Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond

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The Duke of Richmond
Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond, Duke of Lennox.jpg
Born (1701-05-18)18 May 1701
Died 8 August 1750(1750-08-08) (aged 49)
Title Duke of Richmond
Tenure 27 May 1723 – 8 August 1750
Other titles 2nd Duke of Lennox
2nd Duke of Aubigny (France)
2nd Earl of March
2nd Earl of Darnley
2nd Baron Settrington
2nd Lord Torbolton
Hereditary Constable of Inverness Castle
Successor Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke
Spouse(s) Sarah Cadogan
Issue Georgiana Carolina Lennox
Emilia Mary Lennox
Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke
Lord George Lennox
Louisa Augusta Lennox
Sarah Lennox
Cecilia Lennox
Parents Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond
Anne Brudenell

Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond, 2nd Duke of Lennox, 2nd Duke of Aubigny, KG, KB, PC, FRS (18 May 1701, Goodwood, Sussex – 8 August 1750, Godalming, Surrey) was the son of Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond, and a grandson of King Charles II.

He held a number of posts in connection with his high office but is best remembered for his patronage of cricket. He has been described as the most important of the sport's early patrons.[fc 1]

Early life[edit]

Lennox was styled Earl of March from his birth in 1701 as heir to his father's dukedom.[1] He also inherited his father's love of sports, particularly cricket.[2] He had a serious accident at the age of 12 when he was thrown from a horse during a hunt, but he recovered and it did not deter him from horsemanship.[3]

March entered into an arranged marriage in December 1719 when he was still only 18 and his bride, Lady Sarah Cadogan, was just 13. They were married at The Hague.[4]

In 1722, March became Member of Parliament for Chichester as first member with Sir Thomas Miller as his second. He gave up his seat after his father died in May 1723 and he succeeded to the title of 2nd Duke of Richmond. A feature of Richmond's career was the support he received from his wife Sarah, her interest being evident in surviving letters. Their marriage was a great success, especially by Georgian standards.

Their grandson who became the 4th Duke is known to cricket history as the Hon. Col. Charles Lennox, a noted amateur batsman of the late 18th century who was one of Thomas Lord's main guarantors when he established his new ground in Marylebone.[5]

Cricket career[edit]

The Duke of Richmond's XI[edit]

Charles Lennox
Personal information
Full name Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond
Born (1701-05-18)18 May 1701
Goodwood, West Sussex, England
Died 8 August 1750(1750-08-08) (aged 49)
Godalming, Surrey, England
Batting style unknown hand
Bowling style underarm
Role patron and team captain
Domestic team information
Years Team
c. 1720 to
c. 1750
Sussex
Career statistics
Source: John Marshall, 17 July 2009

The 2nd Duke of Richmond has been described as early cricket's greatest patron.[6] Although he had played cricket as a boy, his real involvement began after he succeeded to the dukedom.[7] He captained his own eleven and his players included some of the earliest known professionals, such as his groom Thomas Waymark. Later, when he patronised Slindon Cricket Club, Richmond was associated with the Newland brothers. His earliest recorded match is the one against Sir William Gage's eleven on 20 July 1725, which is mentioned in a surviving letter from Sir William to the Duke.[8][9]

Records have survived of four matches played by Richmond's team in the 1727 season. Two were against Gage's XI and two against an XI raised by the Surrey patron Alan Brodrick.[10] These last two games are highly significant because Richmond and Brodrick drew up Articles of Agreement beforehand to determine the rules that must apply in their contests. These were itemised in sixteen points.[11] It is believed that this was the first time that rules (or some part of the rules as in this case) were formally agreed, although rules as such definitely existed. The first full codification of the Laws of Cricket was done in 1744. In early times, the rules would be agreed upon orally and were subject to local variations; this syndrome was also evident in football until the FA was founded, especially regarding the question of handling the ball. Essentially the articles of agreement focused on residential qualifications and ensuring that there was no dissent by any player other than the two captains.[12]

In 1728, Richmond's Sussex played twice against Edward Stead's Kent and lost both matches, with Kent effectively claiming the Champion County title as "(its) men have been too expert for those of Sussex".[13]

In 1730, Richmond's team played two matches against Gage's XI and another match against a Surrey XI backed by a Mr Andrews of Sunbury. Richmond lost to Andrews.[14] The second of his matches against Gage, due to be played at The Dripping Pan, near Lewes, was "put off on account of Waymark, the Duke's man, being ill".[15]

In 1731, Richmond was involved in one of the most controversial matches recorded in the early history of cricket. On 16 August, his Sussex team played a Middlesex XI backed by a Mr Chambers at a venue in Chichester. Mr Chambers' team won this match, which had a prize of 100 guineas, and a return was arranged to take place at Richmond Green on 23 August.[16]

The return match was played for 200 guineas and it is notable as the earliest match of which the team scores are known: Duke of Richmond 79, Mr Chambers 119; Duke of Richmond 72, Mr Chambers 23–5 (approx.). The game ended promptly at a pre-agreed time although Mr Chambers with "four or five more to have come in" and needing "about 8 to 10 notches" clearly had the upper hand. The end result caused a fracas among the crowd at Richmond Green, who were incensed by the prompt finish because the Duke of Richmond had arrived late and delayed the start of the game. The riot resulted in some of the Sussex players "having the shirts torn off their backs" and it was said "a law suit would commence about the play".[17] In a note about another match involving Mr Chambers' team in September, G. B. Buckley has recorded that Richmond may have conceded the result to Chambers, presumably to stop the threat of litigation.[18]

Richmond is not mentioned in cricket sources again for ten years. He may have stepped aside after the 1731 fracas but it is more likely that he terminated the Duke of Richmond's eleven after he broke his leg in 1733 and could no longer play himself.[19] Instead, he channelled his enthusiasm for cricket through a team from the small village of Slindon, which bordered on his Goodwood estate.[19]

Slindon[edit]

The rise to fame of Slindon Cricket Club was based on the play of Richard Newland and the patronage of Richmond. On Thursday, 9 July 1741, in a letter to her husband, the Duchess of Richmond mentions a conversation with John Newland regarding a Slindon v. East Dean match at Long Down, near Eartham, a week earlier. This is the earliest recorded mention of any of the Newland family.[20] Then, on 28 July, Richmond sent two letters to the Duke of Newcastle to tell him about a game that day which had resulted in a brawl with "hearty blows" and "broken heads". The game was at Portslade between Slindon, who won, and unnamed opponents.[21]

On Monday 7 September 1741, Slindon played Surrey at Merrow Down, near Guildford. Richmond, in a letter to the Duke of Newcastle before the game, spoke of "poor little Slyndon against almost your whole county of Surrey". Next day he wrote again, saying that "wee (sic) have beat Surrey almost in one innings".[22]

The Duchess wrote to him on Wednesday 9 September and said she "wish'd..... that the Sussex mobb (sic) had thrash'd the Surrey mob". She had "a grudge to those fellows ever since they mob'd you" (apparently a reference to the Richmond Green fiasco in August 1731). She then said she wished the Duke "had won more of their moneys".[23]

In 1744, Richmond created what is now the world's oldest known scorecard for the match between London and Slindon at the Artillery Ground on 2 June. Slindon won by 55 runs and the original scorecard is now among Richmond's papers in the possession of the West Sussex Records Office.[24]

In August 1745, Richmond backed a Sussex XI against Surrey in a match at Berry Hill, near Arundel. It appears that Surrey won the game in view of a comment made by Lord John Philip Sackville in a letter to Richmond dated Saturday 14 September: "I wish you had let Ridgeway play instead of your stopper behind it might have turned the match in our favour".[25]

Single wicket[edit]

When single wicket became the dominant form of cricket in the late 1740s, Richmond entered a number of teams mostly centred on Stephen Dingate, who was in his employ at the time. For example, a number of matches were played by a "threes" team of Dingate, Joseph Rudd and Pye. Richmond often found himself opposed by his former groom Thomas Waymark, still an outstanding player but now resident in Berkshire.[26]

Richmond died on 8 August 1750. He had been arguably the greatest of the game's early patrons, particularly of the Slindon club and of Sussex cricket in general. His death was followed by a slump in the fortunes of Sussex cricket, which featured few matches of significance until the rise of Brighton Cricket Club in the 1790s.[27]

Career in the peerage[edit]

Richmond held many titles, including the Order of the Garter (KG), Order of the Bath (KCB), Privy Counsellor (PC) and Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS).

He served as Lord of the Bedchamber to King George II from 1727 and, in 1735, he was appointed Master of the Horse.

He was admitted a Fellow of the Royal Society on 6 February 1724.[28] Later that year, he followed his father, the 1st Duke, into freemasonry and was an early Grand Master Mason shortly after the formation of the Premier Grand Lodge of England. His father had been a master mason in Chichester in 1696. As Duke of Aubigny, he also assisted in introducing freemasonry into France. In 1734, he created a masonic lodge in the Chateau d'Aubigny, and a year later, with another past Grand Master, John Theophilus Desaguliers, assisted in inaugurating a lodge in the hotel at Rue Bussy, in Paris.[29]

Richmond was one of the founding Governors of London's Foundling Hospital, which received its Royal Charter from George II in 1739. The Foundling Hospital was a charity dedicated to saving London's abandoned children. Both the Duke and the Duchess took great interest in the project. The Duke attended committee meetings and both took part in the baptism and naming of the first children accepted by the hospital in March 1741.

Richmond was a Lieutenant-General in the British Army and served under the notorious Duke of Cumberland in the Hanoverian campaign against the 1745 Jacobite Rising.

Marriage and issue[edit]

Richmond married Lady Sarah Cadogan (1705–1751), daughter of William Cadogan, 1st Earl Cadogan, on 4 December 1719 at The Hague, Netherlands. They had twelve children:

Richmond died on 8 August 1750 at Godalming and is buried in Chichester Cathedral. His wife Sarah survived him by only one year.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Note that surviving match records to 1825 are incomplete and any statistical compilation of a player's career in that period is based on known data. Match scorecards were not always created, or have been lost, and the matches themselves were not always recorded in the press or other media. Scorecard data was not comprehensive: e.g., bowling analyses lacked balls bowled and runs conceded; bowlers were not credited with wickets when the batsman was caught or stumped; in many matches, the means of dismissal were omitted.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Marshall, p.1.
  2. ^ Marshall, pp.7–17.
  3. ^ Marshall, pp.18–20.
  4. ^ Marshall, pp.24–25.
  5. ^ Altham, p.51.
  6. ^ Underdown, p.53.
  7. ^ Birley, p.18.
  8. ^ McCann, p.4
  9. ^ Marshall, p.41.
  10. ^ McCann, pp.6–7.
  11. ^ Birley, pp.18–19.
  12. ^ Birley, p.19.
  13. ^ Waghorn, p.7.
  14. ^ Waghorn, p.1.
  15. ^ Waghorn, pp.1–2.
  16. ^ Buckley, p.6.
  17. ^ McCann, pp.12–13.
  18. ^ Buckley, p.7.
  19. ^ a b McCann, p.lxi.
  20. ^ McCann, p.19.
  21. ^ McCann, p.20.
  22. ^ McCann, pp.20–21.
  23. ^ McCann, p.21.
  24. ^ "London v. Slindon in 1744". CricketArchive. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  25. ^ McCann, pp.34–35.
  26. ^ Ashley-Cooper, At the Sign of the Wicket, p.52.
  27. ^ "Classification of cricket matches from 1697 to 1825". John Leach. 2008. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  28. ^ "Lists of Royal Society Fellows". The Royal Society. Retrieved 15 December 2006. 
  29. ^ Audrey T. Carpenter, John Theophilus Desaguliers: A Natural Philosopher, Engineer and Freemason in Newtonian England, Continuum, 2011, pp199-207
  30. ^ Patrick Cracroft-Brennan, Richmond, Duke of (E, 1675). Cracroft's Peerage. Accessed 8 March 2013.

External links[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Altham, H. S. (1962). A History of Cricket, Volume 1 (to 1914). George Allen & Unwin. 
  • Ashley-Cooper, F. S. (1900). At the Sign of the Wicket: Cricket 1742–1751. Cricket magazine. 
  • Birley, Derek (1999). A Social History of English Cricket. Aurum. 
  • Bowen, Rowland (1970). Cricket: A History of its Growth and Development. Eyre & Spottiswoode. 
  • Buckley, G. B. (1935). Fresh Light on 18th Century Cricket. Cotterell. 
  • Marshall, John (1961). The Duke who was Cricket. Muller. 
  • Maun, Ian (2009). From Commons to Lord's, Volume One: 1700 to 1750. Roger Heavens. ISBN 978-1-900592-52-9. 
  • McCann, Tim (2004). Sussex Cricket in the Eighteenth Century. Sussex Record Society. 
  • Nicholls, R. H. & Wray, F. A. (1935). The History of the Foundling Hospital. London: Oxford University Press. 
  • Tillyard, Stella (1994). Aristocrats: Caroline, Emily, Louisa, and Sarah Lennox, 1740–1832. Farrar, Straus & Giroux. 
  • Underdown, David (2000). Start of Play. Allen Lane. 
  • Waghorn, H. T. (1906). The Dawn of Cricket. Electric Press. 
  • Wilson, Martin (2005). An Index to Waghorn. Bodyline. 
Parliament of Great Britain
Preceded by
Sir Thomas Miller
Henry Kelsall
Member of Parliament for Member for Chichester
1722–1723
With: Sir Thomas Miller
Succeeded by
Sir Thomas Miller
Lord William Beauclerk
Military offices
Preceded by
The Duke of Somerset
Colonel of the Royal Horse Guards
1750
Vacant
Title next held by
Sir John Ligonier
Masonic offices
Preceded by
The Duke of Buccleuch
Grand Master of the Premier
Grand Lodge of England

1724–1725
Succeeded by
Lord Paisley
Political offices
Preceded by
The Earl of Scarbrough
Master of the Horse
1735–1750
Succeeded by
Vacant
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Charles Lennox
Duke of Richmond
3rd creation
1723–1750
Succeeded by
Charles Lennox
Peerage of Scotland
Preceded by
Charles Lennox
Duke of Lennox
2nd creation
1723–1750
Succeeded by
Charles Lennox
French nobility
Preceded by
Charles Lennox
Duke of Aubigny
1723–1734
Succeeded by
Charles Lennox