Governor-General of Australia
|Governor-General of Australia|
since 5 September 2008
|Appointed by:||Queen Elizabeth II
as Queen of Australia
|First:||The Earl of Hopetoun|
|Formation:||1 January 1901|
|Term length:||At Her Majesty's pleasure|
|Residence:||Government House, Canberra
Admiralty House, Sydney
|This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative in the Australian jurisdiction of the Australian monarch (currently Queen Elizabeth II), according to the Constitution of Australia, which provides that a "Governor-General appointed by the Queen shall be Her Majesty's representative in the Commonwealth..." As such, the governor-general is President of the Federal Executive Council and Commander-in-Chief of the Australian Defence Force, as well as viceregal representative in the Australian Capital Territory. His or Her functions of the governor-general include appointing ambassadors, ministers, and judges, giving Royal Assent to legislation, issuing writs for elections, and bestowing honours. The constitution grants the governor-general a wide range of powers, but, in practice, he or she follows the conventions of the Westminster system and responsible government and, with rare exceptions, acts only on the advice of the Prime Minister of Australia or other ministers or, in certain cases, the parliament.
Beyond constitutional functions, the governor-general has a ceremonial role: He or she hosts events at either of the two viceregal residences—Government House, Canberra, and Admiralty House in Sydney—and travels widely throughout Australia to open conferences, attend services and commemorations, and generally provide encouragement to individuals and groups who are contributing to their communities. When travelling abroad, the governor-general is seen as the representative of Australia, and of the Queen of Australia, and is treated as a head of state. The governor-general is supported by a staff headed by the Official Secretary to the Governor-General.
The current governor-general and the first female to hold the role is Quentin Bryce, who has served since 5 September 2008; Prime Minister Kevin Rudd recommended her to succeed Michael Jeffery. Bryce's husband—who is thus the viceregal consort—is Michael Bryce.
Method of appointment 
In practice, the selection of a governor-general is a matter for the Prime Minister of Australia, who may consult privately with staff or colleagues, or with the monarch. The person would also be approached privately to see if he or she is willing to accept the appointment.
The prime minister then provides the nomination to the monarch. The monarch may, in theory, decline the prime minister's advice and ask for another nomination or even appoint a person of his or her own choice, but no such cases have been recorded since November 1930, when James Scullin's proposed appointment of Sir Isaac Isaacs was fiercely opposed by the British government. This was not because of any lack of regard for Isaacs personally, but because the British government considered that the choice of governors-general was, since the 1926 Imperial Conference, a matter for the monarch's decision alone. (However, it became very clear in a conversation between Scullin and King George V's Private Secretary, the Lord Stamfordham, on 11 November 1930, that this was merely the official reason for the objection, the real reason being that an Australian, no matter how highly regarded personally, was not considered appropriate to be governor-general.) Scullin was equally insistent that the monarch must act on the relevant prime minister's direct advice (the practice until 1926 was that Dominion prime ministers advised the monarch indirectly, through the British government, which effectively had a veto over any proposal it did not agree with). Scullin cited the precedents of the Prime Minister of South Africa, J. B. M. Hertzog, who had recently insisted on his choice of the Earl of Clarendon as Governor-General of that country, and the selection of an Irishman as Governor-General of the Irish Free State. Both of these appointments were agreed to despite royal disfavour.
Despite these precedents, George V was still very reluctant to accept Scullin's recommendation of Isaacs and asked him to consider Field Marshal Sir William Birdwood. However, Scullin stood firm and, on 29 November, the King agreed to Isaacs's appointment, but made it clear that he did so only because he felt he had no option. This right to not only advise the monarch directly, but also to expect that advice to be accepted, was soon taken up by all the other Dominion prime ministers. This, among other things, led to the Statute of Westminster 1931 and to the formal separation of the crowns of the Dominions. Now, the Queen of Australia is generally bound by constitutional convention to accept the advice of the Australian prime minister and state premiers about Australian and state constitutional matters, respectively.
Having agreed to the appointment, the monarch then permits it to be publicly announced in advance, usually several months before the end of the current governor-general's term. During these months, the person is referred to as the Governor-General-designate. The actual appointment is made by the monarch. After receiving his or her commission, the governor-general makes an Oath of Allegiance and an Oath of Office to the monarch and issues a proclamation assuming office. The oaths are usually made in a ceremony on the floor of the Senate and are administered by the Chief Justice of Australia.
Styles and titles of governors-general 
Governors-general have the style "His/Her Excellency The Honourable" during their tenure, and "The Honourable" in retirement. Their spouses also have the style "His/Her Excellency" during their tenure.
Sir William McKell (1947–53) was knighted during his term of office, but all the other governors-general until 1989 were already either peers or knights; the only Australian peer was Lord Casey (1965–69). All until 1989 were members of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom and thus had the additional style "The Right Honourable". Bill Hayden (1989–96) was the first Governor-General to have no title, although as a former Federal minister, he has the style "The Honourable". The incumbent, Quentin Bryce, was the first Governor-General to have no prior title or pre-nominal style for life, until 2013.
Backgrounds of governors-general 
All the governors-general until 1965 were British, except Sir Isaac Isaacs (1931–36) and Sir William McKell (1947–53). There have been only Australian occupants since then. Various Governors-General had previously served as governors of an Australian state or colony: Lord Hopetoun (Victoria 1889–95); Lord Tennyson (South Australia 1899–1902); Lord Gowrie (South Australia 1928–34; and New South Wales 1935–36); Major General Michael Jeffery (Western Australia 1993–2000); Quentin Bryce (Queensland 2003–08). Sir Ronald Munro Ferguson had been offered the governorship of South Australia in 1895 and of Victoria in 1910, but refused both appointments. Lord Northcote was Governor of Bombay. Lord Casey was Governor of Bengal in between his periods of service to the Australian Parliament.
Former leading politicians and members of the judiciary have figured prominently. Lord Dudley was Lord Lieutenant of Ireland 1902–05. Lord Stonehaven (as John Baird) was Minister for Transport in the Cabinets of Andrew Bonar Law and Stanley Baldwin; and after his return to Britain he became Chairman of the UK Conservative Party. Sir Isaac Isaacs was successively Commonwealth Attorney-General, a High Court judge, and Chief Justice. Sir William McKell was Premier of New South Wales. Lord Dunrossil (as William Morrison) was Speaker of the UK House of Commons. Lord De L'Isle was Secretary of State for Air in Winston Churchill's Cabinet 1951–55. More recent Governors-General in this category include Lord Casey, Sir Paul Hasluck, Sir John Kerr, Sir Ninian Stephen, Bill Hayden and Sir William Deane.
Significant post-retirement activities of earlier Governors-General have included: Lord Tennyson was appointed Deputy Governor of the Isle of Wight; Sir Ronald Munro Ferguson (by now Lord Novar) became Secretary of State for Scotland; and Lord Gowrie became Chairman of the Marylebone Cricket Club (Lord Forster had also held this post, before his appointment as Governor-General).
Of the ten Australians appointed since 1965, Lord Casey, Sir Paul Hasluck and Bill Hayden were former federal parliamentarians; Sir John Kerr was the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of New South Wales; Sir Ninian Stephen and Sir William Deane were appointed from the bench of the High Court; Sir Zelman Cowen was a vice-chancellor of the University of Queensland and constitutional lawyer; Peter Hollingworth was the Anglican Archbishop of Brisbane; and Major-General Michael Jeffery was a retired military officer and former Governor of Western Australia. Quentin Bryce's appointment was announced during her term as Governor of Queensland; she had previously been the Federal Sex Discrimination Commissioner.
Sir Isaac Isaacs and Sir Zelman Cowen were Jewish; Bill Hayden is an avowed atheist and he made an affirmation rather than swear an oath at the beginning of his commission; the remaining Governors-General have been at least nominally Christian. None have had an indigenous or non-European background.
The current Governor-General, Quentin Bryce, who was sworn in on 5 September 2008, is the first woman appointed to the post.
The Constitution does not set a term of office, so a Governor-General may continue to hold office for any agreed length of time, however a typical term of office is five years. At the end of this period, a commission is occasionally extended by a short period.
The salary of the Governor-General is regulated by the Constitution, which fixed an annual amount of 10,000 pounds, unless the parliament decides otherwise. The Constitution states that the salary of the Governor-General may not be increased during his or her term of office. Under the Governor-General Act of 1974 each new commission has resulted in a pay increase. Today, the law ensures the salary is higher than that for the Chief Justice of the High Court, over a five-year period. The annual salary during Michael Jeffery's term was $365,000. Quentin Bryce's salary is $394,000. Until 2001, Governors-General did not pay income tax on their salary; this was changed after the Queen agreed to pay tax.
Three Governors-General have resigned their commission. The first Governor-General, Lord Hopetoun, asked to be recalled to Britain in 1903 over a dispute about funding for the post. Sir John Kerr resigned in 1977 after accepting the position of Australian Ambassador to UNESCO in Paris, a post which ultimately he did not take up. In 2003, Peter Hollingworth stood aside temporarily while certain allegations against him were resolved, and the letters patent of the office were amended to take account of this circumstance. He later resigned to "protect the vice-regal office from persistent controversy".
In 1961, Lord Dunrossil became the first and, to date, only Governor-General to die in office.
A Governor-General may be recalled or dismissed by the Queen before their term is complete. By convention, this may only be advised by the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister has the option of naming an immediate replacement or letting the vacancy provisions take effect.
As no Australian Governor-General has ever been dismissed, it is unclear how quickly the Queen would act on such advice. The constitutional crisis of 1975 prominently raised the possibility of the Prime Minister and the Governor-General attempting to dismiss each other at the same time.
A vacancy occurs on the resignation, death or incapacity of the Governor-General. A temporary vacancy occurs when the Governor-General is overseas on official business representing Australia. A temporary vacancy also occurred in 2003 when Peter Hollingworth stood aside.
Section 4 of the Constitution allows the Queen to appoint an Administrator to carry out the role of Governor-General when there is a vacancy. By convention, the longest serving state governor holds a dormant commission, allowing an assumption of office to commence whenever a vacancy occurs. In 1975, Labor Prime Minister Gough Whitlam recommended to the Queen that Sir Colin Hannah, then Governor of Queensland, have his dormant commission revoked for having made public political statements.
Constitutional role and functions 
Sections 61 and 68 of the Constitution provide that the Governor-General exercises certain powers as the Queen's representative. The limited form of this representation was explained in a 1988 Constitutional Commission report which concluded "the Governor-General is in no sense a delegate of the Queen. The independence of the office is highlighted by changes which have been made in recent years to the Royal instruments relating to it".
Although the Governor-General and the Queen occasionally observe certain formalities, in practice the Governor-General has constitutional responsibilities without reference to the Queen. In 1975, the Queen, through her Private Secretary, wrote that she "has no part in the decisions which the Governor-General must take in accordance with the Constitution". Sir Robert Garran noted as early as 1901 that the governor-general was distinguished from other Empire governors-general by the fact that "the principal and most important of his powers and functions, legislative as well as executive, are expressly conferred on him by the terms of the Constitution itself. They are legislative and executive powers and functions conferred on the Governor-General, not by Royal authority, but by statutory authority," a view held also by Andrew Inglis Clark, who assisted Sir Samuel Griffith with drafts of the constitution and later became Senior Judge of the Supreme Court of Tasmania. Clark and W. Harrison Moore, who had contributed to the first draft of the constitution put before the 1897 Adelaide Convention and was Professor of Law at the University of Melbourne, postulated that the letters patent and the royal instructions issued by Queen Victoria were unnecessary "or even of doubtful legality".
Sir David Smith stated in 1988 that "the Governor-General is in no sense a delegate of the Queen. The independence of the office is highlighted by changes which have been made in recent years to the Royal instruments relating to it". He later opined that the governor-general's role was more than a representative of the sovereign, explaining: "under section 2 of the Constitution the Governor-General is the Queen's representative and exercises certain royal prerogative powers and functions; under section 61 of the Constitution the Governor-General is the holder of a quite separate and independent office created, not by the Crown, but by the Constitution, and empowered to exercise, in his own right as Governor-General and not as a representative or delegate of the Queen, all the powers and functions of Australia's head of state."
The Queen chose not to intervene during the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis, in which Governor-General Sir John Kerr dismissed the Labor government of Gough Whitlam, on the basis that it was a matter "clearly placed within the jurisdiction of the Governor-General". Sir John Robert Kerr was at the time Governor-General of Australia.
Role in parliament 
The Constitution describes the Parliament of the Commonwealth as consisting of the Queen, the Senate and the House of Representatives. Section 5 states that "the Governor-General may appoint such times for holding the sessions of the Parliament ... prorogue the Parliament [and] dissolve the House of Representatives." These provisions make it clear that the Queen's role in the parliament is in name only and the actual responsibility belongs to the Governor-General. Such decisions are usually taken on the advice of the Prime Minister, although that is not stated in the Constitution.
The Governor-General has a ceremonial role in swearing in and accepting the resignations of Members of Parliament. He or she appoints a deputy, to whom members make an oath of allegiance before they take their seats. On the day parliament opens, the Governor-General makes a speech, entirely written by the government, explaining the government's proposed legislative program.
The most important power is found in section 58: "When a proposed law passed by both Houses of Parliament is presented to the Governor-General for the Queen's assent, he shall declare ... that he assents in the Queen's name." This makes any proposed law effective.
Sections 58 to 60 allow the Governor-General to withhold assent, suggest changes, refer to the Queen or proclaim that the Queen has annulled the legislation. A number of Governors-General have reserved Royal Assent for particular legislation for the Queen. Such assent has usually been given during a scheduled visit to Australia by the Queen. On other occasions Royal Assent has been given elsewhere. Examples of this have been the Flags Act (1953), the Royal Styles and Titles Acts (1953 and 1973), and the Australia Act (1986).
Role in executive government 
At the start of Chapter 2 on executive government, the Constitution says "The executive power of the Commonwealth is vested in the Queen and is exercisable by the Governor-General as the Queen's representative". The Governor-General presides over a Federal Executive Council. By convention, the Prime Minister is appointed to this Council and advises as to which parliamentarians shall become ministers and parliamentary secretaries.
In the Constitution, the words "Governor-General-in-council" mean the Governor-General acting with the advice of the Council. Powers exercised in council, which are not reserve powers, include:
- establishing government departments
- appointing federal judges, and
- appointing ambassadors and high commissioners.
All such actions are taken on the advice of ministers.
Section 68, says "command-in-chief of naval and military forces ... is vested in the Governor-General as the Queen's representative". In practice, that role is ceremonial, with actual authority in the hands of the Defence Minister and the Chief of the Defence Force (CDF).
In an administrative sense, the office of Governor-General is regulated by the Governor-General Act 1974.
Reserve powers 
In the United Kingdom, the reserve powers of the monarch (which are typically referred to as the "royal prerogative") are not explicitly stated in constitutional enactments, and are the province of convention and common law. In Australia, however, the powers are explicitly given to the Governor-General in the Constitution; it is their use that is the subject of convention.
The reserve powers are:
- The power to dissolve (or refuse to dissolve) the House of Representatives. (Section 5 of the Constitution)
- The power to dissolve Parliament on the occasion of a deadlock. (Section 57)
- The power to withhold assent to Bills. (Section 58)
- The power to appoint (or dismiss) Ministers. (Section 64)
Those powers are generally and routinely exercised on Ministerial advice, but the Governor-General retains the ability to act independently in certain circumstances, as governed by convention. It is generally held that the Governor-General may use powers without ministerial advice in the following situations:
- if an election results in a Parliament in which no party has a majority, the Governor-General may select the Prime Minister
- if a Prime Minister loses the support of the House of Representatives, the Governor-General may appoint a new Prime Minister
- if a Prime Minister advises a dissolution of the House of Representatives, the Governor-General may refuse that request, or request further reasons why it should be granted. It is worth noting that convention does not give the Governor-General the ability to dissolve either the House of Representatives or the Senate without advice.
The use of the reserve powers may arise in the following circumstances:
- if a Prime Minister advises a dissolution of Parliament on the occasion of a deadlock between the Houses, the Governor-General may refuse that request
- if the Governor-General is not satisfied with a legislative Bill as presented, he or she may refuse Royal Assent
- if a Prime Minister resigns after losing a vote of confidence, the Governor-General may select a new replacement contrary to the advice of the outgoing Prime Minister
- if a Prime Minister is unable to obtain Supply and refuses to resign or advise a dissolution, the Governor-General may dismiss him or her and appoint a new Prime Minister.
The above is not an exhaustive list, and new situations may arise. The most notable use of the reserve powers occurred in November, 1975, in the course of the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis. On this occasion the Governor-General, Sir John Kerr, dismissed the government of Gough Whitlam when the Senate withheld Supply to the government, even though Whitlam retained the confidence of the House of Representatives. Kerr determined that he had both the right and the duty to dismiss the government and commission a new government that would recommend a dissolution of the Parliament. Events surrounding the dismissal remain extremely controversial.
Official state car 
The Governor-General travels in a Rolls-Royce Phantom VI limousine for ceremonial occasions, such as the State Opening of Parliament. She more commonly uses Australian-built luxury cars when on official business. The official cars of the Governor-General fly the Flag of the Governor-General of Australia and display St. Edward's Crown instead of number plates. A similar arrangement is used for the Governors of the six states. When the Queen is in Australia, the Queen's Personal Australian Flag is flown on the car in which she is travelling. During the Queen's 2011 visit to Australia, the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh were driven in a Range Rover Vogue.
Ceremonial role 
In addition to the formal constitutional role, the Governor-General has a ceremonial role, though the extent and nature of that role has depended on the expectations of the time, the individual in office at the time, the wishes of the incumbent government, and the individual's reputation in the wider community. Governors-General generally become patrons of various charitable institutions, present honours and awards, host functions for various groups of people including ambassadors to and from other countries, and travel widely throughout Australia. Sir William Deane described one of his functions as being "Chief Mourner" at prominent funerals. In Commentaries on the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Australia, Garran noted that, since the Australian executive is national in nature (being dependent on the nationally elected House of Representatives, rather than the Senate), "the Governor-General, as the official head of the Executive, does not in the smallest degree represent any federal element; if he represents anything he is the image and embodiment of national unity and the outward and visible representation of the Imperial relationship of the Commonwealth."
That role can become controversial, however, if the Governor-General becomes unpopular with sections of the community. The public role adopted by Sir John Kerr was curtailed considerably after the constitutional crisis of 1975; Sir William Deane's public statements on political issues produced some hostility towards him; and some charities disassociated themselves from Peter Hollingworth after the issue of his management of sex abuse cases during his time as Anglican Archbishop of Brisbane became a matter of controversy.
The office of Governor-General was previously used during colonial times in Australia. Sir Charles FitzRoy (Governor of New South Wales from 1846–1855) and Sir William Denison (Governor of New South Wales from 1855–1861) also carried the additional title of Governor-General because their jurisdiction extended to other colonies in Australia. Later each colony was granted its own governor and thus the title of Governor-General lapsed until the establishment of the Commonwealth in 1901.
The office of Governor-General for the Commonwealth of Australia was conceived during the debates and conventions leading up to federation. The first Governor-General, the Earl of Hopetoun, was a previous Governor of Victoria. He was appointed in July 1900, returning to Australia shortly before the inauguration of the Commonwealth of Australia on 1 January 1901. His first act was to appoint the inaugural Prime Minister, Edmund Barton, since the first federal elections were not held until March.
Early Governors-General were British and were appointed by the King on the recommendation of the Colonial Office. The Australian Government was merely asked, as a matter of courtesy, whether they approved of the choice or not. Governors-General were expected to exercise a supervisory role over the Australian Government in the manner of a colonial Governor. In a very real sense, they represented the British Government. They had the right to "reserve" legislation passed by the Parliament of Australia: in other words, to ask the Colonial Office in London for an opinion before giving the Royal Assent. This power was used several times.
The early Governors-General frequently sought advice on the exercise of their powers from two judges of the High Court of Australia, Sir Samuel Griffith and Sir Edmund Barton. That practice has been continued from time to time since.
During the 1920s, the importance of the position declined. As a result of decisions made at the 1926 Imperial Conference, the Governor-General ceased to be the diplomatic representative of the British Government, and the British right of supervision over Australian affairs was abolished. However, it was still unclear just whose prerogative it now was to decide who new governors-general would be. In 1930, King George V and the Australian Prime Minister James Scullin discussed the appointment of a new governor-general to replace Lord Stonehaven, whose term was coming to an end. The King maintained that it was now his sole prerogative to choose a governor-general, and he wanted Field-Marshal Sir William Birdwood for the Australian post. Scullin recommended the Australian jurist Sir Isaac Isaacs, and he insisted that George V act on the advice of his Australian Prime Minister in this matter. Scullin was partially influenced by the precedent set by the Government of the Irish Free State, which always insisted upon the Governor-General of the Irish Free State being an Irishman.
The King approved Scullin's choice, albeit with some displeasure. The usual wording of official announcements of this nature was "The King has been pleased to appoint ...", but on this occasion the announcement said merely "The King has appointed ...", and his Private Secretary Lord Stamfordham asked the Solicitor-General, Sir Robert Garran, to make sure Scullin was aware of the exact wording. The appointment was denounced by the opposition Nationalist Party of Australia as being "practically republican", but the precedent had been set. The convention was gradually established throughout the Commonwealth that the Governor-General is a citizen of the country concerned, and is appointed on the advice of the government of that country.
In 1931, the transformation was concluded with the appointment of the first Australian Governor-General, Isaacs, and the first British Representative in Australia, Ernest Crutchley. In 1935, the first British High Commissioner to Australia, Geoffrey Whiskard, was appointed.
After Scullin's defeat in 1931, non-Labor governments continued to recommend British people for appointment as Governor-General, but it was still a matter solely between the Australian government and the monarch. In 1947, Labor appointed a second Australian Governor-General, William McKell, who was in office as the Labor Premier of New South Wales. The then Leader of the Opposition, Robert Menzies, called McKell's appointment "shocking and humiliating".
In 1965, the Menzies conservative government appointed an Australian, Lord Casey, and the position has since been held only by Australians. Suggestions during the early 1980s that the Prince of Wales might become the Governor-General came to nothing due to the constitutional difficulty that would be created if Prince Charles became King. In 2007, it was reported in the media that Prince William might also become Governor-General. That suggestion was repudiated by both the Prime Minister (John Howard) and Clarence House.
The Governor-General is generally invited to become Patron of various charitable and service organisations. Historically the Governor-General has also served as Chief Scout of Australia. The Chief Scout is nominated by the Scouting Association's National Executive Committee and is invited by the President of the Scout Association to accept the appointment. Bill Hayden declined the office on the grounds of his atheism, which was incompatible with the Scout Promise. He did however serve as the Association's Patron during his term of office.
Spouses of governors-general have no official duties, but carry out the role of vice-regal consort. They are entitled to the style Her Excellency or His Excellency during the office-holder's term of office. Most spouses of governors-general have been content to be background figures providing them with support. Some, however, have been notable in their own right, such as Dame Alexandra Hasluck, Lady Casey and Professor Michael Bryce.
Former Governors-General 
There are five living former governors-general of Australia. The most recent governor-general to die was Sir Zelman Cowen (1977–1982), on 8 December 2011.
|Name||Term of office||Date of birth|
|Sir Ninian Stephen||1982–1989||15 June 1923|
|Bill Hayden||1989–1996||23 January 1933|
|Sir William Deane||1996–2001||4 January 1931|
|Peter Hollingworth||2001–2003||10 April 1935|
|Michael Jeffery||2003–2008||12 December 1937|
Between Jeffery's retirement on 5 September 2008 and Cowen's death on 8 December 2011, there were, for the first time in Australia's history, six former governors-general still living. There had been five living former governors-general at a number of previous times, most recently immediately prior to Jeffery's retirement, and going back to between 8 October 1925 (when Lord Forster retired) and 2 December 1928 (when Lord Tennyson died).
See also 
- History of Australia
- Official state car
- Constitutional history of Australia
- Governors of the Australian states
- British Empire
- Governor-General (links to other countries which have Governors-General)
- Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia
- Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia: Governor-General's role
- Gavin Souter, Acts of Parliament, pp. 266-269
- The title ‘the Honourable’ for Governors-General, Australian Government Special Gazette S No. 54 of 2013.
- Herald Sun, 18 June 2008, Governor-general Quentin Bryce to get pay rise
- The annotated constitution of the Australian Commonwealth, p 390
- "The Governor-General is our Head of State"
- A Mate for Head of State
- "Royal prerogative". A Dictionary of British History, online edition. Oxford University Press.
- Maer, Lucinda; Oonagh, Gay (30 December 2009). "The Royal Prerogative". House of Commons Library. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- Sir Garfield Barwick (17–19 November 1995). "A View of the External Affairs Power". Retrieved 17 January 2011.
- "USRS Australia: Blog for the U.S. Mission to Australia". Usrsaustralia.state.gov. Retrieved 2011-12-12.
- Donald Markwell, "Griffith, Barton and the early Governor-Generals: aspects of Australia's constitutional development", Public Law Review, 1999.
- Gavin Souter, Acts of Parliament, p. 269
- "Chief Scout". Scouts Australia. Retrieved 2007-11-15. >Kittel, Nicholas (1 August 2007). "A century of Scouts a reason to celebrate". 666 ABC Canberra (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). Retrieved 2007-11-15. "In his address the Governor-General also explained his role as Chief Scout. "Really the Chief Scout tries to go around to as many scout groups as he can and say 'well done' to all who are taking part and to encourage a strengthening of the movement.""[dead link]
- "Brief Comments". On Target from Australia (Australian League of Rights) 25 (13). 14 April 1989. Retrieved 2007-11-15.
Further reading 
- Christopher Cunneen (1983). Kings' Men: Australia's Governors-General from Hopetoun to Isaacs. Allen and Unwin. ISBN 0-86861-238-3.
- Bill Hayden (1996). Hayden: An Autobiography. Angus & Robertson. ISBN 0-207-18769-X. (pp 515, 519, 548)
- Sir Zelman Cowen, A Public Life: The Memoirs of Zelman Cowen, Miegunyah Press, 2006.
- Donald Markwell, The Crown and Australia, University of London 1987 -
- Donald Markwell, "Griffith, Barton and the early Governor-Generals: aspects of Australia's constitutional development", Public Law Review, 1999.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Governors-General of Australia|
- The Office of the Governor-General
- The use of the reserve powers
- A Mirror to the People a 58 minute documentary film on the Office of Governor-General of Australia 1999. Dir: Daryl Dellora. Features Sir William Deane, Sir Zelman Cowen, Sir Ninian Stephen. Special Commendation ATOM Awards.