Chiang Mai

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Not to be confused with Chiang Rai or Chengmai.
This article is about the city Chiang Mai. For other uses, see Chiang Mai (disambiguation).
Chiang Mai
เชียงใหม่
City Municipality
Top left: East moat, Chiang Mai; top right: Chedi, Wat Phrathat Doi Suthep; middle left: View from Doi Suthep of downtown Chiang Mai; middle right: Tha Phae Gate; bottom left: A songthaew shared taxi; bottom right: Wat Chiang Man
Top left: East moat, Chiang Mai; top right: Chedi, Wat Phrathat Doi Suthep; middle left: View from Doi Suthep of downtown Chiang Mai; middle right: Tha Phae Gate; bottom left: A songthaew shared taxi; bottom right: Wat Chiang Man
Location of the city within Chiang Mai Province
Location of the city within Chiang Mai Province
Chiang Mai is located in Thailand
Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
Location of the city within Thailand
Coordinates: 18°47′43″N 98°59′55″E / 18.79528°N 98.99861°E / 18.79528; 98.99861Coordinates: 18°47′43″N 98°59′55″E / 18.79528°N 98.99861°E / 18.79528; 98.99861
Country  Thailand
Province Chiang Mai Province
Government
 • Type City municipality
 • Mayor Tatsanai Puranupakorn
Area
 • City Municipality 40.216 km2 (15.527 sq mi)
 • Metro 2,905 km2 (1,122 sq mi)
Elevation 310 m (1,020 ft)
Population (2008)
 • City Municipality 148,477
 • Density 3,687/km2 (9,550/sq mi)
 • Metro 960,906
 • Metro density 315.42/km2 (816.9/sq mi)
Time zone ICT (UTC+7)
Airport IATA: CNX – ICAO: VTCC
Website Official website

Chiang Mai (/ˈjɑːŋˈm/, from Thai: เชียงใหม่  [tɕʰiəŋ màj] ( ), Northern Thai: ᨩ᩠ᨿᨦᩉ᩠ᨾᩲ᩵ [t͡ɕīaŋ.màj] ( )) sometimes written as "Chiengmai" or "Chiangmai", is the largest and most culturally significant city in northern Thailand. It is the capital of Chiang Mai Province, and was a former capital of the Kingdom of Lanna (1296–1768), which became a tributary state of the Kingdom of Chiang Mai from 1774–1939. It is 700 km (435 mi) north of Bangkok, among the highest mountains in the country. The city sits astride the Ping River, a major tributary of the Chao Phraya River. Chiang Mai means "new city" and was so-named because it became the new capital of the Lanna kingdom when it was founded in 1296, succeeding Chiang Rai, the former capital founded in 1262.

Chiang Mai gained prominence in the political sphere in May 2006, when the Chiang Mai Initiative was concluded between the ASEAN nations and the "+3" countries (China, Japan, and South Korea). Chiang Mai was one of three Thai cities contending for Thailand's bid to host the World Expo 2020 (the others were Chonburi and Ayutthaya).[1] Ayutthaya, however, was the city ultimately chosen by the Thai Parliament to register for the international competition.[2][3]

Chiang Mai has positioned itself to become a Creative City, and is considering applying for Creative City status with UNESCO.[4] Chiang Mai was one of two tourist destinations in Thailand on TripAdvisor's 2014 list of "25 Best Destinations in the World", where it stands at number 24.[5]

Chiang Mai's historic importance is derived from its close proximity to the Ping River and major trading routes.[6][7][8]

While officially the city (thesaban nakhon) of Chiang Mai only covers most parts of the Mueang Chiang Mai district with a population of 160,000, the city's sprawl extends into several neighboring districts. The Chiang Mai Metropolitan Area has a population of nearly one million people, more than half the total of Chiang Mai Province.

The city is subdivided into four wards (khwaeng): Nakhon Ping, Srivijaya, Mengrai, and Kawila. The first three are on the west bank of the Ping River, and Kawila is on the east bank. Nakhon Ping district comprises the north part of the city. Srivijaya, Mengrai, and Kawila consist of the west, south, and east parts, respectively. The city center—within the city walls—is mostly within Srivijaya ward.[9]

History[edit]

Chiang Mai from Wat Phrathat Doi Suthep
Wat Chiang Man, the oldest Buddhist temple in the city
City wall, northwest corner

King Mengrai founded the city of Chiang Mai ("new city") in 1296 on the site of an older city of the Lawa people called Wiang Nopburi.[10][11] Gordon Young, in his 1962 book The Hill tribes of Northern Thailand, mentions how a Wa chieftain in Burma told him that the Wa, a people who are closely related to the Lawa, once lived in the Chiang Mai valley in "sizeable cities".[12] Chiang Mai succeeded Chiang Rai as the capital of the Lanna kingdom. The ruler was known as the "chao". The city was surrounded by a moat and a defensive wall since nearby Burma was a constant threat, as were the armies of the Mongol Empire, which only decades earlier had conquered most of Yunnan, China, and in 1292 overran the bordering Thai Lü kingdom of Chiang Hung.[6] With the decline of the Lanna Kingdom, the city lost importance and was occupied by the Burmese in 1556.[13] Chiang Mai formally became part of Siam in 1775 by an agreement with Chao Kavila, after the Thai King Taksin helped drive out the Burmese. Because of Burmese counterattacks, Chiang Mai was abandoned between 1776 and 1791.[14] Lampang then served as the capital of what remained of Lanna. Chiang Mai then slowly grew in cultural, trading, and economic importance to its current status as the unofficial capital of northern Thailand, second in importance only to Bangkok.[15]

The modern municipality dates to a sanitary district (sukhaphiban) that was created in 1915. It was upgraded to a municipality (thesaban) on 29 March 1935, as published in the Royal Gazette, Book No. 52 section 80. First covering just 17.5 km2 (7 sq mi), the city was enlarged to 40.2 km2 (16 sq mi) on 5 April 1983.[16]

Climate[edit]

Chiang Mai has a tropical wet and dry climate (Köppen Aw), tempered by the low latitude and moderate elevation, with warm to hot weather year-round, though nighttime conditions during the dry season can be cool and much lower than daytime highs. The maximum temperature ever recorded was 42.4 °C (108.3 °F) in May 2005.[17]

Climate data for Chiang Mai (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35.5
(95.9)
38.2
(100.8)
40.8
(105.4)
41.6
(106.9)
42.4
(108.3)
40.5
(104.9)
39.3
(102.7)
38.0
(100.4)
41.2
(106.2)
37.1
(98.8)
36.5
(97.7)
35.0
(95)
42.4
(108.3)
Average high °C (°F) 29.8
(85.6)
32.6
(90.7)
35.2
(95.4)
36.5
(97.7)
34.2
(93.6)
32.7
(90.9)
31.8
(89.2)
31.5
(88.7)
31.7
(89.1)
31.4
(88.5)
30.1
(86.2)
28.6
(83.5)
32.18
(89.93)
Average low °C (°F) 14.9
(58.8)
16.2
(61.2)
19.5
(67.1)
22.9
(73.2)
23.8
(74.8)
24.0
(75.2)
23.9
(75)
23.7
(74.7)
23.2
(73.8)
22.2
(72)
19.2
(66.6)
15.7
(60.3)
20.77
(69.39)
Record low °C (°F) 0.5
(32.9)
3.3
(37.9)
7.8
(46)
14.4
(57.9)
17.2
(63)
20.6
(69.1)
20.0
(68)
20.2
(68.4)
19.7
(67.5)
16.3
(61.3)
11.1
(52)
4.8
(40.6)
0.5
(32.9)
Rainfall mm (inches) 4.2
(0.165)
8.9
(0.35)
17.8
(0.701)
57.3
(2.256)
162.0
(6.378)
124.5
(4.902)
140.2
(5.52)
216.9
(8.539)
211.4
(8.323)
117.6
(4.63)
53.9
(2.122)
15.9
(0.626)
1,130.6
(44.512)
Avg. rainy days (≥ 1 mm) 1 2 2 6 14 14 16 18 20 14 5 1 113
 % humidity 68 58 52 57 71 77 79 81 81 79 75 73 70.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 272.8 251.4 269.7 258.0 217.0 177.0 170.5 161.2 156.0 198.4 234.0 263.5 2,629.5
Source #1: Thai Meteorological Department (Normal 1981-2010), (Avg. rainy days 1961-1990)
Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory (sunshine)
Panorama, Chiang Mai during the rainy season, Aug 2014

Air pollution[edit]

A continuing environmental issue in Chiang Mai is the incidence of air pollution that primarily occurs every year towards the end of the dry season between February and April, and is largely attributable to slash-and-burn farming methods. In 1996, speaking at the Fourth International Network for Environmental Compliance and Enforcement conference—held in Chiang Mai that year—the then-governor of Chiang Mai, Virachai Naewboonien, invited guest speaker Dr. Jakapan Wongburanawatt, the then-Dean of the Social Science Faculty of Chiang Mai University, to discuss air pollution efforts in the region. Dr. Wongburanawatt stated that, in 1994, an increasing number of city residents attended hospitals suffering from respiratory problems associated with the city's air pollution.[18]

The Thailand Pollution Control Department of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment is actively engaged in finding solutions, and is responsible for public awareness campaigns and other initiatives. During the February–March period, unlike the rest of the year, air quality in Chiang Mai often remains below recommended standards, with fine-particle dust levels reaching twice the standard limits.[19]

Additionally, the northern centre of the Meteorological Department has reported that low-pressure areas from China trap forest fire smoke in the mountains along the Thai-Myanmar border.[20] Research conducted between 2005 and 2009 showed that average PM10 rates in Chiang Mai during February and March were considerably above the country's safety level of 120 μg/m3, peaking at 383 μg/m3 on 14 March 2007.[21] According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the acceptable level is 50 μg/m3.[22]

To address the increasing amount of greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector in Chiang Mai, the city government has advocated the use of non-motorised transport (NMT). In addition to its potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the NMT initiative addresses other issues such as traffic congestion, air quality, income generation for the poor, and the long-term viability of the tourism industry.[23]

Emblem[edit]

The city emblem shows the Stupa at Wat Doi Suthep in its center. Below it are clouds representing the moderate climate in the mountains of northern Thailand. There is a naga, the mythical snake said to be the source of the Ping River, and rice stalks, which refer to the fertility of the land.[24]

Religious sites[edit]

Fireworks at Wat Phantao during Loi Krathong, Chiang Mai
chedi, Wat Phrathat Doi Suthep

Chiang Mai has over 300 Buddhist temples ("wat" in Thai).[25] These include:

  • Wat Phrathat Doi Suthep, the city's most famous temple, stands on Doi Suthep, a hill to the northwest of the city. The temple dates from 1383.
  • Wat Chiang Man, the oldest temple in Chiang Mai, dating from the 13th century. King Mengrai lived here during the construction of the city. This temple houses two important and venerated Buddha figures, the marble Phra Sila and the crystal Phra Satang Man.
  • Wat Phra Singh is within the city walls, dates from 1345, and offers an example of classic northern Thai-style architecture. It houses the Phra Singh Buddha, a highly venerated figure brought here many years ago from Chiang Rai.[26]
  • Wat Chedi Luang was founded in 1401 and is dominated by a large Lanna style chedi, which took many years to finish. An earthquake damaged the chedi in the 16th century and only two-thirds of it remains.[27]
  • Wat Ku Tao in the city's Chang Phuak District dates from (at least) the 13th century and is distinguished by an unusual alms-bowl-shaped stupa thought to contain the ashes of King Nawrathaminsaw, Chiang Mai's first Burmese ruler.[28]
  • Wat Chet Yot is on the outskirts of the city. Built in 1455, the temple hosted the Eighth World Buddhist Council in 1977.
  • Wiang Kum Kam is at the site of an old city on the southern outskirts of Chiang Mai. King Mengrai lived there for ten years before the founding of Chiang Mai. The site includes many ruined temples.
  • Wat Umong is a forest and cave wat in the foothills west of the city, near Chiang Mai University. Wat U-Mong is known for its "fasting Buddha", representing the Buddha at the end of his long and fruitless fast prior to gaining enlightenment.
  • Wat RamPoeng (Tapotaram), near Wat U-Mong, is known for its meditation center (Northern Insight Meditation Center). The temple teaches the traditional vipassana technique and students stay from 10 days to more than a month as they try to meditate at least 10 hours a day. Wat RamPoeng houses the largest collection of Tipitaka, the complete Theravada canon, in several Northern dialects.[29]
  • Wat Suan Dok is a 14th-century temple just west of the old city wall. It was built by the king for a revered monk visiting from Sukhothai for a rainy season retreat. The temple is also the site of Mahachulalongkorn Rajavidyalaya Buddhist University, where monks pursue their studies.[30]
  • "First Church" was founded in 1868 by the Laos Mission of the Rev. Daniel and Mrs Sophia McGilvary. Chiang Mai has about 20 Christian churches[31] Chiang Mai is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Chiang Mai.
  • Muslim traders have traveled to north Thailand for many centuries, and a small settled presence has existed in Chiang Mai from at least the middle of the 19th century.[32] The city has mosques identified with Chinese or Chin Haw Muslims as well as Muslims of Bengali, Pathan, and Malay descent. In 2011, there were 16 mosques in the city.[33]
  • Two gurdwaras (Sikh Temples), Siri Guru Singh Sabha and Namdhari,[34] serve the city's Sikh community.[34]
  • The Hindu temple Devi Mandir serves the Hindu community.[34]

Culture[edit]

Festivals[edit]

Thousands of khom fai in Mae Jo during Loi Kratong
Songkran water wars, Chiang Mai
Street scene, Chiang Mai

Chiang Mai hosts many Thai festivals, including:

  • Loi Krathong (known locally as Yi Peng), held on the full moon of the 12th month of the traditional Thai lunar calendar, being the full moon of the second month of the old Lanna calendar. In the Western calendar this usually falls in November. Every year thousands of people assemble floating banana-leaf containers (krathong) decorated with flowers and candles and deposit them on the waterways of the city in worship of the Goddess of Water. Lanna-style sky lanterns (khom fai or kom loi), which are hot-air balloons made of paper, are launched into the air. These sky lanterns are believed to help rid the locals of troubles and are also used to decorate houses and streets.
  • Songkran is held in mid-April to celebrate the traditional Thai new year. Chiang Mai has become one of the most popular locations to visit for this festival. A variety of religious and fun-related activities (notably the good-natured citywide water fight) take place each year, along with parades and a Miss Songkran beauty competition.
  • Chiang Mai Flower Festival is a three-day festival held during the first weekend in February each year; this event occurs when Chiang Mai's temperate and tropical flowers are in full bloom.
  • Tam Bun Khan Dok, the Inthakin (City Pillar) Festival, starts on the day of the waning moon of the sixth lunar month and lasts 6–8 days.

Language[edit]

The inhabitants speak Kham Muang (also known as Northern Thai or Lanna) among themselves, though Central Thai is used in education and is understood by almost everyone. English is used in hotels and travel-related businesses, and many educated people speak English. The Kham Muang alphabet is now studied only by scholars, and Northern Thai is commonly written with the standard Thai alphabet.[35]

Museums[edit]

  • Chiang Mai City Arts and Cultural Center.
  • Chiang Mai National Museum highlights the history of the region and the Kingdom of Lanna.
  • Tribal Museum showcases the history of the local mountain tribes.
  • Mint Bureau of Chiang Mai or Sala Thanarak, Treasury Department, Ministry of Finance, Rajdamnern Road (one block from AUA Language Center) has an old coin museum open to the public during business hours. The Lanna Kingdom used leaf (or line) money made of brass and silver bubbles, also called "pig-mouth" money. Nobody has been able to duplicate the technique of making pig-mouth money, and because the silver is very thin and breakable, good pieces are now very rare.[36]
  • Bank of Thailand Museum

Dining[edit]

Khantoke dinner is a century-old Lanna Thai tradition[37] in Chiang Mai. It is an elaborate dinner or lunch offered by a host to guests at various ceremonies or parties, such as weddings, housewarmings, celebrations, novice ordinations, or funerals. It can also be held in connection with celebrations for specific buildings in a Thai temple and during Buddhist festivals such as Khao Pansa, Og Pansa, Loi Krathong, and Thai New Year (Songkran).

Education[edit]

Chiang Mai has several universities, including Chiang Mai University, Chiangmai Rajabhat University, Rajamangala University of Technology Lanna, Payap University, Far Eastern University, and Maejo University, as well as numerous technical and teacher colleges. Chiang Mai University was the first government university established outside of Bangkok. Payap University was the first private institution in Thailand to be granted university status.

Nature[edit]

Nam Tok Huai Kaeo (lit. "Crystal Creek Waterfall") lies at the foot of Doi Suthep on the western edge of the city
  • Nearby national parks include Doi Inthanon National Park, which includes Doi Inthanon, the highest mountain in Thailand; Doi Pui Suthep; and Obkhan.
  • Doi Pui Suthep National Park is just outside town. From all over Chiang Mai the Wat Doi Suthep Buddhist temple can be seen looking down on the town from Doi Suthep mountain.
  • Elephant Nature Park: Approximately 60 km (37 mi) north of the city or about one hour's drive, Elephant Nature Park is home to approximately 30 rescued elephants.
  • Hill tribe tourism and trekking: Many tour companies offer organized treks among the local hills and forests on foot and on elephant back. Most also involve visits to various local hill tribes, including the Akha, Hmong, Karen, and Lisu.[38]

Recreation[edit]

  • The Chiang Mai Zoo, the oldest zoo in northern Thailand, sprawls over an enormous tract of land.
  • Shopping: Chiang Mai has a large and famous night bazaar for local arts and handicrafts. The night bazaar extends across several city blocks along footpaths, inside buildings and temple grounds, and in open squares. A handicraft and food market opens every Sunday afternoon until late at night on Rachadamnoen Road, the main street in the historical centre, which is then closed to motorised traffic. Every Saturday evening a handicraft market is held along Wua Lai Road, Chiang Mai's silver street[39] on the south side of the city beyond Chiang Mai Gate, which is then also closed to motorised traffic.[40]
  • Thai massage: The back streets and main thoroughfares of Chiang Mai have an abundance and variety of massage parlours which offer anything from quick, simple, face and foot massages, to month-long courses in the art of Thai massage.
  • Thai cookery: A number of Thai cooking schools have their home in Chiang Mai (see also Thai food).
  • For IT shopping, Pantip Plaza just south of Night Bazaar, as well as Computer Plaza, Computer City, Icon Square near the northern moat, and IT City department store in Kad Suan Kaew Mall are available.
  • Horse racing: Every Saturday starting at 12:30 there are races at Kawila Race Track. Betting is legal.

Transportation[edit]

Songthaew on Wua Lai Rd, Chiang Mai
Tuk-tuks near Tha Phae Gate, Chiang Mai

Bus, train, and air connections serve Chiang Mai well. A number of bus stations link the city to central and northern Thailand. The Central Chang Pheuak terminal (north of Chiang Phwuak Gate) provides local services within Chiang Mai Province. The Chiang Mai Arcade bus terminal northeast of the city (which can be reached with a songthaew or tuk-tuk ride) provides services to over 20 other destinations in Thailand including Bangkok, Ayutthaya, and Phitsanulok. There are several services a day from Chiang Mai Arcade terminal to Bangkok (a 10–12 hour journey).

The state railway operates 10 trains a day to Chiang Mai Station from Bangkok. Most journeys run overnight and take approximately 12–15 hours. Most trains offer first-class (private cabins) and second-class (seats fold out to make sleeping berths) service. Chiang Mai is the northern terminus of the Thai railway system.

International departure hall, Chiang Mai Airport

Chiang Mai International Airport receives up to 28 flights a day from Bangkok (flight time about 1 hour 10 minutes) and also serves as a local hub for services to other northern cities such as Chiang Rai, Phrae, and Mae Hong Son. International services also connect Chiang Mai with other regional centers, including cities in other Asian countries.

The locally preferred form of transport is personal motorbike and, increasingly, private car.

Local public transport is via tuk-tuk, songthaew, or rickshaws. Local songthaew fare is usually 20–50 baht per person for trips in and around the city. For groups, the fare per person is less. Tuk-tuk fare is usually at least 20 baht per trip (the vehicles are comfortable for two passengers, but some can squeeze in four passengers); fares increase with distance.

Tourism[edit]

Courtyard, Wat Phrathat Doi Suthep

According to Thailand's Department of Tourism, in 2013 Chiang Mai had 14.1 million visitors: 4.6 million foreigners and 9.5 million Thais.[41]

The Tourism Authority of Thailand's Chiang Mai office expects the number of tourists from China to increase by at least 20% in 2013 over 2012, driven by the success of the Chinese film Lost in Thailand.[42] More than 80% of the film was shot in the province.

Chiang Mai has more than 32,000 hotel rooms[43] and Chiang Mai International Airport (CNX) is Thailand's fourth largest, after Suvarnabhumi (BKK) and Don Mueang (DMK) in Bangkok, and Phuket (HKT).[44]

The Thailand Convention and Exhibition Bureau (TCEB) aims to market Chiang Mai as a global MICE city as part of a five-year plan. The TCEB forecasts revenue from MICE to rise by 10% to THB4.24 billion in 2013 and the number of MICE travellers to rise by 5% to 72,424.[45]

The influx of tourists has put a strain on the city's natural resources. Faced with rampant unplanned development, air and water pollution, waste management problems, and traffic congestion, the city has launched a non-motorised transport (NMT) system. The initiative, developed by a partnership of experts and with support from the Climate & Development Knowledge Network, aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and create employment opportunities for the urban poor. The climate compatible development strategy has gained support from policy-makers and citizens alike as a result of its many benefits.[23]

Sister cities[edit]

Chiang Mai has agreements with four sister cities:[46]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ S.T. Leng (October–November 2010). "TCEB keen on World Expo 2020". Exhibition Now. Retrieved 13 Jan 2013. [dead link]
  2. ^ Suchat Sritama (2011-04-05). "Ayutthaya Chosen Thailand's Bid City for World Expo 2020". The Nation (Thailand) Asia News Network. Retrieved 12 Dec 2012. 
  3. ^ Expo 2020
  4. ^ Chiang Mai Citylife: Chiang Mai a Creativity City by James Austin Farrell. Chiangmainews.com (2011-01-01). Retrieved on 2011-12-14.
  5. ^ "Best Destinations in the World; Travelers' Choice Awards 2014". TripAdvisor. Retrieved 2014-12-12. 
  6. ^ a b Barlow, Joel. "Chiang Rai Guide; History of Lanna, Forging a Successful Buffer State". Chiangraiprovince.com. Retrieved 2012-07-05. [dead link]
  7. ^ "Chiang Mai Night Bazaar in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand". Lonely Planet. 2011-10-24. Retrieved 2012-07-05. 
  8. ^ "มหาวิทยาลัยนอร์ท-เชียงใหม่ [North - Chiang Mai University]". Northcm.ac.th. Retrieved 2012-07-05. [dead link]
  9. ^ "Chiang Mai Municipality" (in Thai). Chiang Mai City. 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-04. [dead link]
  10. ^ Aroonrut Wichienkeeo (2001–2012). "Lawa (Lua) : A Study from Palm-Leaf Manuscripts and Stone Inscriptions". COE Center of Excellence. Rajabhat Institute of Chiangmai. Retrieved 15 Aug 2012. [dead link]
  11. ^ See also the Burmese chronicle of Chiang Mai, "The Zinme Yazawin", in Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, Ancient Chiang Mai Volume 4. Chiang Mai, Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ASIN: B006J541LE
  12. ^ http://reninc.org/bookshelf/hilltribes_of_northern.pdf
  13. ^ "History of Chiang Mai - Lonely Planet Travel Information". Lonelyplanet.com. 2006-09-19. Retrieved 2012-07-05. 
  14. ^ "Thailand's World: General Kavila". Thailandsworld.com. 2012-05-06. Retrieved 2012-07-05. 
  15. ^ Jimmy Carter; Rosalynn Carter (2009). "Thailand Transformation". Habitat for Humanity International. Retrieved 15 Aug 2012. [dead link]
  16. ^ "Chiang Mai Municipality — History". Chiang Mai City. 2008. Archived from the original on 28 Jun 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-04. 
  17. ^ "Daily Climate Weather Data Statistics". Geodata.us. Retrieved 2012-04-29. 
  18. ^ "Chiang Mai's Environmental Challenges", Fourth International Conference of Environmental Compliance and Enforcement
  19. ^ "Air Pollution in Chiang Mai: Current Air Quality & PM-10 Levels". Earthoria. 2008-02-27. Retrieved 2010-04-15. 
  20. ^ "Chiang Mai's air pollution still high". Nationmultimedia.com. 2007-03-11. Retrieved 2010-04-15. 
  21. ^ http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/30054.pdf
  22. ^ "WHO Air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide, Global Update 2005". WHO. 2006. Retrieved 2012-03-21. 
  23. ^ a b Catalysing sustainable tourism: The case of Chiang Mai, Thailand, Kyoko Kusakabe, Pujan Shrestha, S. Kumar and Trinnawat Suwanprik, the Climate and Development Knowledge Network, 2014
  24. ^ "Chiang Mai Municipality — Emblem". Chiang Mai City. 2008. Archived from the original on June 30, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-04. 
  25. ^ "Lan Na Rebirth: Recently Re-established Temples", in Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, Ancient Chiang Mai, Volume 3. Chiang Mai, Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ASIN: B006IN1RNW
  26. ^ "Wat Phra Singh Woramahaviharn", in Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, Ancient Chiang Mai, Volume 4. Chiang Mai, Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ASIN: B006J541LE
  27. ^ ^ "Wat Chedi Luang: Temple of the Great Stupa", in Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, Ancient Chiang Mai, Volume 4. Chiang Mai, Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ASIN: B006J541LE
  28. ^ "Wat Ku Tao: Chang Phuak's Watermelon Temple", in Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, Ancient Chiang Mai, Volume 1. Chiang Mai, Cognoscenti Books, 2012.
  29. ^ "Wat Rampoeng Tapotharam" in Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, Ancient Chiang Mai, Volume 3. Chiang Mai, Cognoscenti Books, 2012.
  30. ^ "Wat Suan Dok, the Flower Garden temple", in Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, Ancient Chiang Mai, Volume 3. Chiang Mai, Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ASIN: B006IN1RNW
  31. ^ "Churches". Chiang Mai Info. Retrieved 2010-04-15. 
  32. ^ "The Muslim Community Past and Present", in Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, Ancient Chiang Mai, Volume 3. Chiang Mai, Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ASIN: B006IN1RNW
  33. ^ "Muslim Chiangmai" (bi-lingual Thai-English) (in Thai). Muslim Chiangmai. September 21, 2011. Retrieved September 21, 2011. Samsudin Bin Abrahim is the Imam of Chang Klan Mosque in Chiang Mai and a vibrant personality within Chiang Mai's 20,000 Muslim community 
  34. ^ a b c "Chiang Mai — A Complete Guide To Chiangmai". Chiangmai-thai.com. 2008-07-06. Retrieved 2010-04-15. 
  35. ^ See: Forbes, Andrew, "The Peoples of Chiang Mai", in Penth, Hans, and Forbes, Andrew, A Brief History of Lan Na. Chiang Mai City Arts and Cultural Centre, Chiang Mai, 2004, pp. 221-256.
  36. ^ "Thai Coins History". Royal Thai Mint. 28 Mar 2010. Retrieved 19 Sep 2011. [dead link]
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See also[edit]

External links[edit]