Campione d'Italia

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Campione d'Italia
Comune
Comune di Campione d'Italia
Campione d'Italia
Campione d'Italia
Flag of Campione d'Italia
Flag
Coat of arms of Campione d'Italia
Coat of arms
Campione d'Italia is located in Italy
Campione d'Italia
Campione d'Italia
Location of Campione d'Italia in Italy
Coordinates: 45°58′N 08°58′E / 45.967°N 8.967°E / 45.967; 8.967
Country Italy
Region Lombardy
Province Province of Como
Founded 77 BC
Government
 • Mayor Maria Paola Rita Mangili
Area
 • Total 1.6 km2 (0.6 sq mi)
Elevation 273 m (896 ft)
Population (1 January 2007)[1]
 • Total 2,201
 • Density 1,400/km2 (3,600/sq mi)
Demonym Campionesi
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code I-22060 CH-6911
Dialing code +41 91
(as a Swiss dialing code)
Patron saint St. Zeno
Saint day 12 April
Website Official website

Campione d'Italia is an Italian comune (municipality) of the Province of Como in the Lombardy region, and an Italian exclave within the Swiss canton of Ticino, separated from the rest of Italy by Lake Lugano and mountains. The enclave is less than 1 km (0.6 miles) at the shortest point from the rest of Italy, but the hilly terrain requires a journey by road of over 14 km (9 mi) to reach the nearest Italian town, Lanzo d'Intelvi, and over 28 km (17 mi) to reach the city of Como.

History[edit]

Map showing the location of the Campione enclave near the center.

In the first century BC the Romans founded the garrison town of Campilonum to protect their territories from Helvetii invasions.[2]

In 777 Toto of Campione, a local Lombard lord, left his inheritance to the archbishopric of Milan. Ownership was transferred to the abbey of Sant’Ambrogio. In 1521 the surrounding area of Ticino was transferred from the ownership of the bishop of Como to Switzerland by Pope Julius II, as thanks for support in the War of the Holy League. However, the abbey maintained control over what is now Campione d'Italia and some territory on the western bank of Lake Lugano.[2]

Its status came about when Ticino chose to become part of the Swiss Confederation in 1798, and Campione's people chose to remain part of Lombardy.[citation needed] In 1800 Ticino proposed to exchange Indemini for Campione. In 1814 a referendum was held, but the residents of Campione were against it. In 1848, during the wars of Italian unification, Campione petitioned Switzerland for annexation, but this was rejected due to the Swiss desire to maintain neutrality.[2]

After Italian unification in 1861, all land west of Lake Lugano and half of the lake were given to Switzerland so that Swiss trade and transport would not have to pass through Italy. The d'Italia was added to the name of Campione in the 1930s by Prime Minister Benito Mussolini and an ornamental gate to the city was built, both in an attempt to assert the exclave's Italian-ness.[2]

During World War II, the US Office of Strategic Services (OSS – the precursor to the CIA) maintained a unit in Campione and used it for operations into Italy.[3] At the time the pro-Nazi Italian regime did not have control over the exclave. The Swiss turned a blind eye to the situation as long as the Americans kept a low profile. Separate stamps were issued during this period inscribed "Campione d'Italia" and valued in the Swiss currency.[4]

Economy and administration[edit]

Campione has a considerable amount of economic and administrative integration with Switzerland. Because of its particular status, legal tender in the town is the Swiss franc,[5] but the euro is widely accepted; Italian citizens residing in Campione must abide by Swiss law regarding customs duties.[citation needed] Car plates are not Italian, but Swiss; similarly, the telephone system is almost entirely operated by Swisscom, meaning that calls from Italy and all other countries outside Switzerland (with very few exceptions such as calling the city hall) require the international dialing code for Switzerland (+41) and the Ticino area code (91). Mail may be sent using either a Swiss postal code or an Italian one using Switzerland or Italy as destination country respectively.

Pursuant to bilateral agreements, Italians residing in Campione also benefit from many services and facilities located in Swiss territory, such as hospital care, that would otherwise be available only to Swiss residents.[6]

Like the Italian town of Livigno, it is exempt from the EU VAT. Campione takes advantage of its status by operating a casino, the Casinò di Campione, as gambling laws are less strict than in either Italy or Switzerland (also a legacy of the pre-World War II era).

Security is provided by the Carabinieri (Italian military police) and the city also has a Polizia Locale group. However, firemen and ambulances are Swiss.[7]

Education[edit]

Schools within the commune are the Scuola Materna G. Garibaldi, the Scuola Elementare, and the Scuola Media.[8]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://demo.istat.it/index_e.html ISTAT demographics
  2. ^ a b c d Jacobs, Frank (15 May 2012). "Enclave-Hunting in Switzerland". New York Times. Retrieved 19 May 2012. 
  3. ^ Frank Jacobs (15 May 2012). "Enclave-Hunting in Switzerland". The New York Times. 
  4. ^ Campione d'Italia Swiss stamps
  5. ^ "Comune di Campione d'Italia" (Italian). Retrieved 2009-01-12.  "... pur essendo territorio italiano Campione è doganalmente ed economicamente svizzero. Così pure la moneta e la rete telefonica. ("... although being Italian territory, Campione is customs-wise and economically Swiss. Also the currency and the telephone network.")
  6. ^ "Rapporti tra il Cantone Ticino e il Comune di Campione d’Italia (Relations between Canton Ticino and Campione d'Italia) (Italian)". Retrieved 2008-08-11. 
  7. ^ "Servizi Emergenze (Services, emergencies) (Italian)". Retrieved 2012-11-18. 
  8. ^ "Numeri Utili." (Archive) Campione d'Italia. Retrieved on 14 November 2013.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 45°58′N 8°58′E / 45.967°N 8.967°E / 45.967; 8.967