Aguinaldo Shrine

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Aguinaldo Shrine
Vista de la casa del general de Aguinaldo.jpg
Aguinaldo Shrine is located in Philippines
Aguinaldo Shrine
Aguinaldo Shrine
Map of the Philippines
Type National Shrine and museum
Location Kawit, Cavite
Coordinates 14°26′42″N 120°54′25″E / 14.44500°N 120.90694°E / 14.44500; 120.90694Coordinates: 14°26′42″N 120°54′25″E / 14.44500°N 120.90694°E / 14.44500; 120.90694
Area 4,864 m2 (52,360 sq ft)[1]
Created 1964
Open Tuesday to Sunday, 8:00 AM to 4:00 PM[2]
Aguinaldo House
Bahay ni Aguinaldo
Casa del general Aguinaldo en Cavite, Luzón, Filipinas.jpg
General information
Type Mansion
Architectural style American Colonial
Location Aguinaldo Shrine
Address Tirona Highway
Construction started 1845
Renovated 1849 and 1919
Owner Government of the Philippines
Technical details
Floor count Five with a mezzanine level on the second floor
Floor area 1,324 sq. m. (14,250 sq. ft.)[1]
Design and construction
Architect Emilio Aguinaldo[3]

The Aguinaldo Shrine is the national shrine located in Kawit, Cavite in the Republic of the Philippines, where the independence of the Philippines from Spain was declared on June 12, 1898.[4] To commemorate the event, now known as Araw ng Kalayaan or Independence Day, a national holiday, the Philippine flag is raised here by top government officials on June 12th each year. The house is now a museum.

History[edit]

Emilio Aguinaldo

The shrine is the ancestral home of General Emilio Aguinaldo,[5] the first president of the First Republic of the Philippines. The house was first built in 1845 made from wood and thatch, and reconstructed in 1849. It was in this home where the general was born on March 22, 1869.[6]

Independence day[edit]

On June 12, 1898, the Philippine independence from Spain was first proclaimed from the window of the grand hall of the mansion. The Act of the Declaration of Philippine Independence was read to the people of the country by its author, Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista[7] The Declaration of Independence was ratified by the Malolos Congress on September 21, 1898.[8]

National symbols[edit]

During the independence celebration, the Philippine flag designed by Emilio Aguinaldo was formally unfurled to the people of the nation from the front window of the house. It was first flown during the Battle of Alapan in Imus City two weeks prior on May 28, 1898 (now celebrated as National Flag Day each year). The Philippine national anthem was also first played on the grounds by the marching band of San Francisco de Malabon (now General Trias, Cavite) but as an instrumental music; the lyrics were not written till 1899 by José Palma.

Renovations[edit]

President Aguinaldo, while in retirement after the repeal of Sedition Act of 1907 in October 1919 which banned the display of the Philippine flag, greatly enlarged his home from 1919-1921, transforming it into a monument to flag and country.[9] He constructed an elaborate "Independence balcony", which Aguinaldo and top Philippine officials used during independence day celebrations.[6] Many visitors today assume the balcony to be the actual location of the Independence Proclamation. Aguinaldo donated his home to the Philippine government on June 12, 1963, "to perpetuate the spirit of the Philippine Revolution of 1896 that put an end to Spanish colonization of the country".[3][1]

National Shrine[edit]

Aguinaldo died on February 6, 1964, at the age of 94 at the Veterans Memorial Hospital in Quezon City. The same year, the government declared the mansion as a National Shrine on June 18 through Republic Act of 4039 signed by President Diosdado Macapagal.[6][10]

Description[edit]

Aguinaldo Park[edit]

The property which is adjacent to a river, was expanded to include Aguinaldo Park, a park in front of the house created for the Philippine Centennial celebration of 1998. The park with a long promenade and two long pools complemented the aesthetic beauty of the house which was previously fronted by a busy street. The park is highlighted by a bronze equestrian statue (on horseback) of Aguinaldo set on a marble pedestal.

Main house[edit]

Aguinaldo's house is a mansion over 14,000 square feet (1,300 m2) in floor area designed by Aguinaldo himself.[1] The house, which features secret passages and hiding places for documents and weapons, showcases how the revolutionary zeal infused even the comfort of a Filipino home. The house is filled with fine antique furniture and decorated throughout with motifs of the Philippine flag and other national symbols.

The building is divided into three sections - the main house on the west side of the building, the family wing on the east, and the tower located in between.[11] The middle section is a five-story tower with a spire at the very top. The mezzanine level on the second floor is sometimes counted as an extra floor. The ground floor of the house was previously unwalled which is typical of the houses during the era.[6] Today, it houses a museum of Aguinaldo's memorabilia and other historical artifacts. A hologram depicting Aguinaldo during the eve of June 12, 1898 is one of the exhibit.[11]

Located on the second floor is the grand hall, a large meeting room where from its historic front window, the Declaration of Independence was read. The front Independence balcony was added by Aguinaldo during the 1919 renovations.[3] The dining room located on the same floor is highlighted by a relief map of the Philippines on its ceiling. Also on this level is the bedroom of Aguinaldo, the kitchen, a conference room, and a partially covered terrace on the western end of the building. On the east wing are three bedrooms for the general's three daughter's. A covered balcony (azotea) at the end of the wing was christened by Aguinaldo as Galeria de los Pecadores (Hall of the Sinners) as military plots against the Spanish authorities were planned there.[6][12][13]

The next level is a mezzanine library which overlooks the grand hall below. A plight of stairs takes the visitor to the Ambassador Room used as a study by the general's son-in-law, Ambassador Jose Melencio. The next floor is the other bedroom of Aguinaldo which he used during the latter part of his life. A tiled terrace on this level gives a commanding view of the town to as far as Manila. A very narrow ladder takes one to the top of the tower which is allegedly the favorite spot of Aguinaldo.

Garden[edit]

The grounds of the house is lush with greenery bordered by a river on the east and backed by a fish pond to the south. On display outside the house is Aguinaldo's personal car, a 1924 Packard limousine restored in November 2009.[2]

In the middle of the garden behind the house is a marble tomb where the first president is interred.[5]

Museum[edit]

The Aguinaldo Shrine museum on the ground floor is maintained by the National Historical Institute of the Philippines. The house and museum are open from Tuesday to Sunday, from 8:00 AM to 4:00 PM.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Historical Sites of Cavite". Provincial Government of Cavite Website. Retrieved on 2011-10-18.
  2. ^ a b ericaorange (2010-06-13). "The House of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo. Tara Na!. Retrieved on 2011-10-17.
  3. ^ a b c Javellana, Rene and Zialcita, Fernando Nakpil, etc. (1997). "Filipino Style", pg. 66-69. Periplus Editions (HK) Ltd. ISBN 0-8048-7050-0.
  4. ^ "GMANews.TV - Arroyo to receive 320 Fil-Ams, Fil-Canadians Monday - Nation - Official Website of GMA News and Public Affairs - Latest Philippine News - BETA". 2008-07-13. Archived from the original on 2008-07-13. Retrieved 2008-07-13. 
  5. ^ a b Philippines. Nelles Verlag. February 2001. ISBN 3-88618-222-3. 
  6. ^ a b c d e "The Aguinaldo Shrine". Philippine Culture - Filipino.biz. Retrieved on 2011-10-16.
  7. ^ Halili, M.C. (2004). [books.google.com/books?id=gUt5v8ET4QYC "Philippine History"], pg. 162. Rex Book Store, Manila. ISBN 978-971-23-3439-9.
  8. ^ Guevarra, Sulpicio (1972). "The laws of the first Philippine Republic". p.5. National Historical Commission.
  9. ^ Quezon III, Manuel L. (2002-04-02). "History of the Philippine Flag". Flags of the World. Retrieved on 2011-10-20.
  10. ^ Valmero, Anna (2011-04-08). "Revisiting the Aguinaldo Shrine". GoBacoor. Retrieved on 2011-10-17.
  11. ^ a b "A House of History". National Historical Institute of the Philippines. Retrieved on 2011-10-19.
  12. ^ Innocenti (2005-01-05). "Philippines, Cavite, Kawit (01-05-2005)". Panoramio.com. Retrieved on 2011-10-17.
  13. ^ aiebo (2007-12-27). "Aguinaldo's House at Kawit Cavite". Panoramio.com. Retrieved on 2011-10-17.

External links[edit]