Colin John Mackenzie

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Sir Colin Mackenzie
Born 26 November 1861
Died 7 July 1956
London, England
Allegiance  United Kingdom
Service/branch Flag of the British Army.svg British Army
Years of service 1881–1920
Rank Major-General
Commands held 6th Infantry Brigade
Chief of the General Staff
Highland Territorial Division
9th (Scottish) Division
15th (Scottish) Division
3rd Division
61st Division
Dover Area
Battles/wars Second Boer War
World War I
Awards Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath

Major-General Sir Colin John Mackenzie KCB (26 November 1861 – 7 July 1956) was a British soldier and Chief of the General Staff, the head of the Canadian Army, from 1910 until 1913.

Background[edit]

Mackenzie was the eldest son of Major-General Colin Mackenzie, of the Madras Staff Corps, by Victoria Henrietta Mackinnon (the eldest daughter of Charles Mackinnon of Corriechatachan). His paternal grandfather, John Mackenzie of Inverness, a banker, was descended from the Mackenzies of Portmore.[1]

Military career[edit]

Educated at Edinburgh Academy and at Sandhurst, Major General Mackenzie was commissioned into the Bedfordshire Regiment of the British Army, at the time the 16th Regiment of Foot in January, 1881, but soon transferred into the Seaforth Highlanders.[2] He took part in the Nile expedition of 1882, the Burma expedition of 1886 and the Hazara expedition in 1888.[2] He served as Deputy Assistant Adjutant General for the Quetta District of India from 1892 to 1896.[2] He also took part in the Waziristan expedition of 1894 and the Nile expedition of 1898.

The following year Mackenzie went to South Africa on the outbreak of the Second Boer War, and from 1900 he served as Director of Intelligence on the staff of the Commander-in-Chief, Lord Roberts. In a despatch dated 31 March 1900, Lord Roberts described how Mackenzie "afforded … material assistance by the accurate and valuable reports he submitted".[3] In the later stages of the war, he became Military Governor of Johannesburg.[2] He was appointed Assistant Quartermaster General for 5th Division in 1902, Assistant Adjutant General at Army Headquarters in 1905 and Commander of 6th Infantry Brigade at Aldershot Command in 1907.[2]

From 1910 to 1913, he was Chief of the General Staff, Canada.[2] His departure from that post was caused in part by a disagreement between Mackenzie and Sam Hughes, the Canadian Minister of Militia and Defence, as to (among other things) the merits of the Ross rifle. Mackenzie subsequently regarded himself as vindicated by the Ross rifle's unsuitability for combat conditions on the Western Front.

On 3 March 1914, he became the first commander of the Highland Division (Territorial Force).[2] He served in World War I as General Officer Commanding the Highland Territorial Division, as General Officer Commanding 9th (Scottish) Division, as General Officer Commanding 15th (Scottish) Division and as General Officer Commanding 3rd Division on the Western Front all in 1914.[2] He took over 3rd Division following the death in action of Major-General Hubert Hamilton; however he only lasted for two weeks in this post before he was relieved of his command following the inconclusive result at the Battle of La Bassée in October 1914.[4][5]

He went on to be Director of Staff Duties at the War Office in 1915 and General Officer Commanding 61st Division from 1916 and was engaged in the disastrous diversionary battle for the Somme offensive at Fromelles on 19 July 1916. This operation led to the death of many Australian and British soldiers and achieved nothing. Casualties were: 5th Australian Division 5,533 casualties, including 1917 killed; 61st British Division,1,547 casualties,including 519 killed.

Mackenzie himself was wounded by an enemy sniper on 27 April 1918 while he was visiting the line of the 183rd Brigade south of St. Floris, being shot through the cheek and parotid gland. The wound did not respond to treatment and he was evacuated sick to England on 31 May 1918.[6]

Thereafter, Mackenzie was Inspector of Infantry in 1918 and Commander of the Dover Area 1919 until his retirement on 1 April 1920.[2] Between 1924 and 1931, he was Colonel of the Seaforth Highlanders.

Family[edit]

Mackenzie married Ethel Ross, the daughter of Hercules Grey Ross I.C.S. and Mary Henderson. They had one son, Colin Hercules Mackenzie.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Alexander Mackenzie, History of the Mackenzies (Inverness, 1894)
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archives
  3. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27282. p. 844. 8 February 1901.
  4. ^ Profiles of Western Front generals, part of the Lions led by donkeys research project University of Birmingham
  5. ^ The Diaries of Billy Congreve (London: William Kimber, 1982), p.71
  6. ^ Frank Davies and Graham Maddocks, Bloody Red Tabs: General Officer Casualties of the Great War, 1914–1918 (Leo Cooper, London, 1995), at pages 164–165.
Military offices
Preceded by
Sir William Otter
Chief of the General Staff in Canada
1910–1913
Succeeded by
Sir Willoughby Gwatkin
Preceded by
New Post
General Officer Commanding the 9th (Scottish) Division
August 1914 – October 1914
Succeeded by
Sir Charles Fergusson
Preceded by
Hubert Hamilton
General Officer Commanding the 3rd Division
October 1914
Succeeded by
Aylmer Haldane