Dream City (1996), rusting steel, at the Yorkshire Sculpture Park
|Birth name||Anthony Alfred Caro|
8 March 1924|
New Malden, England
|Died||23 October 2013
|Spouse||Sheila Girling (m. 1949; 2 children)|
|Training||Christ's College, Cambridge, Regent Street Polytechnic|
|Movement||Constructed steel sculpture, abstract art, modernism|
Order of Merit (2000)
Sir Anthony Alfred Caro, OM, CBE (8 March 1924 – 23 October 2013) was an English abstract sculptor whose work is characterised by assemblages of metal using 'found' industrial objects. His style was of the modernist school, having worked with Henry Moore early in his career. He was lauded as the greatest British sculptor of his generation.
Early life and education
Caro was born in New Malden, England and was the youngest of three children. When Caro was 3, his father, a stockbroker, moved the family to a farm in Churt, Surrey. Caro was educated at Charterhouse School where his housemaster introduced him to Charles Wheeler. In the holidays he worked in Wheeler's studio. He later earned a degree in engineering at Christ's College, Cambridge. In 1946, after time in the Royal Navy, he studied sculpture at the Regent Street Polytechnic before pursuing further studies at the Royal Academy Schools from 1947 until 1952.
Anthony Caro encountered modernism when working as an assistant to Henry Moore in the 1950s. After being introduced to the American sculptor David Smith in the early 1960s, he abandoned his earlier figurative work and started constructing sculptures by welding or bolting together collections of prefabricated metal, such as I-beams, steel plates and meshes. Often the finished piece is then painted in a bold flat colour.
Caro found international success in the late 1950s and for a time was popular in the US. He is often credited with the significant innovation of removing the sculpture from its plinth, although Smith and Brâncuși had both previously taken steps in the same direction. Caro's sculptures are usually self-supporting and sit directly on the floor. In doing so, they remove a barrier between the work and the viewer, who is invited to approach and interact with the sculpture from all sides.
In 1982, Caro was trying to organise an exhibition of British abstract art in South African townships when he met Robert Loder. In 1981, when staying in New York State, the pair developed the idea of running workshops for professional artists, which became the Triangle Arts Trust. They held the first Triangle workshop in 1982 for thirty sculptors and painters from the US, the UK and Canada at Pine Plains, New York.
In the 1980s, Caro's work changed direction by introducing more literal elements with a series of figures drawn from classical Greece. After visiting Greece in 1985, and closely studying classical friezes, he embarked on a series of large-scale narrative works, including “After Olympia,” a panorama more than 75 feet long, inspired by the temple to Zeus at Olympia. Latterly he has attempted large scale installation pieces, one of which, Sea Music, stands on the quay at Poole, Dorset.
In the early 2000s, his work featured nearly life-size equestrian figures built from fragments of wood and terra cotta on gymnasts vaulting horses. In 2008, Caro opened his "Chapel of Light" installation in the Saint Jean-Baptiste Church of Bourbourg (France), and exhibited four figurative head sculptures at the National Portrait Gallery, London. In 2011, the Metropolitan Museum of Art installed five works by Caro on their rooftop. As of 2012, Caro was working on an immense, multipart sculpture that would occupy three blocks of Midtown Park Avenue.
Caro was also influential as a tutor at Saint Martins School of Art in London, inspiring a younger generation of British abstract sculptors, led by former students and assistants including Phillip King, Tim Scott, William G. Tucker, Peter Hide, and Richard Deacon; as well as a reaction group including Bruce McLean, Barry Flanagan, Richard Long, David Hall and Gilbert and George. He and several former students were asked to join the seminal 1966 show at the Jewish Museum in New York entitled, Primary Structures representing the British influence on the "New Art". Caro taught at Bennington College from 1963 to 1965, along with painter Jules Olitski and sculptor David Smith.
Architecture and design
Caro also collaborated with celebrated architects, notably Frank Gehry, with whom he constructed a wooden village New York in 1987. With Norman Foster and the engineer Chris Wise, he designed the London Millennium Footbridge spanning the Thames between St. Paul’s Cathedral and the Tate Modern.
Since the 1950s, Caro's work has been featured in many museums and galleries worldwide.
In 1956 he held his first solo exhibition at the Galleria del Naviglio in Milan, and the following year he had his first solo show in London at the Gimpel Fils Gallery. In 1963, the Whitechapel Art Gallery organized a solo show of Caro's work that brought the artist important critical attention. In 2004 to honour his 80th birthday, seven institutions including the C. Grimaldis Gallery in Baltimore and the Artemis Greenberg van Doren and Garth Clark Gallery in New York, Galerie Josine Bokhoven in Amsterdam, Mitchell-Innes & Nash in New York, Galerie Daniel Templon in Paris and the Tate Britain held exhibitions of his work.
The C. Grimaldis Gallery has had a strong relationship with the artist for more than three decades, producing four solo exhibitions in twenty five years. A fifth exhibition is scheduled for fall of 2012. Grimaldis in particular shows his small scale table pieces and works in bronze, which, as noted by John Dorsey in the Baltimore Sun, "is in a line of work that descends from the 1960s and that grew out of Caro's desire to create table pieces that would not be seen as merely smaller versions of large sculptures."
Major museum exhibitions include “Anthony Caro: A Retrospective,” Museum of Modern Art, New York (1975, traveled to Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, and Museum of Fine Arts, Boston); “Anthony Caro,” Museum of Contemporary Art, Tokyo (1995); “Anthony Caro,” Tate Britain, London (2005); three museums in Pas-de-Calais, France (2008), to accompany the opening of his Chapel of Light at Bourbourg; and “Anthony Caro on the Roof,” Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (2011). Nearly 40 years since an American museum mounted a major show devoted to his work, the Yale Center for British Art presented "Caro: Close Up" in 2012.
Caro was knighted in 1987 and received the Order of Merit in May 2000. He was awarded many prizes, including the Praemium Imperiale for Sculpture in Tokyo in 1992 and the Lifetime Achievement Award for Sculpture in 1997.
In 1949, Caro married the painter Sheila Girling and they had two sons together, Timothy (born 1951) and Paul (born 1958).
Caro was 89 when he died of a heart attack on 23 October 2013. He was lauded as a "gentle man with a pioneering spirit" by BBC arts editor Will Gompertz and "one of the greatest sculptors in the second half of the twentieth century" by Royal Academy of Arts chief executive Charles Saumarez Smith.
Publications on Caro and his works
- Barker, Ian, Anthony Caro: Quest for the New Sculpture (Aldershot: Lund Humphries, 2004) ISBN 978-0-85331-910-8.
- Reid, Mary, Anthony Caro: Drawing in Space (Farnham: Lund Humphries, 2009) ISBN 978-1-84822-030-0.
- Wilkin, Karen, Anthony Caro: Interior and Exterior (Farnham: Lund Humphries, 2009) ISBN 978-1-84822-031-7.
- Julius Bryant, Julius, Anthony Caro: Figurative and Narrative Sculpture (Farnham: Lund Humphries, 2009) ISBN 978-1-84822-032-4.
- Westley Smith, H.F., Anthony Caro: Small Sculptures (Farnham, Lund Humphries, 2010) ISBN 978-1-84822-051-5.
- Moorhouse, Paul, Anthony Caro: Presence (Farnham, Lund Humphries, 2010) ISBN 978-1-84822-053-9.
- Saunders, Wade, Anthony Caro Recent Sculptures (Baltimore, C. Grimaldis Gallery, 1987).
- Millard, Charles, Anthony Caro Works of the 1980s (Baltimore, C. Grimaldis Gallery, 1989).
- Payton, Neal, "Anthony Caro Sculpture: Towards Architecture, Recent Bronzes" (Baltimore, C. Grimaldis Gallery, 1994) ASIN B0006RO25G.
- Adams, Virginia K., "Anthony Caro A Survey" (Baltimore, C. Grimaldis Gallery, 2004) ASIN B003X59K3C.
- "Sculptor Sir Anthony Caro dies". BBC News. 24 October 2013. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- Lynton, Norbert (24 October 2013). "Sir Anthony Caro obituary". Guardian. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- William Grimes (October 24, 2013), Anthony Caro, Who Followed Sculpture on a ‘Path to Abstraction,’ Dies at 89 New York Times.
- Sir Anthony Caro, OM The Daily Telegraph, 24 October 2013.
- "Anthony Caro dies at 89; sculptor devised 'new language' for medium". LA Times. 24 October 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
- Geraldine Norman (31 July 1994). "A collector who backs his own hunches: Trends mean nothing to Robert Loder. Abstract Expressionism is his great love and he wants us to share it". Independent.co.uk. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- Roberta Smith (December 13, 2002), Anthony Caro -- 'Barbarians' New York Times.
- "Anthony Caro Resume". C. GRIMALDIS GALLERY. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- Anthony Caro Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice.
- Anthony Caro: Park Avenue Series, June 6 - August 23, 2013 Gagosian Gallery, London.
- Sylviane Gold (7 December 2012), Small-Scale Works That Surprise at Every Turn New York Times.
- Anthony Caro Gagosian Gallery.
- Sir Anthony Caro (b. 1924) Hollis Taggart Galleries, New York.
- Clark, Nick (24 October 2013). "Sculptor Sir Anthony Caro dies, aged 89". Independant. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- Media related to Anthony Caro at Wikimedia Commons
- Official website
- Anthony Caro in the National Gallery of Australia's Kenneth Tyler Collection
- Anthony Caro tells his life story at Web of Stories
- Caro interview with Peter Murray, Yorkshire Sculpture Park, 2000
- Exhibition at the Tate Britain, 2005
- Anthony Caro at Mitchell-Innes & Nash
- Caro's work in focus on Tate Online
- Sir Anthony Caro on his metal, The Independent, 2008
- Represented by C. Grimaldis Gallery, Baltimore, Maryland