Australian referendum, 1967 (Aboriginals)
The Australian referendum of 27 May 1967, called by the Holt Government, approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to Indigenous Australians. Technically it was a vote on the Constitution Alteration (Aboriginals) 1967, which became law on 10 August 1967 following the results of the referendum. The amendments were overwhelmingly endorsed, winning 90.77% of votes cast and carrying in all six states. The other question put in the referendum, on the composition of parliament, was rejected, receiving less than half as much support.
On 7 April 1965, the Menzies Cabinet decided that it would seek to repeal Section 127 of the Constitution at the same time as it sought to amend the nexus provision, but made no firm plans or timetable for such action. In August 1965, Attorney-General Billy Snedden proposed to Cabinet that abolition of Section 127 was inappropriate unless Section 51(xxvi) was simultaneously amended to remove the words "other than the aboriginal race in any state". He was rebuffed, but gained agreement when he made a similar submission to the Holt Cabinet in 1966. In the meantime, his Liberal colleague Billy Wentworth had introduced a private member's bill proposing inter alia to amend Section 51(xxvi).
Amendments to the Constitution
In 1967, voters were asked to approve, together, changes to both of the provisions in which Aboriginal People were mentioned in the Constitution—sections 51(xxvi) and 127.
Section 51 begins:
- The Parliament shall, subject to this Constitution, have power to make laws for the peace, order, and good government of the Commonwealth with respect to:
And the extraordinary clauses that follow (ordinarily referred to as "heads of power") list most of the legislative powers of the federal parliament. The amendment deleted the text in bold from Clause xxvi (known as the "race" or "races" power):
- The people of any race, other than the aboriginal race in any State, for whom it is deemed necessary to make special laws
This gave the Commonwealth parliament power to legislate with respect to Aborigines (read: "Indigenous") living in a State as well as those living in a federal Territory. The intent was that this new power for the Commonwealth would be used beneficially, yet despite several opportunities, the High Court has never resolved that it cannot also be used detrimentally.
Section 127 was wholly removed. Headed "Aborigines not to be counted in reckoning population", it had read:
- In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted.
This section should be read in conjunction with Section 24 and Section 51(xi). The section related to calculating the population of the States and Territories for the purpose of allocating seats in the lower house of the federal parliament and per capita Commonwealth grants. The context of its introduction was to prevent Queensland and Western Australia from using their large Aboriginal populations to gain extra seats or extra funds. The 'statistics' power in Section 51(xi) allowed the Commonwealth to collect information on Aboriginal people.
It is frequently stated that the 1967 referendum gave Aboriginal people Australian citizenship and that it gave them the right to vote in federal elections. Neither of these statements is correct. Aboriginal people became Australian citizens in 1949, when a separate Australian citizenship was created for the first time (before that time all Australians, including Aborigines, were British subjects). The Commonwealth Electoral Act 1949 gave Aborigines the right to vote in federal elections if they were able to vote in their state elections, or if they had served in the defence force. However, Aboriginal people in Queensland were disqualified from voting at that time, and in Western Australia and the Northern Territory the right was conditional. The Commonwealth Electoral Act 1962 gave all Aborigines the option of enrolling to vote in federal elections. It was not until the Commonwealth Electoral Amendment Act 1983 that voting became compulsory for Aborigines as it was for other Australians. They got the vote in WA state elections in 1962 and Queensland state elections in 1965.
But one result of the two constitutional amendments was that Indigenous Australians ceased to be mentioned at all in the national constitution.
It is also sometimes mistakenly stated that the 1967 Referendum overturned a "Flora and Fauna Act", which supposedly mandated that indigenous Australians were governed and managed under the same portfolio as Australian wildlife – for example, as stated by the Australian Broadcasting Commission's Mark Colvin in 2007. However, no federal legislation existed under that name.
DO YOU APPROVE the proposed law for the alteration of the Constitution entitled— 'An Act to alter the Constitution so as to omit certain words relating to the People of the Aboriginal Race in any State and so that Aboriginals are to be counted in reckoning the Population'?
|New South Wales||2,315,828||2,166,507||1,949,036||91.46%||182,010||8.54%||35,461|
|Obtained majority in all six States and an overall majority (i.e. including voters in Territories) of 4,656,106 votes.|
Ninety percent of voters voted yes, and the overwhelming support gave the Federal Government a clear mandate to implement policies to benefit Aboriginal people. A lot of misconceptions have arisen as to the outcomes of the referendum, some as a result of it taking on a symbolic meaning during a period of increasing Aboriginal self-confidence. It was some five years before any real change occurred as a result of the referendum but federal legislation has since been enacted covering land rights, discriminatory practices, financial assistance and preservation of cultural heritage.
The constitutional amendments allowed the Federal Parliament to make special laws with regard to Aboriginal Australians. Aboriginal people already had the right to vote in federal and state elections (in South Australia since before Federation, in federal elections since 1962, and in all state elections.
The referendum had two main outcomes. The first was to alter the legal boundaries within which the Federal Government could act. The Federal Parliament was given a constitutional head-of-power under which it could make special laws "for" Aboriginal people (for their benefit or detriment) in addition to other "races". The Australian Constitution states that federal law prevails over state law, where they are inconsistent, so the Federal Parliament could, if it so chose, enact legislation that would end discrimination against Aborigines by state governments. However, during the first five years following the referendum the Federal Government did not use this new power.
The other key outcome of the referendum was to provide Aboriginal people with a symbol of their political and moral rights. The referendum occurred at a time when Aboriginal activism was accelerating and it was used as a kind of "historical shorthand" for all the relevant political events of the time, such as the demands for land rights by the Gurindji, the equal-pay case for pastoral workers, and the "Freedom Rides" to end segregation in New South Wales. This use as a symbol for a period of activism and change has contributed to the misconceptions about the effects of the constitutional changes themselves.
The benefits of the referendum began to flow to Aboriginal people in 1972. On 26 January 1972, Aboriginal peoples erected the Aboriginal Tent Embassy on the lawns of the Federal Parliament building in Canberra to express their frustration at the lack of progress on land rights and racial discrimination issues. This became a major confrontation that raised Aboriginal affairs high on the political agenda in the federal election later that year. One week after gaining office, the Whitlam Government (1972–1975) established a Royal Commission into land rights for Aborigines in the Northern Territory under Justice Woodward. Its principal recommendations, delivered in May 1974, were: that Aborigines should have inalienable title to reserve lands; that regional Land Councils should be established; to establish a fund to purchase land with which Aborigines had a traditional connection, or that would provide economic or other benefits; prospecting and mineral exploration on Aboriginal land should only occur with their consent or that of the Federal Government if the national interest required it; entry onto Aboriginal land should require a permit issued by the regional Land Council. The recommendations were framed in terms to enable application outside the Northern Territory. The Federal Government agreed to implement the principal recommendations and in 1975 the House of Representatives passed the Aboriginal Councils and Associations Bill and the Aboriginal Land (Northern Territory) Bill but the Senate had not considered them by the time parliament was dissolved in 1975.
The following year, the Fraser government (1975–1983) amended the Aboriginal Land (Northern Territory) Bill by introducing the Aboriginal Land Rights (Northern Territory) Bill. The new bill made a number of significant changes such as limitation on the operations and boundaries of Land Councils; giving Northern Territory law effect on Aboriginal land, thereby enabling land rights to be eroded; removing the power of Land Councils to issue permits to non-Aborigines; allowing public roads to be built on Aboriginal land without consent. It is significant however that this legislation was implemented at all, given the political allegiances of the Fraser Government, and shows the level of community support for social justice for Aborigines at the time.
The Whitlam Government used its constitutional powers to overrule racially discriminatory State legislation. On reserves in Queensland, they were forbidden to gamble, use foul language, undertake traditional cultural practices, indulge in adultery, or drink alcohol. They were also required to work without payment. In the Aboriginal Courts in Queensland the same official acted as judge as well as the prosecuting counsel. Defendants almost invariably pleaded 'guilty' as pleas of 'not guilty' were more than likely to lead to a longer sentence. The Whitlam Government, using the race power, enacted the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (Queensland Discriminatory Laws) Act 1975 to override the State laws and eliminate racial discrimination against Aborigines. No federal government ever enforced this Act.
The race power was also used by the Whitlam Government to positively discriminate in favour of Aboriginal people. It established schemes whereby Aboriginal people could obtain housing, loans, emergency accommodation and tertiary education allowances. It also increased funding for the Aboriginal Legal Service enabling twenty-five offices to be established throughout Australia.
The race power gained in the 1967 referendum has been used in several other pieces of significant Federal legislation. One of the pieces of legislation enacted to protect the Gordon River catchment used the race power but applied it to all people in Australia. The law prohibited anyone from damaging sites, relics and artefacts of Aboriginal settlement in the Gordon River catchment. In the Tasmanian Dam Case, the High Court held that even though this law applied to all people and not only to Aborigines, it still constituted a special law. In the 1992 Mabo judgement, the High Court established the existence of Native Title in Australian Common Law. Using the race powers, the Keating Government enacted the Native Title Act 1993 and successfully defended a High Court challenge from the Queensland Government.
One last impact of the referendum has been the benefits flowing from the removal of the prohibition on counting Aboriginal people in the population statistics. Without official statistics as to their number, age structure or distribution, it was not possible for government agencies to establish soundly based policies for the benefit of Aboriginal people, especially in the area of health. The existence of census data from 1971 onwards that showed the demographics of the Aboriginal population enabled the calculation of key health indicators such as infant mortality rates and life expectancy. Aboriginal life expectancy, especially for males, was significantly lower than the average population. Infant mortality rates in the early 1970s were among the highest in the world. They declined significantly by the early 1990s but still remain much higher than the total population, especially in remote areas.
The 1967 referendum has acquired a symbolic meaning in relation to a period of rapid social change during the 1960s. As a result it has been credited with initiating political and social change that was the result of other factors. The real legislative and political impact of the 1967 referendum has been to enable, and thereby compel, the federal government to take action in the area of Aboriginal Affairs. Federal governments with a broader national and international agenda have attempted to end the discriminatory practices of state governments such as Queensland and to introduce policies that encourage self-determination and financial security for Aborigines However, the effectiveness of these policies has been tempered by an unwillingness of most federal governments to deal with the difficult issues involved in tackling recalcitrant state governments
When John Howard's Coalition government came to power in 1996, it intervened in the Hindmarsh Island bridge controversy with legislation that introduced an exception to the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Heritage Protection Act 1984 in order to allow the bridge to proceed. The Ngarrindjeri challenged the new legislation in the High Court on the basis that it was discriminatory to declare that the Heritage Protection Act applied to sites everywhere but Hindmarsh Island, and that such discrimination – essentially on the basis of race – had been disallowed since the Commonwealth was granted the power to make laws with respect to the "Aboriginal race" as a result of the 1967 Referendum. The High Court decided, by a majority, that the amended s.51(xxvi) of the Constitution still did not restrict the Commonwealth parliament to making laws solely for the benefit of any particular "race", but still empowered the parliament to make laws that were to the detriment of any race. This decision effectively meant that those people who had believed that they were casting a vote against the discrimination of Indigenous people in 1967 had in fact allowed the Commonwealth to participate in the discrimination against Indigenous people which had been practised by the States.
Proposed new referendum
In 2010 the federal government established an "expert panel" to inquire into changing the federal constitution so that Australia's Indigenous peoples would be recognised in it. This would require a new referendum under section 128 of the Australian Constitution. After wide-ranging consultation and receiving thousands of submissions, the panel delivered its report to Prime Minister Julia Gillard on 19 January 2012. The report recommends the removal of Constitution sections 25 and 51(xxvi), and the insertion of new sections 51A, 116A and 127A:
Section 51A Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples
- Recognising that the continent and its islands now known as Australia were first occupied by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples;
- Acknowledging the continuing relationship of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples with their traditional lands and waters;
- Respecting the continuing cultures, languages and heritage of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples;
- Acknowledging the need to secure the advancement of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples;
- the Parliament shall, subject to this Constitution, have power to make laws for the peace, order and good government of the Commonwealth with respect to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.
Section 116A Prohibition of racial discrimination
- (1) The Commonwealth, a State or a Territory shall not discriminate on the grounds of race, colour or ethnic or national origin.
- (2) Subsection (1) does not preclude the making of laws or measures for the purpose of overcoming disadvantage, ameliorating the effects of past discrimination, or protecting the cultures, languages or heritage of any group.
Section 127A Recognition of languages
- (1) The national language of the Commonwealth of Australia is English.
- (2) The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages are the original Australian languages, a part of our national heritage.
The panel recommends that there be a single referendum—in which, in particular, removal of s 51(xxvi) and insertion of the new s 51A would be proposed together, so that the validity of legislation that depends upon s 51(xxvi), such as the Native Title Act 1993 (Cth), would switch immediately from s 51(xxvi) to s 51A. The panel seeks a referendum process that will be nationally unifying and not divisive, with an eventual level of public support similar to that in 1967. To that end, it proposes that the referendum be preceded by "a properly resourced public education and awareness program" and "should only proceed when it is likely to be supported by all major political parties, and a majority of State governments". If the federal government were to prefer different changes, the panel advises, it should return to consultation with the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.
On 12 March 2013, with all-party support, the federal parliament passed the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples Recognition Act 2013, which recognises the Indigenous peoples of Australia and requires establishment of a committee to advise on a suitable date for a referendum on these proposals. The process is to be completed within two years.
- Section 51(xxvi) of the Australian Constitution (the race power)
- Australian Aborigines
- Voting rights of Australian Aboriginals
- Marcia Langton, "Reading the Constitution Out Loud". Meanjin 70 (4): 18–32. 2011. Retrieved 10 May 2012. Discusses the 1967 referendum in the light of the proposed new referendum.
- "Constitution Alteration (Aboriginals) 1967". ComLaw. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
- Wendy Lewis; Simon Balderstone John Bowan (2006). Events That Shaped Australia. New Holland. pp. 224–228. ISBN 978-1-74110-492-9.
- "Fact sheet 150 – The 1967 Referendum". National Archives of Australia. Archived from the original on 4 November 2010. Retrieved 9 November 2010.
- Bruce Juddery, "Unsung hero of blacks' progress", Canberra Times, 27 May 1997
- Commonwealth power to legislate on all matters regarding a Territory is contained in Constitution section 122. Regarding Aborigines, this mainly concerns the Northern Territory.
- Williams, George; Brennan, Sean; Lynch, Andrew (2014). "22". Blackshield and Williams Australian Constitutional Law and Theory (6th ed.). Leichhardt, NSW: Federation Press. ISBN 978-1-86287-918-8.
- Haxton, Nance (25 May 2007), Aust commemorates Aboriginal referendum, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, archived from the original on 17 April 2013
- No legislation with that name appears in ComLaw, which contains only federal laws; whether there was such legislation in any state or territory has not been established.
- Image of ballot paper: National Archives of Australia, item barcode 1843611, p 54.
- "Parliamentary Handbook 2008" Retrieved 12 March 2011. Search for "referendums and plebiscites" and download PDF file. Percentages are for valid votes, excluding the invalid ("informal"). Voting in Australian elections and referendums is compulsory for all Australian citizens and for some others.
- 'Wik Bill challenged following Hindmarsh decision’, ABC Radio News, 1 April 1998
- Whitlam 1985, p. 465.
- Gardiner-Garden 2007.
- Whitlam 1985, p. 467.
- Whitlam 1985, pp. 469–470.
- Whitlam 1985, p. 470.
- Broome 1982, pp. 189–190.
- Broome 1982, pp. 178–179.
- Lippmann 1994.
- Broome 1982, p. 179.
- Pilger, J. (1990), A Secret Country, London: Vintage, p. 46
- Whitlam 1985, pp. 473–474.
- G.M. Bates, Environmental Law in Australia, Butterworths Pty Ltd, Sydney 1987
- Whitlam, E.G. (1997), Dragging the Chain 1897-1997: The Second Vincent Lingiari Memorial Lecture, retrieved 31 May 1998
- Lippman 1994, p. 89.
- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Heritage Protection Act 1984 (Cth), retrieved 30 March 2011
- Hindmarsh Island Bridge Act 1997 (Cth), retrieved 30 March 2011
- Kartinyeri v Commonwealth (1998) Retrieved 30 March 2011
- Recognising Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in the Constitution: Report of the Expert Panel, January 2012, ISBN 978-1-921975-30-1
- "Push to recognise indigenous Australians in constitution", Sydney Morning Herald (Sydney), 19 January 2012, retrieved 2013-04-02
- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples Recognition Act 2013 (Cth), retrieved 31 May 2013
- Collaborating for Indigenous Rights: the 1967 Referendum: history and archival resources on the 1967 Referendum, National Museum of Australia, March 2007
- The 1967 Referendum: Fact sheet, National Archives of Australia
- The 1967 Referendum, National Film and Sound Archive
- Australian 1967 Referendum, retrieved 12 March 2011. Contains interviews with Aboriginal campaigners.
- Gardiner-Garden, John (2007), The 1967 Referendum - History and Myths, retrieved 12 March 2011
- Williams, George (2012), "Removing racism from Australia’s constitutional DNA", Alternative Law Journal 37 (3): 151
- Howard, John (15 July 1998). "THE 1967 REFERENDUM" (Press release). Archived from the original on 24 January 2014.
- Broome, R. (1982), Aboriginal Australians, St Leonards: Allen & Unwin
- Lippmann, L. (1994), Generations of Resistance: Mabo and justice, Melbourne: Longman Australia Pty Ltd
- Whitlam, Gough (1985), The Whitlam Government 1972–1975, Ringwood Victoria: Viking
Amendments to the