List of Australian federal by-elections

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This is a list of by-elections and scheduled by-elections for the Australian House of Representatives from its creation in 1901 until the present day.

Casual vacancies in the House of Representatives are filled by by-elections, which may occur when a member of the House of Representatives dies, resigns or for some other reason. When a member of the House of Representatives resigns, he or she would normally tender the resignation to the Speaker. The Speaker has a discretion as to when to call a by-election and may not call one at all, for example, if a general election is imminent. At least 33 days must elapse between the issue by the Speaker of a writ and the date of a by-election, and the Speaker cannot issue the writ until receipt of a formal letter of resignation. A by-election must take place on a Saturday.

Gains for the Australian Labor Party are highlighted in red; for the Liberal Party of Australia and its predecessors (including the Protectionist Party) in blue; for the National Party of Australia and its predecessors in green; and for others in grey.

Brackets around a date indicate that the candidate was unopposed when nominations closed. These candidates were declared "elected unopposed" with effect from the date of the closing of nominations, and there was no need to hold a by-election.


44th Parliament (2013–present)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Griffith 8 February 2014 Kevin Rudd   Labor Terri Butler   Labor Resignation

43rd Parliament (2010–2013)[edit]

No by-elections held

42nd Parliament (2007–2010)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Higgins 5 December 2009 Peter Costello   Liberal Kelly O'Dwyer   Liberal Resignation
Bradfield 5 December 2009 Brendan Nelson   Liberal Paul Fletcher   Liberal Resignation
Lyne 6 September 2008 Mark Vaile   National Rob Oakeshott   Independent Resignation
Mayo 6 September 2008 Alexander Downer   Liberal Jamie Briggs   Liberal Resignation
Gippsland 28 June 2008 Peter McGauran   National Darren Chester   National Resignation

41st Parliament (2004–2007)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Werriwa 19 March 2005 Mark Latham   Labor Chris Hayes   Labor Resignation

40th Parliament (2001–2004)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Cunningham 19 October 2002 Stephen Martin   Labor Michael Organ   Greens Resignation

39th Parliament (1998–2001)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Aston 14 July 2001 Peter Nugent   Liberal Chris Pearce   Liberal Death (myocardial infarction)
Ryan 17 March 2001 John Moore   Liberal Leonie Short   Labor Resignation
Isaacs 12 August 2000 Greg Wilton   Labor Ann Corcoran   Labor Death (suicide)
Holt 6 November 1999 Gareth Evans   Labor Anthony Byrne   Labor Resignation

38th Parliament (1996–1998)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Fraser 1 February 1997 John Langmore   Labor Steve Dargavel   Labor Resignation
Lindsay 19 October 1996 Jackie Kelly   Liberal Jackie Kelly   Liberal Disqualification
Blaxland 15 June 1996 Paul Keating   Labor Michael Hatton   Labor Resignation

37th Parliament (1993–1996)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Wentworth 8 April 1995 John Hewson   Liberal Andrew Thomson   Liberal Resignation
Canberra 25 March 1995 Ros Kelly   Labor Brendan Smyth   Liberal Resignation
Kooyong 19 November 1994 Andrew Peacock   Liberal Petro Georgiou   Liberal Resignation
Mackellar 26 March 1994 Jim Carlton   Liberal Bronwyn Bishop   Liberal Resignation
Warringah 26 March 1994 Michael MacKellar   Liberal Tony Abbott   Liberal Resignation
Bonython 19 March 1994 Neal Blewett   Labor Martyn Evans   Labor Resignation
Fremantle 12 March 1994 John Dawkins   Labor Carmen Lawrence   Labor Resignation
Werriwa 29 January 1994 John Kerin   Labor Mark Latham   Labor Resignation

36th Parliament (1990–1993)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Wills 11 April 1992 Bob Hawke   Labor Phil Cleary   Independent Resignation
Menzies 11 May 1991 Neil Brown   Liberal Kevin Andrews   Liberal Resignation

35th Parliament (1987–1990)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Gwydir 15 April 1989 Ralph Hunt   National John Anderson   National Resignation
Oxley 8 October 1988 Bill Hayden   Labor Les Scott   Labor Resignation
Groom 9 April 1988 Tom McVeigh   National Bill Taylor   Liberal Resignation
Port Adelaide 26 March 1988 Mick Young   Labor Rod Sawford   Labor Resignation
Adelaide 6 February 1988 Chris Hurford   Labor Mike Pratt   Liberal Resignation

34th Parliament (1984–1987)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Scullin 8 February 1986 Harry Jenkins, Sr.   Labor Harry Jenkins   Labor Resignation

33rd Parliament (1983–1984)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Corangamite 18 February 1984 Tony Street   Liberal Stewart McArthur   Liberal Resignation
Hughes 18 February 1984 Les Johnson   Labor Robert Tickner   Labor Resignation
Richmond 18 February 1984 Doug Anthony   National Charles Blunt   National Resignation
Moreton 5 November 1983 Sir James Killen   Liberal Donald Cameron   Liberal Resignation
Bruce 28 May 1983 Sir Billy Snedden   Liberal Ken Aldred   Liberal Resignation
Wannon 7 May 1983 Malcolm Fraser   Liberal David Hawker   Liberal Resignation

32nd Parliament (1980–1983)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Flinders 4 December 1982 Sir Phillip Lynch   Liberal Peter Reith   Liberal Resignation
Lowe 13 March 1982 Sir William McMahon   Liberal Michael Maher   Labor Resignation
Wentworth 11 April 1981 Bob Ellicott   Liberal Peter Coleman   Liberal Resignation
Boothby 21 February 1981 John McLeay   Liberal Steele Hall   Liberal Resignation
Curtin 21 February 1981 Victor Garland   Liberal Allan Rocher   Liberal Resignation
McPherson 21 February 1981 Eric Robinson   Liberal Peter White   Liberal Death (sudden)

31st Parliament (1977–1980)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Grayndler 23 June 1979 Frank Stewart   Labor Leo McLeay   Labor Death (myocardial infarction)
Werriwa 23 September 1978 Gough Whitlam   Labor John Kerin   Labor Resignation

30th Parliament (1975–1977)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Cunningham 25 October 1977 Rex Connor   Labor Stewart West   Labor Death (coronary occlusion)

29th Parliament (1974–1975)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Bass 28 June 1975 Lance Barnard   Labor Kevin Newman   Liberal Resignation

28th Parliament (1972–1974)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Parramatta 22 September 1973 Nigel Bowen   Liberal Philip Ruddock   Liberal Resignation

27th Parliament (1969–1972)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Murray 20 March 1971 Sir John McEwen   Country Bruce Lloyd   Country Resignation
Chisholm 19 September 1970 Sir Wilfrid Kent Hughes   Liberal Tony Staley   Liberal Death
Australian Capital Territory 30 May 1970 Jim Fraser   Labor Kep Enderby   Labor Death (cancer)

26th Parliament (1966–1969)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Bendigo 7 June 1969 Noel Beaton   Labor David Kennedy   Labor Resignation
Gwydir 7 June 1969 Ian Allan   Country Ralph Hunt   Country Resignation
Curtin 19 April 1969 Paul Hasluck   Liberal Victor Garland   Liberal Resignation
Higgins 24 February 1968 Harold Holt   Liberal John Gorton   Liberal Presumed death (drowning)
Capricornia 30 September 1967 George Gray   Labor Doug Everingham   Labor Death (pulmonary oedema)
Corio 22 July 1967 Hubert Opperman   Liberal Gordon Scholes   Labor Resignation

25th Parliament (1963–1966)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Kooyong 2 April 1966 Sir Robert Menzies   Liberal Andrew Peacock   Liberal Resignation
Dawson 26 February 1966 George Shaw   Country Rex Patterson   Labor Death
Riverina 27 February 1965 Hugh Roberton   Country Bill Armstrong   Country Resignation
Robertson 5 December 1964 Roger Dean   Liberal William Bridges-Maxwell   Liberal Resignation
Angas 20 June 1964 Sir Alec Downer   Liberal Geoffrey Giles   Liberal Resignation
Parramatta 20 June 1964 Sir Garfied Barwick   Liberal Nigel Bowen   Liberal Resignation
Denison 15 February 1964 Athol Townley   Liberal Adrian Gibson   Liberal Death (long illness)

24th Parliament (1961–1963)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
East Sydney 28 September 1963 Eddie Ward   Labor Leonard Devine   Labor Death (heart attack)
Grey 1 June 1963 Edgar Russell   Labor Jack Mortimer   Labor Death
Batman 1 September 1962 Alan Bird   Labor Sam Benson   Labor Death

23rd Parliament (1958–1961)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Higinbotham 10 December 1960 Frank Timson   Liberal Don Chipp   Liberal Death
Calare 5 November 1960 John Howse   Liberal John England   Country Resignation
Balaclava 16 July 1960 Percy Joske   Liberal Ray Whittorn   Liberal Resignation
Bendigo 16 July 1960 Percy Clarey   Labor Noel Beaton   Labor Death
Hunter 9 April 1960 H. V. Evatt   Labor Bert James   Labor Resignation
La Trobe 9 April 1960 Richard Casey   Liberal John Jess   Liberal Resignation

22nd Parliament (1955–1958)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Parramatta 8 March 1958 Howard Beale   Liberal Sir Garfield Barwick   Liberal Resignation
Richmond 15 September 1957 Larry Anthony   Country Doug Anthony   Country Death
Wentworth 8 December 1956 Sir Eric Harrison   Liberal Les Bury   Liberal Resignation
Barker 13 October 1956 Archie Cameron   Liberal Jim Forbes   Liberal Death (myocardial infarction)
Cunningham (11 April 1956) Billy Davies   Labor Victor Kearney   Labor Death

21st Parliament (1954–1955)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Cook 21 May 1955 Tom Sheehan   Labor Jim Cope   Labor Death

20th Parliament (1951–1954)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Gwydir 19 December 1953 Thomas Treloar   Country Ian Allan   Country Death
Corangamite 29 August 1953 Allan McDonald   Liberal Dan Mackinnon   Liberal Death (cancer)
Lang 29 August 1953 Dan Mulcahy   Labor Frank Stewart   Labor Death
Dalley 9 May 1953 Sol Rosevear   Labor Arthur Greenup   Labor Death (coronary occlusion)
Bradfield 20 December 1952 Billy Hughes   Liberal Harry Turner   Liberal Death
Werriwa 29 November 1952 Bert Lazzarini   Labor Gough Whitlam   Labor Death (cerebral haemorrhage)
Flinders 18 October 1952 Rupert Ryan   Liberal Keith Ewert   Labor Death (cardiac failure)
Lyne 22 March 1952 Jim Eggins   Country Philip Lucock   Country Death
Balaclava 28 July 1951 Thomas White   Liberal Percy Joske   Liberal Resignation
Macquarie 28 July 1951 Ben Chifley   Labor Tony Luchetti   Labor Death (heart attack)

19th Parliament (1949–1951)[edit]

No by-elections held

18th Parliament (1946–1949)[edit]

No by-elections held

17th Parliament (1943–1946)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Henty 30 March 1946 Arthur Coles   Independent Jo Gullett   Liberal Resignation
Wimmera 9 February 1946 Alexander Wilson   Independent Winton Turnbull   Country Resignation
Fremantle 18 August 1945 John Curtin   Labor Kim Beazley   Labor Death

16th Parliament (1940–1943)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Boothby 24 May 1941 John Price   United Australia Grenfell Price   United Australia Death
Swan 21 December 1940 Henry Gregory   Country Thomas Marwick   Country Death
Kalgoorlie 16 November 1940 Albert Green   Labor Herbert Johnson   Labor Death

15th Parliament (1937–1940)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Corio 2 March 1940 Richard Casey   United Australia John Dedman   Labor Resignation
Wilmot 27 May 1939 Joseph Lyons   United Australia Lancelot Spurr   Labor Death (heart attack)
Griffith 20 May 1939 Frank Baker   Labor William Conelan   Labor Death
Wakefield 10 December 1938 Charles Hawker   United Australia Sydney McHugh   Labor Death (plane crash)

14th Parliament (1934–1937)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Gwydir 8 May 1937 Aubrey Abbott   Country William Scully   Labor Resignation
Darling Downs 19 December 1936 Sir Littleton Groom   United Australia Arthur Fadden   Country Death (cerebrovascular disease)
Kennedy 12 December 1936 Darby Riordan   Labor Bill Riordan   Labor Death
Fawkner 17 August 1935 George Maxwell   United Australia Harold Holt   United Australia Death
Newcastle 1 June 1935 David Watkins   Labor David Watkins   Labor Death (cancer)

13th Parliament (1931–1934)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Flinders 11 November 1933 Stanley Bruce   United Australia James Fairbairn   United Australia Resignation
East Sydney 6 February 1932 John Clasby   United Australia Eddie Ward   Labor (NSW) Death

12th Parliament (1929–1931)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
East Sydney 7 March 1931 John West   Labor Eddie Ward   Labor Death
Parkes 31 January 1931 Edward McTiernan   Labor Charles Marr   Nationalist Resignation
Franklin 14 December 1929 William McWilliams   Independent Charles Frost   Labor Death (angina pectoris)

11th Parliament (1928–1929)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Balaclava 3 August 1929 William Watt   Nationalist Thomas White   Nationalist Resignation

10th Parliament (1925–1928)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Wide Bay (3 September 1928) Edward Corser   Nationalist Bernard Corser   Country Death
Martin 16 June 1928 Herbert Pratten   Nationalist Graham Pratten   Nationalist Death (cerebral haemorrhage)
Warringah 21 May 1927 Sir Granville Ryrie   Nationalist Archdale Parkhill   Nationalist Resignation
Dalley 26 February 1927 William Mahony   Labor Ted Theodore   Labor Resignation
Eden-Monaro 6 March 1926 Sir Austin Chapman   Nationalist John Perkins   Nationalist Death (cerebrovascular disease)

9th Parliament (1922–1925)[edit]

No by-elections held

8th Parliament (1919–1922)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Yarra 18 February 1922 Frank Tudor   Labor James Scullin   Labor Death
Parramatta 10 December 1921 Sir Joseph Cook   Nationalist Herbert Pratten   Nationalist Resignation
West Sydney 3 September 1921 T. J. Ryan   Labor William Lambert   Labor Death (pneumonia)
Maranoa 30 July 1921 Jim Page   Labor James Hunter   Country Death
Kalgoorlie 18 December 1920 Hugh Mahon   Labor George Foley   Nationalist Expulsion
Ballaarat 10 July 1920 Edwin Kerby   Nationalist Charles McGrath   Labor Election declared void

7th Parliament (1917–1919)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Echuca 20 September 1919 Albert Palmer   Nationalist William Hill   VFU Death
Corangamite 14 December 1918 Chester Manifold   Nationalist William Gibson   VFU Death (pneumonia)
Swan 26 October 1918 Sir John Forrest   Nationalist Edwin Corboy   Labor Death
Flinders 11 May 1918 Sir William Irvine   Nationalist Stanley Bruce   Nationalist Resignation
Grampians 27 October 1917 Carty Salmon   Nationalist Edmund Jowett   Nationalist Death
Darwin 30 June 1917 Charles Howroyd   Nationalist William Spence   Nationalist Death

6th Parliament (1914–1917)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Wide Bay 11 December 1915 Andrew Fisher   Labor Edward Corser   Liberal Resignation
Dalley (6 May 1915) Robert Howe   Labor William Mahony   Labor Death
Grampians 20 February 1915 Edward Jolley   Labor Carty Salmon   Liberal Death
Bendigo 6 February 1915 John Arthur   Labor Alfred Hampson   Labor Death (kidney disease)

5th Parliament (1913–1914)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Adelaide 10 January 1914 Ernest Roberts   Labor Edwin Yates   Labor Death (heart disease)
Kalgoorlie (22 December 1913) Charles Frazer   Labor Hugh Mahon   Labor Death (pneumonia)

4th Parliament (1910–1913)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Werriwa 1 June 1912 David Hall   Labor Benjamin Bennett   Labor Resignation
Boothby 11 November 1911 Lee Batchelor   Labour David Gordon   Liberal Death (heart attack)
North Sydney 11 March 1911 George Edwards   Liberal Granville Ryrie   Liberal Death
Batman 8 February 1911 Henry Beard   Labour Frank Brennan   Labour Death
Kooyong 24 August 1910 William Knox   Liberal Sir Robert Best   Liberal Resignation

3rd Parliament (1906–1910)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Wakefield 28 August 1909 Sir Frederick Holder   Independent Richard Foster   Liberal Death (cerebral haemorrhage)
Adelaide 13 June 1908 Charles Kingston   Protectionist Ernest Roberts   Labour Death (stroke)
Echuca 10 July 1907 Albert Palmer   Anti-Socialist Albert Palmer   Anti-Socialist Election declared void

2nd Parliament (1903–1906)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Riverina 18 May 1904 Robert Blackwood   Free Trade John Chanter   Protectionist Election declared void
Melbourne 30 March 1904 Sir Malcolm McEacharn   Protectionist William Maloney   Labour Election declared void
Wilmot 26 February 1904 Sir Edward Braddon   Free Trade Norman Cameron   Free Trade Death

1st Parliament (1901–1903)[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
East Sydney 4 September 1903 George Reid   Free Trade George Reid   Free Trade Resigned to recontest
Tasmania 26 March 1902 Frederick Piesse   Free Trade William Hartnoll   Free Trade Death
Darling Downs 14 September 1901 William Henry Groom   Protectionist Littleton Groom   Protectionist Death

See also[edit]