Amarna letters

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EA 161, letter by Aziru, leader of Amurru, (stating his case to pharaoh), one of the Amarna letters in cuneiform writing on a clay tablet.

The Amarna letters (sometimes Amarna correspondence or Amarna tablets) archive, on clay tablets, mostly diplomatic correspondence between the Egyptian administration and its representatives in Canaan and Amurru during the New Kingdom. The letters were found in Upper Egypt at Amarna, the modern name for the Egyptian capital of Akhetaten (el-Amarna), founded by pharaoh Akhenaten (1350s – 1330s BC) during the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt. The Amarna letters are unusual in Egyptological research, because they are mostly written in Akkadian cuneiform, the writing system of ancient Mesopotamia, rather than of ancient Egypt. The known tablets total 382: 24 tablets had been recovered since the Norwegian Assyriologist Jørgen Alexander Knudtzon's landmark edition of the Amarna correspondence, Die El-Amarna-Tafeln in two volumes (1907 and 1915).[1] The correspondence spans a period of at most thirty years.

The letters[edit]

One of the Amarna Letters (from Alashiya)

These letters, comprising cuneiform tablets mostly written in Akkadian – the regional language of diplomacy for this period – were first discovered around 1887 by local Egyptians who secretly dug most of them from the ruined city (they were originally stored in an ancient building that archaeologists have since called the Bureau of Correspondence of Pharaoh) and sold them on the antiquities market. Once the location where they were found was determined, the ruins were explored for more. The first archaeologist who successfully recovered more tablets was William Matthew Flinders Petrie in 1891–92, who found 21 fragments. Émile Chassinat, then director of the French Institute for Oriental Archaeology in Cairo, acquired two more tablets in 1903. Since Knudtzon's edition, some 24 more tablets, or fragments, have been found, either in Egypt, or identified in the collections of various museums.[2]

The tablets originally recovered by local Egyptians have been scattered among museums in Germany, England, Egypt, France, Russia, and the United States; 202 or 203 are at the Vorderasiatisches Museum in Berlin; 80 in the British Museum; 49 or 50 at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo; seven at the Louvre; three at the Pushkin Museum; and one in the collection of the Oriental Institute in Chicago.[3]

The full archive, which includes correspondence from the preceding reign of Amenhotep III as well, contained over three hundred diplomatic letters; the remainder comprise miscellaneous literary and educational materials. These tablets shed much light on Egyptian relations with Babylonia, Assyria, the Mitanni, the Hittites, Syria, Canaan, and Alashiya (Cyprus). They are important for establishing both the history and the chronology of the period. Letters from the Babylonian king, Kadashman-Enlil I, anchor the timeframe of Akhenaten's reign to the mid-14th century BC. Here was also found the first mention of a Near Eastern group known as the Habiru, whose possible connection with the Hebrews — due to the similarity of the words and their geographic location — remains debated. Other rulers include Tushratta of Mittani, Lib'ayu of Shechem, Abdi-Heba of Jerusalem, and the quarrelsome king, Rib-Hadda, of Byblos, who, in over 58 letters, continuously pleads for Egyptian military help.

Letter summary[edit]

Map of the ancient Near East during the Amarna period, showing the great powers of the period: Egypt (green), Hatti (yellow), the Kassite kingdom of Babylon (purple), Assyria (grey), and Mittani (red). Lighter areas show direct control, darker areas represent spheres of influence. The extent of the Achaean/Mycenaean civilization is shown in orange.

Amarna Letters are politically arranged in rough counterclockwise fashion:

  • 001–014 Babylonia
  • 015–016 Assyria
  • 017–030 Mittani
  • 031–032 Arzawa
  • 033–040 Alashiya
  • 041–044 Hatti
  • 045–380+ Syria/Lebanon/Canaan

Amarna Letters from Syria/Lebanon/Canaan are distributed roughly:

  • 045–067 Syria
  • 068–227 Lebanon (where 68–140 are from Gubla aka Byblos)
  • 227–380 Canaan (written mostly in the Canaano-Akkadian language).

Amarna letters list[edit]

Note: Many assignments are tentative; spellings vary widely. This is just a guide.

EA# Letter author to recipient
EA# 1 Amenhotep III to Babylon king Kadashman-Enlil
EA# 2 Babylon king Kadashman-Enlil to Amenhotep 3
EA# 3 Babylon king Kadashman-Enlil to Amenhotep 3
EA# 4 Babylon king Kadashman-Enlil to Amenhotep 3
EA# 5 Amenhotep 3 to Babylon king KadashmanEnlil
EA# 6 Babylon king Burna-Buriash II to Amenhotep 3
EA# 7 Babylon king Burna-Buriash 2 to Amenhotep IV
EA# 8 Babylon king Burna-Buriash 2 to Amenhotep 4
EA# 9 Babylon king Burna-Buriash 2 to Amenhotep 4
EA# 10 Babylon king Burna-Buriash 2 to Amenhotep 4
EA# 11 Babylon king Burna-Buriash 2 to Amenhotep 4
EA# 12 princess to her lord
EA# 13 Babylon
EA# 14 Amenhotep 4 to Babylon king Burna-Buriash 2
EA# 15 Assyria king Ashur-Uballit I to Amenhotep 4
EA# 16 Assyria king Ashur-Uballit 1 to Amenhotep 4
EA# 17 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3
EA# 18 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3
EA# 19 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3
EA# 20 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3
EA# 21 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3
EA# 22 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3
EA# 23 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3
EA# 24 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3
EA# 25 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 4
EA# 26 Mitanni king Tushratta to widow Tiy
EA# 27 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 4
EA# 28 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 4
EA# 29 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 4
EA# 30 Mitanni king to Palestine kings
EA# 31 Amenhotep 3 to Arzawa king Tarhundaraba
EA# 32 Arzawa king Tarhundaraba to Amenhotep 3(?)
EA# 33 Alashiya king to pharaoh #1
EA# 34 Alashiya king to pharaoh #2
EA# 35 Alashiya king to pharaoh #3
EA# 36 Alashiya king to pharaoh #4
EA# 37 Alashiya king to pharaoh #5
EA# 38 Alashiya king to pharaoh #6
EA# 39 Alashiya king to pharaoh #7
EA# 40 Alashiya minister to Egypt minister
EA# 41 Hittite king Suppiluliuma to Huri[a]
EA# 42 Hittite king to pharaoh
EA# 43 Hittite king to pharaoh
EA# 44 Hittite prince Zi[k]ar to pharaoh
EA# 45 Ugarit king [M]istu ... to pharaoh
EA# 46 Ugarit king ... to king
EA# 47 Ugarit king ... to king
EA# 48 Ugarit queen ..[h]epa to pharaohs queen
EA# 49 Ugarit king Niqm-Adda II to pharaoh
EA# 50 woman to her mistress B[i]...
EA#051 Nuhasse king Addunirari to pharaoh
EA#052 Qatna king Akizzi to Amenhotep 3 #1
EA#053 Qatna king Akizzi to Amenhotep 3 #2
EA#054 Qatna king Akizzi to Amenhotep 3 #3
EA#055 Qatna king Akizzi to Amenhotep 3 #4
EA#056 ... to king
EA#057 ...
EA#058
EA#058 [Qat]ihutisupa to king(?) obverse
EA#059 Tunip peoples to pharaoh
EA#060 Amurru king Abdi-Asirta to pharaoh #1
EA#061 Amurru king Abdi-Asirta to pharaoh #2
EA#062 Amurru king Abdi-Asirta to Pahanate
EA#063 Amurru king Abdi-Asirta to pharaoh #3
EA#064 Amurru king Abdi-Asirta to pharaoh #4
EA#065 Amurru king Abdi-Asirta to pharaoh #5
EA#066 --- to king
EA#067 --- to king
EA#068 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #1
EA#069 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Egypt official
EA#070 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #2
EA#071 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Haia(?)
EA#072 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #3
EA#073 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Amanappa #1
EA#074 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #4
EA#075 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #5
EA#076 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #6
EA#077 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Amanappa #2
EA#078 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #7
EA#079 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #8
EA#080 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #9
EA#081 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #10
EA#082 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Amanappa #3
EA#083 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #11
EA#084 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #12
EA#085 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #13
EA#086 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Amanappa #4
EA#087 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Amanappa #5
EA#088 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #14
EA#089 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #15
EA#090 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #16
EA#091 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #17
EA#092 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #18
EA#093 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Amanappa #6
EA#094 Gubla man to pharaoh
EA#095 Gubal king Rib-Addi to chief
EA#096 chief to Rib-Addi
EA#097 Iapah-Addi to Sumu-Hadi
EA#098 Iapah-Addi to Ianhamu
EA#099 pharaoh to Ammia prince(?)
EA#100 Irqata peoples
EA#1001 Tagi to Lab-Aya
EA#101 Gubla man to Egypt official
EA#102 Gubal king Rib-Addi to [Ianha]m[u]
EA#103 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #19
EA#104 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #20
EA#105 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #21
EA#106 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #22
EA#107 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #23
EA#108 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #24
EA#109 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #25
EA#110 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #26
EA#111 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #27
EA#112 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #28
EA#113 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Egypt official
EA#114 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #29
EA#115 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #30
EA#116 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #31
EA#117 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #32
EA#118 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #33
EA#119 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #34
EA#120 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #35
EA#121 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #36
EA#122 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #37
EA#123 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #38
EA#124 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #39
EA#125 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #40
EA#126 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #41
EA#127 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #42
EA#128 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #43
EA#129 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #44
EA#129 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #45
EA#130 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #46
EA#131 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #47
EA#132 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #48
EA#133 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #49
EA#134 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #50
EA#135 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #51
EA#136 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #52
EA#137 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #53
EA#138 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #54
EA#139 Ilirabih & Gubla to pharaoh #1
EA#140 Ilirabih & Gubla to pharaoh #2
EA#141 Beruta king Ammunira to pharaoh #1
EA#142 Beruta king Ammunira to pharaoh #2
EA#143 Beruta king Ammunira to pharaoh #3
EA#144 Zidon king Zimriddi to pharaoh
EA#145 [Z]imrid[a] to an official
EA#146 Tyre king Abi-Milki to pharaoh #1
EA#147 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #2
EA#148 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #3
EA#149 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #4
EA#150 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #5
EA#151 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #6
EA#152 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #7
EA#153 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #8
EA#154 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #9
EA#155 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #10
EA#156 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #1
EA#157 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #2
EA#158 Amurru king Aziri to Dudu #1
EA#159 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #3
EA#160 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #4
EA#161 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #5
EA#162 pharaoh to Amurra prince
EA#163 pharaoh to ...
EA#164 Amurru king Aziri to Dudu #2
EA#165 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #6
EA#166 Amurru king Aziri to Hai
EA#167 Amurru king Aziri to (Hai #2?)
EA#168 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #7
EA#169 Amurru son of Aziri to an Egypt official
EA#170 Ba-Aluia & Battiilu
EA#171 Amurru son of Aziri to pharaoh
EA#172 ---
EA#173 ... to king
EA#174 Bieri of Hasabu
EA#175 Ildaja of Hazi to king
EA#176 Abdi-Risa
EA#177 Guddasuna king Jamiuta
EA#178 Hibija to a chief
EA#179 ... to king
EA#180 ... to king
EA#181 ... to king
EA#182 Mittani king Shuttarna to pharaoh #1
EA#183 Mittani king Shuttarna to pharaoh #2
EA#184 Mittani king Shuttarna to pharaoh #3
EA#185 Hazi king Majarzana to king
EA#186 Majarzana of Hazi to king #2
EA#187 Satija of ... to king
EA#188 ... to king
EA#189 Qadesh mayor Etakkama
EA#190 pharaoh to Qadesh mayor Etakkama(?)
EA#191 Ruhiza king Arzawaija to king
EA#192 Ruhiza king Arzawaija to king #2
EA#193 Dijate to king
EA#194 Damascus mayor Biryawaza to king #1
EA#195 Damascus mayor Biryawaza to king #2
EA#196 Damascus mayor Biryawaza to king #3
EA#197 Damascus mayor Biryawaza to king #4
EA#198 Ara[ha]ttu of Kumidi to king
EA#199 ... the king
EA#200 servant to king
EA#2001 Sealants
EA#2002 Sealants
EA#201 Artemanja of Ziribasani to king
EA#202 Amajase to king
EA#203 Abdi-Milki of Sashimi
EA#204 prince of Qanu to king
EA#205 Gubbu prince to king
EA#206 prince of Naziba to king
EA#207 Ipteh ... to king
EA#208 ... to Egypt official or king
EA#209 Zisamimi to king
EA#210 Zisami[mi] to Amenhotep IV
EA#2100 Carchemish king to Ugarit king Asukwari
EA#211 Zitrijara to king #1
EA#2110 Ewiri-Shar to Plsy
EA#212 Zitrijara to king #2
EA#213 Zitrijara to king #3
EA#214 ... to king
EA#215 Baiawa to king #1
EA#216 Baiawa to king #2
EA#217 A[h]... to king
EA#218 ... to king
EA#219 ... to king
EA#220 Nukurtuwa of (?) [Z]unu to king
EA#221 Wiktazu to king #1
EA#222 pharaoh to Intaruda
EA#222 Wik[tazu] to king #2
EA#223 En[g]u[t]a to king
EA#224 Sum-Add[a] to king
EA#225 Sum-Adda of Samhuna to king
EA#226 Sipturi_ to king
EA#227 Hazor king
EA#228 Hazor king Abdi-Tirsi
EA#229 Abdi-na-... to king
EA#230 Iama to king
EA#231 ... to king
EA#232 Acco king Zurata to pharaoh
EA#233 Acco king Zatatna to pharaoh #1
EA#234 Acco king Zatatna to pharaoh #2
EA#235 Zitatna/(Zatatna) to king
EA#236 ... to king
EA#237 Bajadi to king
EA#238 Bajadi
EA#239 Baduzana
EA#240 ... to king
EA#241 Rusmania to king
EA#242 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #1
EA#243 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #2
EA#244 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #3
EA#245 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #4
EA#246 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #5
EA#247 Megiddo king Biridija or Jasdata
EA#248 Ja[sd]ata to king
EA#248 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh
EA#249
EA#249 Addu-Ur-sag to king
EA#250 Addu-Ur-sag to king
EA#2500 Shechem
EA#251 ... to Egypt official
EA#252 Labaja to king
EA#253 Labaja to king
EA#254 Labaja to king
EA#255 Mut-Balu or Mut-Bahlum to king
EA#256 Mut-Balu to Ianhamu
EA#257 Balu-Mihir to king #1
EA#258 Balu-Mihir to king #2
EA#259 Balu-Mihir to king #3
EA#260 Balu-Mihir to king #4
EA#261 Dasru to king #1
EA#262 Dasru to king #2
EA#263 ... to lord
EA#264 Gezer leader Tagi to pharaoh #1
EA#265 Gezer leader Tagi to pharaoh #2
EA#266 Gezer leader Tagi to pharaoh #3
EA#267 Gezer mayor Milkili to pharaoh #1
EA#268 Gezer mayor Milkili to pharaoh #2
EA#269 Gezer mayor Milkili to pharaoh #3
EA#270 Gezer mayor Milkili to pharaoh #4
EA#271 Gezer mayor Milkili to pharaoh #5
EA#272 Sum. .. to king
EA#273 Ba-Lat-Nese to king
EA#274 Ba-Lat-Nese to king #2
EA#275 Iahazibada to king #1
EA#276 Iahazibada to king #2
EA#277 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #1
EA#278 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #2
EA#279 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #3
EA#280 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #3
EA#281 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #4
EA#282 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #5
EA#283 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #6
EA#284 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #7
EA#285 Jerusalem king Abdi-Hiba to pharaoh
EA#286 Jerusalem king AbdiHiba to pharaoh
EA#287 Jerusalem king AbdiHiba to pharaoh
EA#288 Jerusalem king AbdiHiba to pharaoh
EA#289 Jerusalem king AbdiHiba to pharaoh
EA#290 Jerusalem king AbdiHiba to pharaoh
EA#290 Qiltu king Suwardata to king
EA#291 ... to ...
EA#292 Gezer mayor Addudani to pharaoh #1
EA#293 Gezer mayor Addudani to pharaoh #2
EA#294 Gezer mayor Addudani to pharaoh #3
EA#295
EA#295 Gezer mayor Addudani to pharaoh #4
EA#296 Gaza king Iahtiri
EA#297 Gezer mayor Iapah[i] to pharaoh #1
EA#298 Gezer mayor Iapahi to pharaoh #2
EA#299 Gezer mayor Iapahi to pharaoh #3
EA#300 Gezer mayor Iapahi to pharaoh #4
EA#301 Subandu to king #1
EA#302 Subandu to king #2
EA#303 Subandu to king #3
EA#304 Subandu to king #4
EA#305 Subandu to king #5
EA#306 Subandu to king #6
EA#307 ... to king
EA#308 ... to king
EA#309 ... to king
EA#310 ... to king
EA#311 ... to king
EA#312 ... to king
EA#313 ... to king
EA#314 Jursa king Pu-Ba-Lu to pharaoh #1
EA#315 Jursa king PuBaLu to pharaoh #2
EA#316 Jursa king PuBaLu to pharaoh
EA#317 Dagantakala to king #1
EA#318 Dagantakala to king #2
EA#319 A[h]tirumna king Zurasar to king
EA#320 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #1
EA#321 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #2
EA#322 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #3
EA#323 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #4
EA#324 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #5
EA#325 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #6
EA#326 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #7
EA#327 ... the king
EA#328 Lakis mayor Iabniilu to pharaoh
EA#329 Lakis king Zimridi to pharaoh
EA#330 Lakis mayor Sipti-Ba-Lu to pharaoh #1
EA#331 Lakis mayor SiptiBaLu to pharaoh #2
EA#332 Lakis mayor SiptiBaLu to pharaoh #3
EA#333 Ebi to a prince
EA#334 ---dih of Zuhra [-?] to king
EA#335 --- [of Z]uhr[u] to king
EA#336 Hiziri to king #1
EA#337 Hiziri to king #2
EA#338 Zi. .. to king
EA#339 ... to king
EA#340 ...
EA#341 ...
EA#342 ...
EA#356 myth of Adapa and the South Wind
EA#357 myth the Ereskigal and Nergal
EA#358 myth fragments
EA#359 myth Epic of king of Battle
EA#360 ...
EA#361 ...
EA#364 Aiab to king
EA#365 Megiddo king Biridiya to pharaoh
EA#367 pharaoh to Endaruta of Akshapa
EA#xxx Amenhotep III to Milkili
H#3100 Tell el-Hesi
P#3200 Pella prince Mut-Balu to Yanhamu
P#3210 Lion Woman to king
T#3002 Amenhotep to Taanach king Rewassa
T#3005 Amenhotep to Taanach king Rewassa
T#3006 Amenhotep to Taanach king Rewassa
U#4001 Ugarit king Niqmaddu

Chronology[edit]

William L. Moran summarizes the state of the chronology of these tablets as follows:

Despite a long history of inquiry, the chronology of the Amarna letters, both relative and absolute, presents many problems, some of bewildering complexity, that still elude definitive solution. Consensus obtains only about what is obvious, certain established facts, and these provide only a broad framework within which many and often quite different reconstructions of the course of events reflected in the Amarna letters are possible and have been defended. ...The Amarna archive, it is now generally agreed, spans at most about thirty years, perhaps only fifteen or so.[4]

From the internal evidence, the earliest possible date for this correspondence is the final decade of the reign of Amenhotep III, who ruled from 1388 to 1351 BC (or 1391 to 1353 BC), possibly as early as this king's 30th regnal year; the latest date any of these letters were written is the desertion of the city of Amarna, commonly believed to have happened in the second year of the reign of Tutankhamun later in the same century in 1332 BC. Moran notes that some scholars believe one tablet, EA 16, may have been addressed to Tutankhamun's successor Ay.[5] However, this speculation appears improbable because the Amarna archives were closed by Year 2 of Tutankhamun, when this king transferred Egypt's capital from Amarna to Thebes.

The quotes and phrases[edit]

A small number of the Amarna letters are in the class of poetry. An example is EA 153, (EA is for 'el Amarna'). EA 153, entitled: "Ships on hold", from Abi-Milku of Tyre is a short, 20-line letter. Lines 6-8, and 9-11 are parallel phrases, each ending with "...before the troops of the king, my lord."-('before', then line 8, line 11). Both sentences are identical, and repetitive, with only the subject statement changing.

The entire corpus of Amarna letters has many standard phrases. It also has some phrases, and quotations used only once. Some are parables: (EA 252: "...when an ant is pinched (struck), does it not fight back and bite the hand of the man that struck it?"....)

Bird in a Cage[edit]

A bird in a cage (Trap)Rib-Hadda subcorpus of letters. (Rib-Hadda was trapped in Gubla-(Byblos), unable to move freely.)

"A brick may move.."[edit]

A brick may move from under its partner, still I will not move from under the feet of the king, my lord.—Used in letters EA 266, 292, and 296. EA 292 by Adda-danu of Gazru.

"For the lack of a cultivator.."[edit]

"For the lack of a cultivator, my field is like a woman without a husband."—Rib-Hadda letter EA 75

"Hale like the Sun..."[edit]

"And know that the King-(pharaoh) is Hale like the Sun in the Sky. For his troops and his chariots in multitude all goes very well...."—See: Endaruta, for the Short Form; See: Milkilu, for a Long Form. Also found in EA 99: entitled: "From the Pharaoh to a vassal". (with addressee damaged)

"I looked this way, and I looked..."[edit]

"I looked this way, and I looked that way, and there was no light. Then I looked towards the king, my lord, and there was light."—EA 266 by Tagi (Ginti mayor); EA 296 by Yahtiru.

"May the Lady of Gubla.."[edit]

"May the Lady of Gubla grant power to the king, my lord."—varieties of the phrase in the Rib-Hadda letters

a pot held in pledge[edit]

a pot held in pledge—The Pot of a Debt. EA 292 by Adda-danu of Gazru.

7 times and 7 times again[edit]

7 times and 7 times—Over and over again
7 times plus 7—EA 189, See: "Etakkama of Kadesh"(title)-(Qidšu)

I fall ... 7 times and 7..."on the back and on the stomach"[edit]

I fall, at the feet, ... 7 times and 7 times, "on the back and on the stomach"—EA 316, by Pu-Ba'lu, and used in numerous letters to pharaoh. See: Commissioner: Tahmašši.

when an ant is struck..[edit]

"...when an ant is pinched (struck), does it not fight back and bite the hand of the man that struck it?"—A phrase used by Labayu defending his actions of overtaking cities, EA 252. Title: "Sparing one's enemies".

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Moran, William L. (1992). The Amarna Letters. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. p.xiv. ISBN 0-8018-4251-4. 
  2. ^ Moran, p.xv
  3. ^ Moran, pp.xiii-xiv
  4. ^ Moran, p.xxxiv
  5. ^ Moran, p.xxxv, n.123

References[edit]

External links[edit]