Bilibino

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Bilibino (English)
Билибино (Russian)
-  Town[1]  -
Зимний туман над Билибино.jpg
Winter fog over Bilibino
Map of Russia - Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (2008-03).svg
Location of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug in Russia
Bilibino is located in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
Bilibino
Bilibino
Location of Bilibino in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
Coordinates: 68°03′N 166°27′E / 68.050°N 166.450°E / 68.050; 166.450Coordinates: 68°03′N 166°27′E / 68.050°N 166.450°E / 68.050; 166.450
Coat of Arms of Bilibino (Chukotka).png
Coat of arms of Bilibino and Bilibinsky District
Administrative status (as of June 2012)
Country Russia
Federal subject Chukotka Autonomous Okrug[1]
Administrative district Bilibinsky District[1]
Administrative center of Bilibinsky District[1]
Municipal status (as of October 2010)
Municipal district Bilibinsky Municipal District[2]
Urban settlement Bilibino Urban Settlement[2]
Administrative center of Bilibinsky Municipal District,[2] Bilibino Urban Settlement[2]
Head[3] Svetlana Tolstaya[3]
Statistics
Area 22.15 km2 (8.55 sq mi)[4]
Population (2010 Census) 5,506 inhabitants[5]
Population (January 2014 est.) 5,588 inhabitants[6]
Density(October 2012) 248 /km2 (640 /sq mi)[4]
Time zone MAGT (UTC+12:00)[7]
Founded March 1955[4]
Town status since June 28, 1993[4]
Postal code(s)[8] 689450
Dialing code(s) +7 42738[citation needed]
Bilibino on WikiCommons

Bilibino (Russian: Били́бино) is a town and the administrative center of Bilibinsky District in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia, located at the confluence of the Karalveyem and Bolshoy Keperveyem Rivers (Kolyma's basin), 625 kilometers (388 mi) northwest of Anadyr, the administrative center of the autonomous okrug. With a population of 5,506 as of the 2010 Census, it is the second largest town in the autonomous okrug after Anadyr.[5]

Geography[edit]

Aerial view of Bilibino

Bilibino is located at the transition zone between the conifer forest and the tundra, in the Chuvan Mountains.

History[edit]

As with much of the rest of Chukotka, the earliest human remains found in the region around Bilibino have been dated to the Early Neolithic, with camp sites having been excavated at Orlovka 2, a site on the banks of the Orlovka River, as well as at Lakes Tytyl and Ilirney.[9]

Interest in the area around the present day site of the town began in the 1920s when prospectors including Soviet geologist Yury Bilibin discovered gold in the region and began to make assessments regarding the commercial viability of its extraction.[10] In March 1955, gold mining operations commenced and the construction of a settlement started,[4] though at this stage it was little more than a collection of geologists' and prospectors' tents, who had originally been based in Seymchan.[10] Because of his discovery of gold in the region, particularly within the vicinity of the Bolshoy Anyuy and Maly Anyuy Rivers, the geologists named the new settlement after Yury Bilibin, and the new name was officially adopted in February 1956.[4] On September 6, 1958, Bilibino was granted urban-type settlement status.[4]

Bilibino's development intensified in the early 1960s when it was joined to the Pevek power gird. On August 2, 1961, Bilibino became the administrative center of the district which was renamed Bilibinsky on the occasion.[4] In 1965, the Soviet government decided to build Bilibino Nuclear Power Plant.[10] The construction aided by several hundred volunteers from the Komsomol organization was completed in 1974; by 1976 three additional reactors were put into operation.[11] Town status was granted to Bilibino on June 28, 1993.[4]

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Bilibino serves as the administrative center of Bilibinsky District,[1] to which it is directly subordinated.[12] As a municipal division, the town of Bilibino is, together with the selo of Keperveyem, incorporated within Bilibinsky Municipal District as Bilibino Urban Settlement.[2]

Economy[edit]

The town is home to the world's northernmost nuclear power plant[citation needed] which opened in January 1974.[11] The Bilibino Nuclear Power Plant is the only nuclear power plant in the Russian Far East[citation needed] and has four reactors, each with an output of 12 MWe.[11] An update program is in place to guarantee the running of the power station until at least 2018.[11]

Gold mining was discontinued in Bilibino.[when?] The nearest operating gold mine is located 20 kilometers (12 mi) west of the town.[citation needed]

Transportation[edit]

The region where Bilibino is located has virtually no roads that are usable year-round; even a trip from the Keperveyem Airport to Bilibino town requires a 40-kilometer (25 mi) journey along an unpaved road.[9]

Bilibino is on the winter-only ice road between Pevek and the seaport of Zelyony Mys on the Kolyma River near Chersky in the Sakha Republic. Heavier transports use this ice road.

Demographics[edit]

In a typical development for the post-Soviet era in the Russian Far East, Bilibino's population dropped significantly after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. During the 1989 Soviet Census, the population of Bilibino was 15,558;[13] it fell to 6,181 in the 2002 Census[14] and further down to 5,506 in the 2010 Russian Census.[5] As of January 2010, the ethnic make up of the town was mostly Russians (71%) and Ukrainians (15%); Chukchi people and Evens accounted for 6% and 3%, correspondingly; with all other ethnicities accounting for less than 1% each.[citation needed]

Climate[edit]

Bilibino has a continental subarctic climate (Dfc) according to the Köppen climate classification.[15]

Climate data for Bilibino
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 0
(32.0)
3
(37.4)
1.8
(35.2)
8.3
(46.9)
23.2
(73.8)
32
(89.6)
35.1
(95.2)
29.9
(85.8)
21
(69.8)
8
(46.4)
3.2
(37.8)
1.9
(35.4)
35.1
(95.2)
Average high °C (°F) −27.6
(−17.7)
−26.8
(−16.2)
−17.5
(0.5)
−6.8
(19.8)
5.9
(42.6)
16
(60.8)
16.8
(62.2)
13.9
(57.0)
5.6
(42.1)
−8
(17.6)
−22.3
(−8.1)
−27.5
(−17.5)
−6.5
(20.3)
Average low °C (°F) −32.2
(−26.0)
−32.7
(−26.9)
−28.7
(−19.7)
−18.5
(−1.3)
−3.2
(26.2)
5.2
(41.4)
6.7
(44.1)
3.4
(38.1)
−1.8
(28.8)
−14.4
(6.1)
−27.3
(−17.1)
−32.4
(−26.3)
−14.7
(5.6)
Record low °C (°F) −58
(−72.4)
−54
(−65.2)
−50.3
(−58.5)
−74
(−101.2)
−23.5
(−10.3)
−5.4
(22.3)
−2.3
(27.9)
−8.2
(17.2)
−15
(5.0)
−37
(−34.6)
−47
(−52.6)
−52
(−61.6)
−74
(−101.2)
Rainfall mm (inches) 12
(0.47)
9
(0.35)
3
(0.12)
6
(0.24)
6
(0.24)
18
(0.71)
42
(1.65)
30
(1.18)
21
(0.83)
18
(0.71)
12
(0.47)
18
(0.71)
195
(7.68)
Avg. snowy days 25 19 14 10 7 1 0 0 9 20 18 21 144
Source: [16]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Law #33-OZ
  2. ^ a b c d e Law #43-OZ
  3. ^ a b Official website of Bilibinsky District. About the District. Urban and Rural Settlements (Russian)
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Official website of Bilibinsky District. General Description of the Town of Bilibino (Russian)
  5. ^ a b c "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  6. ^ Chukotka Autonomous Okrug Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Численность постоянного населения Чукотского автономного округа по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2014 года (Russian)
  7. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  8. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Russian)
  9. ^ a b Petit Fute. Chukotka, p. 100
  10. ^ a b c Petit Fute. Chukotka, pp. 102f
  11. ^ a b c d Council for Security Cooperation in the Asia Pacific (CSCAP). Nuclear Transparency in the Asia Pacific. Bilibino Power Station
  12. ^ Directive #517-rp
  13. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  14. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  15. ^ McKnight and Hess, pp. 232–235
  16. ^ "Weather History - Bilibino". meoweather.com. Retrieved April 10, 2014. 

Sources[edit]

  • Дума Чукотского автономного округа. Закон №33-ОЗ от 30 июня 1998 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Чукотского автономного округа», в ред. Закона №55-ОЗ от 9 июня 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Чукотского автономного округа "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Чукотского автономного округа"». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней со дня его официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Ведомости", №7 (28), 14 мая 1999 г. (Duma of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug. Law #33-OZ of June 30, 1998 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, as amended by the Law #55-OZ of June 9, 2012 On Amending the Law of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug". Effective as of after ten days from the day of the official publication.).
  • Правительство Чукотского автономного округа. Распоряжение №517-рп от 30 декабря 2008 г. «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных и территориальных образований Чукотского автономного округа», в ред. Распоряжения №323-рп от 27 июня 2011 г. «О внесении изменений в Распоряжение Правительства Чукотского автономного округа от 30 декабря 2008 года №517-рп». Опубликован: База данных "Консультант-плюс". (Government of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug. Directive #517-rp of December 30, 2008 On the Adoption of the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial and Territorial Formations of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, as amended by the Directive #323-rp of June 27, 2011 On Amending the Government of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug Directive No. 517-rp of December 30, 2008. ).
  • Дума Чукотского автономного округа. Закон №43-ОЗ от 29 ноября 2004 г. «О статусе, границах и административных центрах муниципальных образований на территории Билибинского района Чукотского автономного округа», в ред. Закона №88-ОЗ от 20 октября 2010 г «О преобразовании путём объединения поселений на территории Билибинского муниципального района и внесении изменений в Закон Чукотского автономного округа "О статусе, границах и административных центрах муниципальных образований на территории Билибинского района Чукотского автономного округа"». Вступил в силу через десять дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Ведомости", №31/1 (178/1), 10 декабря 2004 г. (Duma of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug. Law #43-OZ of November 29, 2004 On the Status, Borders, and Administrative Centers of the Municipal Formations on the Territory of Bilibinsky District of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, as amended by the Law #88-OZ of October 20, 2010 On the Transformation (Merger) of the Settlements on the Territory of Bilibinsky Municipal District and Amending the Law of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug "On the Status, Borders, and Administrative Centers of the Municipal Formations on the Territory of Bilibinsky District of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug". Effective as of the day ten days after the official publication date.).
  • Petit Fute. Chukotka.
  • McKnight, Tom L; Hess, Darrel (2000). "Climate Zones and Types". Physical Geography: A Landscape Appreciation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-020263-0. 

External links[edit]