Willard InterContinental Washington
|Location:||1401-1409 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, D.C., U.S.|
|Built:||Original six structures: 1816
Unified structure: 1847
Current structure: 1901
|Architect:||Henry Janeway Hardenbergh (hotel)
Hardy Holzman Pfeiffer Associates and Vlastimil Koubek, annex
|Added to NRHP:||February 15, 1974|
The Willard InterContinental Washington is an historic luxury Beaux-Arts hotel located at 1401 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D.C. Among its facilities are numerous luxurious guest rooms, several restaurants, the famed Round Robin Bar, the Peacock Alley series of luxury shops, and voluminous function rooms. It is two blocks east of the White House, and two blocks south of the Metro Center station of the Washington Metro. The Willard Intercontinental Hotel is recognized as one of the Historic Hotels of America by the National Trust for Historic Preservation.
The first structures to be built at 1401 Pennsylvania Avenue NW were six small houses constructed by Colonel John Tayloe III in 1816. Tayloe leased the six buildings to Joshua Tennison, who named them Tennison's Hotel. The structures served as a hotel for the next three decades, the leaseholder and name changing several times: Williamson's Mansion Hotel, Fullers American House, and the City Hotel. By 1847, the structures were in disrepair and Tayloe's son, Benjamin Ogle Tayloe, was desperate to find a tenant who would maintain the structures and run them profitably.
The Willard Hotel was formally founded by Henry Willard when he leased the six buildings in 1847, combined them into a single structure, and enlarged it into a four-story hotel he renamed the Willard Hotel. Willard purchased the hotel property from Benjamin Tayloe in 1864, but a dispute over the purchase price and the form of payment (paper currency or gold coin) led to a major equity lawsuit which ended up in the Supreme Court of the United States. The Supreme Court split the difference in Willard v. Tayloe. 75 U.S. 557 (1869): The purchase price would remain the same, but Willard must pay in gold coin (which had not depreciated in value the way paper currency had).
The present 12-story structure, designed by famed hotel architect Henry Janeway Hardenbergh, opened in 1901. It suffered a major fire in 1922 which caused $250,000 ($3,428,926 as of 2013), in damages. Among those who had to be evacuated from the hotel were Vice President Calvin Coolidge, several U.S. senators, composer John Philip Sousa, motion picture producer Adolph Zukor, newspaper publisher Harry Chandler, and numerous other media, corporate, and political leaders who were present for the annual Gridiron Dinner. For many years the Willard was the only hotel from which one could easily visit all of downtown Washington, and consequently it has housed many dignitaries during its history.
The Willard family sold its share of the hotel in 1946, and due to mismanagement and the severe decline of the area, the hotel closed in 1968. The building sat vacant for years, and numerous plans were floated for its demolition. It eventually fell into a semi-public receivership and was sold to the Pennsylvania Avenue Development Corporation. They held a competition to rehabilitate the property and ultimately awarded it to the Oliver Carr Company and Golding Associates. The two partners then brought in the InterContinental Hotels Group to be a part owner and operator of the hotel. The Willard was subsequently restored to its turn-of-the-century elegance and an office-building contingent was added. The hotel was thus re-opened amid great celebration on August 20, 1986, which was attended by several U.S. Supreme Court justices and U.S. senators. In the late 1990s, the hotel once again underwent significant restoration.
The first group of three Japanese ambassadors to the United States stayed at the Willard with seventy-four other delegates in 1860, where they observed that their hotel room was more luxurious than the U.S. Secretary of State's house. It was the first time an official Japanese delegation traveled to a foreign destination, and many tourists and journalists gathered to see the sword-carrying Japanese.
From February 4 to February 27, 1861, the Peace Congress, featuring delegates from 21 of the 34 states, met at the Willard in a last-ditch attempt to avert the Civil War. A plaque from the Virginia Civil War Commission, located on the Pennsylvania Ave. side of the hotel, commemorates this courageous effort. Later that year, upon hearing a Union regiment singing John Brown's Body as they marched beneath her window, Julia Ward Howe wrote the lyrics to The Battle Hymn of the Republic while staying at the hotel in November 1861.
On February 23, 1861, amid several assassination threats, detective Allan Pinkerton smuggled Abraham Lincoln into the Willard during the weeks before his inauguration; there Lincoln lived until his inauguration on March 4, holding meetings in the lobby and carrying on business from his room.
On March 27, 1874, the Northern and Southern Orders of Chi Phi met at the Willard to unite as the Chi Phi Fraternity. Many United States presidents have frequented the Willard, and every president since Franklin Pierce has either slept in or attended an event at the hotel at least once; the hotel hence is also known as "the residence of presidents." It was the habit of Ulysses S. Grant to drink whiskey and smoke a cigar while relaxing in the lobby. Folklore (promoted by the hotel) holds that this is the origin of the term "lobbying," as Grant was often approached by those seeking favors. However, this is probably false, as Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary dates the verb to lobby to 1837. Plans for Woodrow Wilson's League of Nations took shape when he held meetings of the League to Enforce Peace in the hotel's lobby in 1916. Woodrow Wilson's Vice President, Thomas R. Marshall, lived at the hotel during his tenure in that office, as did his successor Calvin Coolidge.
Several hundred officers, many of them combat veterans of World War I, first gathered with the General of the Armies, John J. "Blackjack" Pershing, at the Willard Hotel on October 2, 1922, and formally established the Reserve Officers Association (ROA) as an organization.
On September 23, 1987, it was reported that Bob Fosse collapsed in his room at the Willard and later died. It was subsequently learned that he actually died at George Washington University Hospital.
Among the Willard's many other famous guests are P. T. Barnum, Mark Twain, Walt Whitman, General Tom Thumb, Samuel Morse, the Duke of Windsor, Harry Houdini, Gypsy Rose Lee, Gloria Swanson, Emily Dickinson, Jenny Lind, Charles Dickens, Bert Bell, Joe Paterno, and Jim Sweeney.
Steven Spielberg shot the finale of his film Minority Report at the hotel in the summer of 2001. He filmed with Tom Cruise and Max von Sydow in the Willard Room, Peacock Alley and the kitchen. A replica of the terraced roof of the office building, seen in the photo above, was constructed on a soundstage for the final scene.
The Washington Monument as viewed from the Willard Hotel by Carol M. Highsmith
- Moeller and Weeks, AIA Guide to the Architecture of Washington, D.C., 2006, p. 133.
- Tindall, Standard History of the City of Washington From a Study of the Original Sources, 1914, p. 353-354.
- Denby, Grand Hotels: Reality and Illusion, 2004, p. 221-222.
- Moeller and Weeks, AIA Guide to the Architecture of Washington, D.C., 2006, p. 134.
- Hogarth, Walking Tours of Old Washington and Alexandria, 1985, p. 28.
- Willard, "Henry August Willard: His Life and Times," Records of the Columbia Historical Society, 1917, p. 244-245.
- Burlingame, With Lincoln in the White House, 2006, p. 197.
- Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2012. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved March 31, 2013.
- "Notables Routed By Top Floor Fire In Willard Hotel," New York Times, April 24, 1922.
- Barbara Gamarekian, "The Willard is Restored as a Jewel of Pennsylvania Avenue", New York Times, 1986-09-04
- Elizabeth Smith Brownstein, The Willard Hotel, The White House Historical Association, retrieved 2013-03-04
- Dallas Finn. "Guests of the Nation: The Japanese Delegation to the Buchanan White House". White House Historical Association. Retrieved 2013-03-04.
- "Feb 23, 1861: Lincoln avoids assassination attempt". History.com. Retrieved 2013-03-04.
- Greg Pesto. "Hotel Of The Day: Willard InterContinental". Forbes.com. Retrieved 2013-03-04.
- "History of ROA". Retrieved 2 April 2012.
- Triolo V; Riegel, IL (1961). "The American Association for Cancer Research, 1907–1940: Historical Review". Can Res 21 (2): 137–167. PMID 13778091.
- Louise Sweeney (1986-06-26). "Restoring the Willard. Historic hotel again reflects its glittering past". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2013-03-04.
- "The Willard Hotel". American Heritage Publishing. Retrieved 2013-03-04.
- "The Willard InterContinental, Washington DC". National Trust for Historic Preservation. Retrieved 2013-03-04.
- Norington, Brad (February 22, 2012). "Perfect setting in a Washington hotel for politician's career relaunch". The Australian. Retrieved February 23, 2012.
- Burlingame, Michael. With Lincoln in the White House: Letters, Memoranda, and Other Writings of John G. Nicolay, 1860-1865. Carbondale, Ill.: SIU Press, 2006.
- Denby, Elaine. Grand Hotels: Reality and Illusion. London: Reaktion Books, 2004.
- Hogarth, Paul. Walking Tours of Old Washington and Alexandria. McLean, Va.: EPM Publications, 1985.
- Moeller, Gerard Martin and Weeks, Christopher. AIA Guide to the Architecture of Washington, D.C. 4th ed. Baltimore: JHU Press, 2006.
- "Notables Routed By Top Floor Fire In Willard Hotel." New York Times. April 24, 1922.
- Tindall, William. Standard History of the City of Washington From a Study of the Original Sources. Knoxville, Tenn.: H.W. Crew & Co., 1914.
- Willard, Henry Kellogg. "Henry August Willard: His Life and Times." Records of the Columbia Historical Society. 1917.
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