Republics of Russia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The Russian Federation is divided into 85 federal subjects (constituent units), 22 of which are republics. Most of the republics represent areas of non-Russian ethnicity, although there are several republics with Russian majority. The indigenous ethnic group of a republic that gives it its name is referred to as the "titular nationality". Due to decades (in some cases centuries) of internal migration inside Russia, each nationality is not necessarily a majority of a republic's population.

Constitutional status[edit]

Republics differ from other federal subjects in that they have the right to establish their own official language[1] and have their own constitution. Other federal subjects, such as krais (territories) and oblasts (provinces), are not explicitly given this right. The chief executives of many republics used to have the title of president, but in 2010 an amendment to the federal law was adopted that reserves such title exclusively for the head of the Russian state.[2]

The level of actual autonomy granted to such political units varies but is generally quite extensive. The parliamentary assemblies of such republics have often enacted laws which are at odds with the federal constitution. The republics' executives tend to be very powerful. However, this autonomy was lessened considerably under Russian President Vladimir Putin who sought to impose the supremacy of the federal constitution.[citation needed]

The establishment of eight large "federal districts" above the regions and republics of Russia, with presidentially appointed governors overseeing the republics' activities, has strengthened federal control, and respect for federal supremacy in the republics. In addition, Putin strengthened the position of the republics' legislatures while weakening the executives' power. The executive heads of republics are now appointed by the President of Russia himself. The President's nomination must be accepted by the republic's parliament.[3]

There are secessionist movements in most republics, but these are generally not very strong. However, there was considerable support for secession among Tatars, Bashkirs, Yakuts, and Chechens after the break-up of Soviet Union, resulting in war in the case of Chechnya. The desire for secession in many republics is, however, greatly complicated by the extent to which other ethnic groups reside in their titular republics (Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, Sakha). (As a result of the First and Second Chechen Wars, very few non-Chechens now reside in Chechnya.) Also, the majority of Tatars, unlike other titular ethnic groups, reside outside of Tatarstan.

2014 developments[edit]

On March 18, 2014, the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol were joined by treaty to the Russian Federation.[4] Much of the international community and the Ukrainian government do not recognize Crimea's accession to Russia and consider Crimea an integral part of Ukraine.[5]

Former Autonomous Republics and Autonomous Oblasts[edit]

The Russian SFSR of the former Soviet Union included three types of ethnic constituent units, viz., in the order of decreasing "autonomy" level: Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics (or simply autonomous republics), autonomous oblasts, and autonomous okrugs.

After the dissolution of the USSR, each "autonomous republic" was succeeded by a republic with a similar name (or, in the case of the Chechen-Ingush ASSR, by two republics: Chechnya and Ingushetia). Several "autonomous oblasts" (Adygea, Altai, Karachay–Cherkessia, Khakassia) have become "republics" as well.

The expression "autonomous republic" is still sometimes used for the republics of Russia. Although they are autonomous and republics, the use of this term is not technically correct, since their official names, as per 1993 Russian Constitution and their own constitutions, are simply "republic", rather than "autonomous republic".

Demographics[edit]

Republic Continent Titular Nationality1 Titular Nationality in Republic's Population (2010) Titular Nationality: Language Group Titular Nationality: Main Religion Ethnic Russians in Republic's Population (2010) Population (2010)4
Adygea (Адыгея, Адыгэ) Europe Adyghe 25.2% Caucasian Orthodox Christianity, Sunni Islam 63.6% 440,388
Altai (Алтай) Asia Altay 34.5% Turkic Burkhanism, Tibetan Buddhism, Shamanism, Orthodox Christianity 56.6% 206,195
Bashkortostan (Башкортостан, Башкирия, Башҡортостан) Europe Bashkir 29.5% Turkic Sunni Islam 36.1% 4,072,102
Buryatia (Бурятия, Буряад) Asia Buryat 30.0% Mongolic Tibetan Buddhism, Shamanism; tiny Russian Orthodox minority known as Onghols, often considered separate ethnic group 66.1% 972,658
Chechnya (Чеченская Республика, Нохчийчоь) Europe Chechen2 95.3% Caucasian Sunni Islam, Sufi Islam 1.9% 1,103,686
Chuvashia (Чувашская Республика, Чăваш Республики) Europe Chuvash 67.7% Turkic Russian Orthodoxy, Islam, shamanism 26.9% 1,251,599
Crimea (Крым) Europe Crimean Tatar 12.1%7 Turkic Orthodox Christianity, Islam 58.5%7 2,033,700
Dagestan (Дагестан) Europe 10 indigenous nationalities3 88.0% Caucasian, Turkic5 Sunni Islam, Judaism (if Mountain Jews and Jewish Tats are considered) 3.6% 2,576,531
Ingushetia (Ингушетия, ГӀалгӀай Мохк) Europe Ingush2 94.1% Caucasian Sunni Islam, Sufi Islam 0.8% 467,294
Kabardino-Balkaria (Кабардино-Балкарская Республика, Къэбэрдей-Балъкъэр, Къабарты-Малкъар) Europe Kabard, Balkar 69.9% (Kabardin 57.2%, Balkars 12.7%) Caucasian, Turkic Sunni Islam, Russian Orthodoxy6 22.5% 859,802
Kalmykia (Калмыкия, Хальмг Таңһч) Europe Kalmyk 57.4% Mongolic Tibetan Buddhism 30.2% 289,464
Karachay–Cherkessia (Карачаево-Черкесская Республика) Europe Karachai, Cherkess 52.9% (Karachai 41.0%, Cherkess 11.9%) Turkic, Caucasian Sunni Islam 31.6% 478,517
Karelia (Карелия, Karjala) Europe Karelian 7.4% Uralic Russian Orthodoxy 82.2% 643,548
Khakassia (Хакасия) Asia Khakas 12.1% Turkic shamanism, Russian Orthodoxy 81.7% 532,403
Komi (Коми) Europe Komi 23.7% Uralic Russian Orthodoxy, shamanism 65.1% 901,189
Mari El (Марий Эл) Europe Mari 43.9% Uralic Russian Orthodoxy, indigenous pagan faith, Marla faith 47.4% 696,357
Mordovia (Мордовия) Europe Mordvin 40.0% Uralic Russian Orthodoxy 53.4% 834,819
North Ossetia–Alania (Северная Осетия-Алания, Цӕгат Ирыстоны Аланийы) Europe Ossetian 65.1% Iranian Eastern Orthodoxy, Sunni minority 20.8% 712,877
Sakha (Yakutia) (Саха (Якутия)) Asia Yakut 49.9% Turkic Russian Orthodoxy, Shamanism 37.8% 958,291
Tatarstan (Татарстан, Tatar Cyrillic: Татарстан, Latin: Tatarstan) Europe Tatar 53.2% Turkic Sunni Islam, Russian Orthodoxy 39.7% 3,786,358
Tuva (Тыва, Тува) Asia Tuvan 82.0% Turkic Tibetan Buddhism, Shamanism, tiny Russian Orthodox minority 16.3% 307,930
Udmurtia (Удмуртская Республика, Удмурт Элькун) Europe Udmurts 28.0% Uralic Russian Orthodoxy 62.2% 1,522,761
Notes:
  1. Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay–Cherkessia, and Dagestan have more than one titular nationality.
  2. The former Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic had two titular nationalities until it was divided into the two Republics of Chechnya and Ingushetia in April 1992.
  3. The ten largest indigenous ethnic groups of Dagestan are: Aguls, Avars, Dargins, Kumyks, Laks, Lezgins, Nogais, Rutuls, Tabasarans, and Tsakhurs.
  4. All population numbers in this table are to three significant figures.
  5. Balkars, Karachai, Kumyks and Nogais are Turkic peoples and Aguls, Avars, Cherkess, Dargins, Laks, Lezgins, Rutuls, Tabasarans, and Tsakhurs are Caucasian
  6. Kabardin and a majority of Balkars are Muslims, but some Balkars are Russian Orthodox
  7. Figures for the population of Crimea are from the 2001 Ukrainian Census. The Republic of Crimea is coterminous with the Ukrainian-claimed Autonomous Republic of Crimea and internationally recognised as part of Ukraine.

Demographics trend[edit]

ethnic titul (%) Russian (%) other (%)
Republic в 1979 г. в 1989 г. в 2002 г. в 2010 г.[6] в 1979 г. в 1989 г. в 2002 г. в 2010 г. в 1979 г. в 1989 г. в 2002 г. в 2010 г.
Adygea 21,3 22,1 24,1 25,2 70,8 68,0 64,4 63,6
Altai 29,1 31,0 33,4 33,9 63,3 60,4 57,4 56,6 5,6 5,9[7] 6,2
Bashkortostan 24,3 21,9 29,7 29,5 40,3 39,2 36,3 36,1 24,5 28,4 24,1[8] 25,4
Buryatia 23,0 24,0 27,8 30 72,1 69,9 67,8 66,1
Dagestan 86,0 11,0 9,2 4,6 3,6
Ingushetia 11,7 12,9 77,2 94,1 31,7 23,1 1,1 0,8
Kabardino-Balkaria 45,6 52,2 55,3 57,2 35,1 31,9 25,1 22,5 9,0 9,4 11,6 12,7
Kalmykia 41,4 45,3 53,3 57,4 42,7 37,6 33,5 30,2
Karachay–Cherkessia 29,7 31,2 38,5 41 45,0 42,4 33,6 31,6 9,3 9,7 11,2 11,9
Karelia 11,1 10,0 9,2 7,4 71,3 73,6 76,6 82,2
Komi 25,3 23,3 25,1 23,7 56,7 57,7 59,5 65,1
Mari El 43,6 43,3 42,8 43,9 47,6 47,4 Steady47,4 Steady47,4
Mordovia 34,2 32,5 31,9 40 59,7 60,8 Steady60,8 53,4
Sakha (Yakutia) 36,9 33,4 45,5 49,9 50,5 50,3 41,1 37,8
North Ossetia–Alania 50,5 52,9 62,7 65,1 34,0 29,9 23,1 20,8
Tatarstan 47,7 48,4 52,9 53,2 44,0 43,2 39,4 39,7
Tuva 60,4 64,3 77,0 82 36,2 32,0 20,1 16,3
Udmurtia 32,2 30,9 29,3 28 58,3 58,9 60,1 62,2
Khakassia 11,4 11,1 11,9 12,1 79,5 79,4 80,2 81,7
Chechnya 52,9 57,8 93,4 95,3 31,7 23,1 3,6 1,9
Chuvashia 68,4 67,7 67,6 67,7 26,0 26,6 26,5 26,9 ٨|

Notice: В столбце «Другие» указаны народы, являющиеся вторыми по численности коренными народами в двусоставных республиках.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Article 68 of the Constitution of Russia
  2. ^ http://rt.com/politics/russia-regions-leaders-title/
  3. ^ Remington, Thomas F. (2010) Politics in Russia, 6th edition. Boston: Pearson Education. pp. 82
  4. ^ Kremlin.ru. Договор между Российской Федерацией и Республикой Крым о принятии в Российскую Федерацию Республики Крым и образовании в составе Российской Федерации новых субъектов (Treaty Between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Crimea on Ascension to the Russian Federation of the Republic of Crimea and on Establishment of New Subjects Within the Russian Federation) (Russian)
  5. ^ Putin signs Crimea treaty, will not seize other Ukraine regions
  6. ^ http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/perepis_itogi1612.htm
  7. ^ Казахи
  8. ^ Татары