah, the Kingdom of Ashanti (or Akanland) in which included the Western, Central, Ashanti, Eastern, Brong-Ahafo regions;[18] that was part of the Gold Coast (region) was joined to British Togoland, and the Northern region, Upper East region and Upper West region of the protectorate of the Northern Territories to form Ghana.[22][23] Ivory Coast gained independence on 7 August 1960.

Akan phenotypes and hybridization[edit]

Modern Akan males and Akan females phenotypes:
Akan Martial Artist and actor Joey Ansah  · Akan professional footballer Kwesi Appiah  · Akan American Football defensive end Ezekiel Ansah  · Akan philosopher and novelists Ruby Tandoh  · Akan model of Storm Model Management Adwoa Aboah  · Akan model, film producer and entrepreneur Yvonne Nelson.

Genetic admixture is present in over half of the modern ethnic Akan populace Y chromosomes and Y-DNA gene pools historically,[24] and recently as a result the modern Akan ethnic group contains persons diverse in skin tone (phenotypes) ranging from dark-skinned and olive-skinned or light-skinned persons as the modern Akan ethnic group populace of the 21st century due to genetic engineering by Akan bio-engineers contains ethnic Akans whom have been genetically modified (designer baby) and Caucasoid in appearance via gametes undergoing random mutations resulting in modified DNA sequencing manufacturing ethnic Akan-Caucasoids designated under the term "Akan-Hybrids";[25][26] in which case the modern Akan ethnic group of the 21st century is not predominantly ethnically black or neither congoid.[25][26]

Akan subgroups and ethnic identity[edit]

Akan subgroups[edit]

The predominant Akan subgroups are Ashanti (~10 million Akans) followed by Baoule (~5 million Akans), Fanti (~3 million Akans), Coromantee (~1 million Akans) and the remaining thirty Akan subgroubs constitute 1 million Akans with the Akan people comprising of the following thirty-four subgroups: Ashanti, Abbe, Abidji, Aboure, Adjukru, Ahafo, Ahanta, Akuapem, Akwamu, Akye, Akyem, Alladian, Anyi, Aowin, Appollo, Assin, Attie, Avatime, Avikam, Baoule, Brong, Chokosi, Coromantee, Denkyira, Ebrie, Ehotile, Evalue, Fante, Kwahu, M'Bato, Ndyuka, Nzema, Sefwi, and Wassa.[27]

Akan nation-state and ethnic identity[edit]

The identity of an Akan nation and nation state or ethnicity is expressed by the term Akanman. The Akan word ɔman (plural aman) which forms the second element in this expression has a meaning much of "community, town; nation, state". It has been translated as "Akanland".[28]

Genetic analysis[edit]

mtDNA[edit]

The modern Akan mtDNA gene pool analysis indicates four Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups (Haplogroup) in which are: Haplogroup L1 and L1b which is believed to have appeared approximately 110,000 to 170,000 years ago and Haplogroup L1 is a daughter of L1-6, L1 is sometimes referred to as haplogroup L1-6, in which Haplogroup L1-6 is the macrohaplogroup that includes subclades L1, L2, L4, L5, L6, and also L3 which gave rise to the two non-African haplogroups M and N, Haplogroup L1-6 and its only sibling haplogroup L0 are united by the matrilineal most recent common ancestor, (MRCA), Mitochondrial Eve with the existence of these two lineages, implies that Mitochondrial Eve had at least two daughters, one of whom is the maternal common ancestor of haplogroup L1-6 lineages.[29]

Haplogroup L2a, in the modern Akan mtDNA gene pool originated East and West spread along the Sahel corridor in Maghreb or North Africa after the Last Glacial Maximum, or the origins of these expansions may lie earlier, at the beginnings of the Later Stone Age, ∼40,000 years ago;[30][31] Akan L2 ~33% and Akan L2a 32%,[32] also among Bedouin (Nomadic Arabs) 33% [Cerny et al. 2007], [30] and in East Africa L2a was found 15% in Nile Valley- Nubia (Nubians and Copts), 5% of Egyptians, 14% of Cushite speakers, 15% of Semitic Amhara people, 10% of Gurage, 6% of Tigray-Tigrinya people, 13% of Ethiopians and 5% of Yemenis.[33] Haplogroup L2a also appears in North Africa, with the highest frequency 20% Tuareg, Fulani (14%). Found also among some Algeria Arabs, it is found at 10% among Moroccan Arabs, some Moroccan Berbers and Tunisian Berbers. (watson 1997) et al., (vigilant 1991) et al. 1991.

Haplogroup L3; in the modern Akan mtDNA gene pool the L3d and L3e1,[29] arose in East Africa a relatively small number of migrants carried it across the Red Sea to the Arabian Peninsula, inaugurating an intercontinental migration that eventually settled every major land mass on Earth except Antarctica and that small group also gave rise to every non-African haplogroup.[34]

Haplogroup U that is widely distributed across Western Eurasia (Eurasia), North Africa (Maghreb), and South Asia is in the modern Akan mtDNA gene pool sub-clad U6 (U6a1) at 4.5%;[29] Haplogroup U is designated 'Clan Ursula', as is, more specifically, Haplogroup U5.

Akan ethnic group overall mtDNA analysis indicates distant genetic kinship with the Afro-Asiatic populace and Semetic populace such as Amhara (Habesha), Nubian (Copt), Oromo (Cushite) in East Africa and Berber (Tuareg) in Maghreb (North Africa) and as well as genetic relation to Bedouin (Nomadic Arabs) and Afro Arab.

HLA antigens[edit]

Akan ethnic group HLA antigens MHC complex class I and class II antigens analysis of HLA -A, -B, -C, -DR, -DQ, and -DP on chromosome 6p21.3 typing completed on HLA-B serotypes indicated frequencies HLA-B7 (5%), HLA-B8 "Super B8" (2.3%), HLA-B14 (2.3%), HLA-B15 (8%), HLA-B18 (2.3%), HLA-B27 (1.1%), HLA-B35 (5.7%), HLA-B42 (3.4%), HLA-B44 (3.4%), HLA-B45 (9.1%), HLA-B51 (2.3%), HLA-B52 (3.4%), HLA-B53 (22.7%), HLA-B57 (4.6%), HLA-B58 (2.3%), HLA-B63 (4.6%), HLA-B70 (8%), HLA-B78 (2.3%); Akan overall HLA-B gene antigen serotype frequencies encoding indicate that the Akan populace HLA-B gene appear more similar to Indo-Aryan or Mongoloid than to African and Niger–Congo populaces.[35] The HLA-B haplotypes serotype with highest significance and characteristics of the Akan populace is HLA-B53 at 22.7% (A36-Cw4-B53 haplotype) which is higher than any other international ethnic groups or any race in the world; Genetic engineers have revealed that HLA-B gene serotype version HLA-B53 causes immunity to malaria.[36]

Akan academia and inventions[edit]

Akan academia[edit]

Akan academic Kwame Anthony Appiah during a lecture.

Akan lecturer and influential 20th-century advocate of Pan-Africanism, Kwame Nkrumah was awarded the Lenin Peace Prize.[37] Akan Kwame Anthony Appiah is an internationally respected philosopher, cultural theorist, and novelist whose interests include political and moral theory, the philosophy of language and mind, and African intellectual history.[38] Akan doctorate of philosophy in philosophy; Nat Quansah was awarded the Goldman Environmental Prize.[39] Akans enrol and graduate from secondary education institutions within Akanland such as Prempeh College, Opoku Ware School, Osei Kyeretwie Secondary School and Kumasi Academy (Ashanti); Mfantsipim School and Aggrey Memorial A.M.E. Zion Senior High School (Central); Koforidua Senior High Technical School (Eastern); Fijai Senior High School (Western); and Akans enrol and graduate from higher education institutions within Akanland such as the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology and Garden City University College (Ashanti); University Of Energy And Natural Resources (Brong-Ahafo); University of Mines and Technology (Western); University of Education, Winneba and University of Cape Coast (Central); University of Sustainable Environmental Studies and Applied Research, All Nations University and Ashesi University (Eastern).

Akan inventions[edit]

Akan program manager, Patrick Awuah, Jr. spearheaded the development of dial-up internetworking- technologies at Microsoft.[40] Awuah founded the Ashesi University.

Akan internationally respected mathematical physicist, Francis Allotey is credited for the invention of the "Allotey Scientific Formalism" which arose from his work on soft X-ray spectroscopy.[41][42]

Akan language[edit]

Akan greeting phrases
Akan greeting phrases; "akɔaba" (welcome) and "ɛte sɛn" (how are you) in the Akan language.

Akan refers to the language of the Akan ethnic group and the Akan language in which is the most widely spoken and used indigenous language in the Akan territories of Western, Central, Ashanti, Eastern, Brong-Ahafo regions in southern Ghana.[44][45] Akan is officially recognized for literacy in Ghana, at the primary and elementary educational stage (Primary 1–3) K–12 (education) level, and studied at university as a bachelor degree or masters degree program.[44][45] A form of Akan Ndyuka is also spoken in South America, notably Suriname, French Guiana, Guyana and Jamaica with the Akan language coming to these South American and Caribbean places through the trans-Atlantic trade and Akan names and folktales are still used in these South American and Caribbean countries.[44][45] With the present state of technology, one can listen to live radio broadcasts in Akan from numerous radio stations and receive mass media and public broadcasts in Akan from numerous multimedia and media broadcasting.[44][45] Akan is studied in major universities in North America and United States, including Ohio University, Ohio State University, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Harvard University, Boston University, Indiana University, University of Michigan, and the University of Florida.[44][45] The Akan language has been a regular language of study in the annual Summer Cooperative African Languages Institute (SCALI) program and the Akan language is regulated and administered by the Akan Orthography Committee (AOC).[44][45]

Akan has some unique linguistic features like tone, vowel harmony and nasalization.[44][45]

Concepts of Akan philosophy and inheritance[edit]

These are the basic concepts of Akan philosophy and inheritance:

  • Abusua (mogya) – What an Akan inherits from his mother
  • Ntoro – What an Akan gets from his father, but one does not belong to a Ntoro; instead one belongs to one's Abusua
  • Sunsum – What an Akan develops from interaction with the world
  • Kra – What an Akan gets from Onyame (God)[46]

Matrilineality[edit]

Many but not all of the Akan still[47] practice their traditional matrilineal customs, living in their traditional extended family households. The traditional Akan economic and political organization is based on matrilineal lineages, which are the basis of inheritance and succession. A lineage is defined as all those related by matrilineal descent from a particular ancestress. Several lineages are grouped into a political unit headed by a council of elders, each of whom is the elected head of a lineage – which itself may include multiple extended-family households.

Public offices are thus vested in the lineage, as are land tenure and other lineage property. In other words, lineage property is inherited only by matrilineal kin.[47][48] Each lineage controls the lineage land farmed by its members, functions together in the veneration of its ancestors, supervises marriages of its members, and settles internal disputes among its members.[49]

The political units above are likewise grouped into eight larger groups called abusua: Aduana, Agona, Asakyiri, Asenie, Asona, Bretuo, Ekuona and Oyoko. The members of each such abusua are united by their belief that they are all descended from the same ancient ancestress – so marriage between members of the same group (or abusua) is forbidden, a taboo on marriage. One inherits, or is a lifelong member of, the lineage, the political unit and the abusua of one's mother, regardless of one's gender or marriage. Members and their spouses thus belong to different abusuas, with mother and children living and working in one household, but their husband/father living and working in a different household.[47][48]

According to one source[50] of information about the Akan, "A man is strongly related to his mother's brother (wɔfa) but only weakly related to his father's brother. This must be viewed in the context of a polygamous society in which the mother/child bond is likely to be much stronger than the father/child bond. As a result, in inheritance, a man's nephew (his sister's son) (wɔfase) will have priority over his own son. Uncle-nephew relationships therefore assume a dominant position."[50]

"The principles governing inheritance, generation and age – that is to say, men come before women and seniors before juniors."... When a woman’s brothers are available, a consideration of generational seniority stipulates that the line of brothers be exhausted before the right to inherit lineage property passes down to the next senior genealogical generation of sisters' sons. Finally, "it is when all possible male heirs have been exhausted that the females" may inherit.[50]

Certain other aspects of the Akan culture are determined patrilineally rather than matrilineally. There are 12 patrilineal Ntoro (spirit) groups, and everyone belongs to his or her father's Ntoro group, but not to his family lineage and abusua. Each Ntoro group has its own surnames,[51] taboos, ritual purifications and forms of etiquette.[48] A person thus inherits one's Ntoro from one's father, but does not belong to his family.

A recent (2001) book[47] provides an update on the Akan, stating that some families are changing from the above abusua structure to the nuclear family.[52] Housing, childcare, education, daily work, and elder care etc. are then handled by that individual family, rather than by the abusua or clan, especially in the city.[53] The above taboo on marriage within one's abusua is sometimes ignored, but "clan membership" is still important,[52] with many people still living in the abusua framework presented above.[47]

Akan influence[edit]

Elements of Akan culture can generally be seen in many geographic areas. Specific elements of Akan culture are especially seen in neighboring West African peoples and some Central African populations. Akan culture has also been historically important in the New World, where Akan names are or were common,[54] for example among the Coromantins of Jamaica, and the descendants of the Akwamu in St. John. Kofi, the leader of the 1763 slave revolt and violent revolt against the Dutch people in Guyana was an Akan.

Akan names[edit]

Akan Given-names[edit]

Akan system of giving names to their Akan children is very unique. Each Akan child is sometimes given his/her own personal name (first-names and sur-names) irrespective of the surname of the Akan father. The Akan first-names are usually derived from the day an Akan child was born. For an example an Akan male born on Monday is called Kwadwo/Kojo derived from the day Monday which is called Dwoada in the Akan language, the language of Akans. An Akan female born on Monday is called Adwoa. Here are the rest of the days and their various names: Tuesday/Benada - Kwabena for Akan males and Abena for Akan females, Wednesday/Wukuada - Kwaku for Akan males and Akua for Akan females, Thursday/Yawoada - Yaw for Akan males and Yaa for Akan females, Friday/Fiada - Kofi for Akan males and Afua for Akan females, Saturday/Memeneda - Kwame for Akan males and Ama for Akan females and finally Sunday/Kwasiada - Kwasi/Akwasi for Akan males and Akosua for Akan females. Sometimes an Akan baby male born on Wednesday might be called Kofi instead of Kwaku because the Akan person after whom he is named was a Kofi and not a Kwaku.

Akan Surnames[edit]

The Akan surnames (family names) are always given after close Akan relatives and sometimes Akan friends. Since the Akan names are always given by the Akan men if an Akan couple receives a son as their first born- Akan baby he is named after the Akan father of the husband and if the Akan baby is a female she will be named after the Akan mother of the husband. As a result if an Akan man called "Osei Kofi" and the Akan wife gives birth to a female as their first born the Akan female might be called "Yaa Dufie" even if she was not born on Friday. The reason is the fact that the Akan mother of the Akan man "Osei Kofi" is called "Yaa Dufie". Akans usually give these Akan names so that the names of their close Akan relatives might be maintained in the Akan families to show how they cherish the love for their Akan nationality. In the olden days it was a disgrace if an Akan man was not able to name any child after his Akan father and/or Akan mother because that was the pride of every Akan home. Most of the Akan names given to Akan males could also be given to Akan females just by adding the letters "aa" to form the female names. Some of these Akan surnames can be given to both Akan males (men/boys) and females (women/girls) without changing or adding anything. However there are others that are exclusively Akan male names whilst others are exclusively Akan female names.

Culture[edit]

Akan Sankofa symbolism appears frequently in traditional Akan art and it is one of the most widely dispersed Akan adinkra symbols, appearing in modern Akan jewelry, Akan tattoos, and Akan Kente clothing.

Akan culture is one of the traditional matrilineal cultures of Africa.[55] Akan art is wide-ranging and renowned, especially for the tradition of crafting bronze goldweights, using the lost-wax casting method. The Akan culture reached South America, Caribbean, and North America.[56]

Some of their most important mythological stories are called anansesem, literally meaning "the spider story", but in a figurative sense also meaning "traveler's tales". These "spider stories" are sometimes also referred to as nyankomsem: "words of a sky god". The stories generally, but not always, revolve around Kwaku Ananse, a trickster spirit, often depicted as a spider, human, or a combination thereof.[57]

Elements of Akan culture also include, but are not limited to:[58][59][60][61][62]

Sports[edit]

Akan man Kevin-Prince Boateng, the most famous contemporary Akan footballer, dynamic defensive midfielder and box-to-box midfielder or striker.
The second largest multi-purpose stadium and football stadium within Akanland is the Sekondi-Takoradi Stadium.

The predominate sport among the Akans (sportspersons) is association football and the most successful Akan club is Asante Kotoko and the most famous player is Kevin-Prince Boateng and if there was an Akan top tier football league it would comprise of 10 top Akan professional football teams such as:

As the Akan nation lack an independent state they do not have an official representative football team and national football team but if the Akan established an official representative Akan football team it would possibly be among the best in the world and it would include Akan professional footballers such as forwards: Richmond Boakye (Juventus), Ishmael Yartei, and Asamoah Gyan (Al Ain); midfielders: Kwadwo Asamoah (Juventus), Quincy Owusu-Abeyie, and Kevin-Prince Boateng; defenders: Jeff Schlupp (Leicester City), and Curtis Obeng (Swansea City); and other specific sports participated among the Akans are skiing and alpine skiing (winter sports), 100 metres (athletics) among Coromantee in Jamaica, golf, basketball, rugby, and combat sports; and the largest multi-purpose stadium and football stadium within Akanland is the Kumasi Sports Stadium in Ashanti; Coronation Park Stadium is the largest stadium in Brong-Ahafo; Sekondi-Takoradi Stadium is the largest stadium westerly; Nkawkaw Park Stadium is the largest stadium easterly; and Cape Coast Sports Stadium is the largest stadium and sports complex centrally.[63]

Individuals of Akan origin[edit]

Among the individuals of Akan origin are Kwame Nkrumah (born September 21, 1909), who started the pan-African movement which liberated many states from European colonialism; Kofi Annan (born April 8, 1938), is the first black man to head the United Nations organization and was awarded the Nobel Prize; others of Akan origin include Arthur Wharton (born October 28, 1865), is the first black professional footballer in the world;[64] Paul Cuffee (born January 17, 1759), built a lucrative shipping empire and by the first years of the nineteenth-century was one of the wealthiest men in the United States.[65] His largest ship, the 268-ton Alpha, was built in 1806, along with his favorite ship of all, the 109-ton brig Traveller.[65]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ ""Cote d'Ivoire", CIA - The World Factbook". Cia.gov.  "Akan 42.1%" of a population of 22.0 million. ""Ghana", CIA - The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2012-08-24.  "Akan 45.3%" of a population of 24.6 million.
  2. ^ Languages of the Akan area: papers in Western Kwa linguistics and on the linguistic geography of the area of ancient. Isaac K. Chinebuah, H. Max J. Trutenau, Linguistic Circle of Accra, Basler Afrika Bibliographien, 1976 - pp. 168
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  5. ^ The Akan diaspora in the Americas Oxford University Press, 2010 - Social Science
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  7. ^ "The Jewish Controversy". paamuka.com. 6 February 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2014. 
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  9. ^ Title: Africa a Voyage of Discovery with Basil Davidson, Language: English Type: Documentary Year: 1984 Length: 114 min.
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  11. ^ Indigenous medicine and knowledge in African society. Psychology Press, 2007 - Health & Fitness.
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  13. ^ Africa: a Voyage of Discovery with Basil Davidson, Documentary, 1984, 114 minutes.
  14. ^ a b Anglo-Ashanti wars
  15. ^ a b "Africa Gallery". Penn Museum. Retrieved 2011-11-13. 
  16. ^ a b The African heritage, Volume 3 Zimbabwe Pub. House, 1999 - History - 180 pages
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  18. ^ a b c "History of the Asante (Ashanti) People". anglogold.com. Retrieved 14 April 2014. 
  19. ^ Henry Louis Gates Jr. (23 April 2010). "Ending the Slavery Blame-Game". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 23 April 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-26. 
  20. ^ http://www.modernghana.com/news/102692/1/ghana-apologizes-to-slaves-descendants.html
  21. ^ Non-western theories of development: regional norms versus global trends, Harcourt Brace College Pub., 1999, 179 pp.
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  30. ^ a b Salas, Antonio et al., The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape, American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 71, no. 5 (2002), pp. 1082–1111.
  31. ^ Antonio Torroni et al., Do the Four Clades of the mtDNA Haplogroup L2 Evolve at Different Rates?, American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 69 (2001), pp. 348–1356.
  32. ^ Veeramah, Krishna R et al 2010
  33. ^ Toomas Kivisild et al., Ethiopian Mitochondria DNA Heritage: Tracking Gene Flow Across and Around the Gate of Tears, American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 75, no. 5 (November 2004), pp. 752–770.
  34. ^ Behar, Doron M.; Villems, Richard; Soodyall, Himla; Blue-Smith, Jason; Pereira, Luisa; Metspalu, Ene; Scozzari, Rosaria; Makkan, Heeran; Tzur, Shay (2008). "The Dawn of Human Matrilineal Diversity". The American Journal of Human Genetics 82 (5): 1130–40. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.04.002. PMC 2427203. PMID 18439549. 
  35. ^ "HLA » Allele Frequency". allelefrequencies.net. 
  36. ^ Hill AV, Allsopp CE, Kwiatkowski D, Anstey NM, Twumasi P, Rowe PA, Bennett S, Brewster D, McMichael AJ, Greenwood BM (1991). "Common west African HLA antigens are associated with protection from severe malaria". Nature 352 (6336): 595–600. Bibcode:1991Natur.352..595H. doi:10.1038/352595a0. PMID 1865923. 
  37. ^ "Kwame Nkrumah: The greatest African". ericwalberg.com. Retrieved 5 March 2014. 
  38. ^ "Biography, "Kwame Anthony Appiah", Stanford Presidential Lectures in the Humanities and Arts". Prelectur.stanford.edu. Retrieved 2014-04-17. 
  39. ^ "Prize Recipient: Nat Quansah". goldmanprize.org. Goldman Environmental Prize. Retrieved 2014-04-17. 
  40. ^ "Ted - Patrick". ted.com. Retrieved 16 April 2014. 
  41. ^ Gerdes, Paulus (2007) African Doctorates in Mathematics, p. 370. Commission on the History of Mathematics in Africa
  42. ^ New African (January 2007). "The Allotey formalism: the man who formulated the technique used to determine matter in outer space, Professor Francis K.A. Allotey, receives the 2006 Black S/heroes Award".
  43. ^ "A Mathematical Analysis of Akan Adinkra Symmetry". theakan.com. Retrieved 16 April 2014. 
  44. ^ a b c d e f g Guerini, Federica (2006). Language The Alternation Strategies in Multilingual Settings. Peter Lang. p. 100. ISBN 0-82048-369-9. 
  45. ^ a b c d e f g "Akan (Twi) – Akan language". amesall.rutgers.edu. 
  46. ^ L'homme, Volume 7 École pratique des hautes études (France). Section des sciences économiques et sociales École pratique des hautes études, Section des sciences économiques et sociales, 1967
  47. ^ a b c d e de Witte, Marleen (2001). Long Live the Dead!: changing funeral celebrations in Asante, Ghana. Published by Het Spinhuis. ISBN 90-5260-003-1.
  48. ^ a b c Busia, Kofi Abrefa (1970). Encyclopædia Britannica, 1970. William Benton, publisher, The University of Chicago. ISBN 0-85229-135-3, Vol. 1, p. 477. (This Akan article was written by Kofi Abrefa Busia, formerly professor of Sociology and Culture of Africa at the University of Leiden, Netherlands.)
  49. ^ Owusu-Ansah, David (Nov1994). http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field%28DOCID+gh0048%29, "Ghana: The Akan Group". This source, "Ghana", is one of the Country Studies available from the US Library of Congress. Archived by WebCite® at http://www.webcitation.org/61M7J7JwT on 31Aug11.
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  51. ^ de Witte (2001), p. 55 shows such surnames in a family tree, which provides a useful example of names.
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  53. ^ de Witte (2001), p. 73.
  54. ^ "Kwasi Konadu, "The Akan Diaspora in the Americas" (Oxford UP, 2010)". Newbooksinafroamstudies.com. 2011-06-09. Retrieved 2011-11-13. 
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  59. ^ Akan Weights and the Gold Trade, Longman, 1980. 393 pp.
  60. ^ Sankofa: African thought and education, P. Lang, 1995, 236 pp.
  61. ^ Simultaneity in signed languages: form and function, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2007, 355 pp.
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  64. ^ J. A. Mangan, The Cultural bond: sport, empire, society
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Further reading[edit]

  1. ^ CIA World Factbook population total suggests 20 million.
  • Antubam, Kofi, Ghana's Heritage of Culture, Leipzig, 1963.
  • Kyerematen, A. A. Y., Panoply of Ghana, London, 1964.
  • Meyerowitz, Eva L. R., Akan Traditions of Origin, London, c. 1950.
  • Meyerowitz, Eva L. R., At the Court of an African King, London 1962
  • Obeng, Ernest E., Ancient Ashanti Chieftaincy, Tema (Ghana), 1986.
  • Bartle, Philip F. W. (January 1978), "Forty Days; The AkanCalendar". Africa: Journal of the International African Institute (Edinburgh University Press), 48 (1): 80–84.
  • For the Akan, the first-born twin is considered the younger, as the elder stays behind to help the younger out.
  • "Kente Cloth." African Journey. webmaster@projectexploration.org. 25 September 2007.
  • Effah-Gyamfi, Kwaku (1979), Traditional History of the Bono State, Legon: Institute of African Studies, University of Ghana.
  • Effah-Gyamfi, Kwaku (1985), Bono Manso: an archaeological investigation into early Akan urbanism (African occasional papers, no. 2) Calgary: Dept. of Archaeology, University of Calgary Press. ISBN 0-919813-27-5
  • Meyerowitz, E. L. R. (1949), "Bono-Mansu, the earliest centre of civilisation in the Gold Coast", Proceedings of the III International West African Conference, 118–20.

External links[edit]