Bernard Lee (Civil Rights Movement)
Bernard Lee (2 October 1935–10 February 1991) was an activist and member of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) during the 1960s Civil Rights Movement. He was key associate of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Civil Rights Movement
Lee began his civil rights career as a student at Alabama State College, from which he was expelled after leading more than half the student body in a march on the Alabama capitol. During demonstrations for equal library access in 1960, he said: "My grandfather had only a prayer to help him. I have a prayer and an education."
Lee was King's personal assistant and traveling companion for many years. He was arrested with King in 1960 and left the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in 1961 so that he could work full time with King and the SCLC. He participated in the 1961 freedom rides and helped to orchestrate the Birmingham Campaign in 1963. He went to Chicago with King in 1965. In January 1967, he was one of few in to accompany King to Jamaica while he wrote Where Do We Go From Here?
Lee was closer to King than any other member of the Civil Rights Movement, so much that by some accounts he began to identify with King completely. According to historian Taylor Branch: "Lee had already come to dress like King, walk like King, and even to imitate King's long, measured phrases."
Lee was directly privy to FBI targeting of King under COINTELPRO, having been present when King received a letter from the FBI urging him to commit suicide. Lee sued the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in 1977 in an effort to force the release of recordings of King, collected by FBI wiretaps and bugs. Judge John Lewis denied the request and ordered the records sealed for 50 years.
Lee worked during the Carter administration as a civil rights advisor to the Environmental Protection Agency. During this time he joined with other Black members of the administration to express concern over its policies toward Africa and African Americans.
In 1989, he was involved in a public dispute with Ralph Abernathy over Abernathy's book And The Walls Came Tumbling Down. Lee criticized Abernathy's book, which supported rumors about King's extramarital sex life.
Lee died of heart failure in 1991.
- Patterson Toby Graham, A Right to Read: Segregation and Civil Rights in Alabama's Public Libraries, 1900-1965, University of Alabama Press, 2002, ISBN 9780817311445, pp. 75–76.
- Patterson Toby Graham, A Right to Read: Segregation and Civil Rights in Alabama's Public Libraries, 1900-1965, University of Alabama Press, 2002, ISBN 9780817311445, pp. 70–71.
- "Lee, Bernard Scott (1935-1991)", Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute, accessed 7 November 2012.
- Steve Fayer, Henry Hampton, Voices of Freedom: An Oral History of the Civil Rights Movement from the 1950s Through the 1980s, Random House Digital, 1991.
- Taylor Branch, Parting the Waters: America in the King Years 1954-63, New York: 9780671687427, Simon & Schuster, 1989, ISBN , p. 558. (See: America in the King Years.)
- Michael Blim, "Abernathy's civil-rights group falters: Money troubles persist", Christian Science Monitor, 29 August 1974, p. 5B.
- "Judge orders seal on King wiretaps", Deseret News (UPI), 1 February 1977.
- Terrence Smith, "Black Aids Discuss Concern Over Carter Record", New York Times, 16 May 1979; accessed via ProQuest.
- Ralph Abernathy interview with Brian Lamb, C-SPAN, 29 October 1989.
- James S. Kunen, Jane Sanderson, Tom Nugent, Elizabeth Velez, "A Bitter Battle Erupts Over the Last Hours of Martin Luther King", People 32(18), 30 October 1989.
- "Obituary: Rev. Bernard Lee, 55, Civil Rights Advocate". The New York Times. February 14, 1991. Retrieved 29 October 2010.
- Photos of Lee at the Atlanta History Center
- Lee clears a path for King during the most chaotic event of the Memphis Sanitation Strike