The council consists of 49 councillors, and is controlled by the Conservative Party, which has 36 councillors. It has been controlled by the Conservatives since the reorganisation of local government in 1973. For the 2013 elections, the number of seats was reduced from 57 to 49 following the 2012 changes in division boundaries.
Conservative councillors represent almost all of the county, both in terms of number of seats and geographic area. The one main area of exception is Aylesbury, which is predominantly represented by UKIP.