Scholarly interest in creativity involves many definitions and concepts pertaining to a number of disciplines: psychology, cognitive science, education, philosophy (particularly philosophy of science), technology, theology, sociology, linguistics, business studies, songwriting, and economics, covering the relations between creativity and general intelligence, mental and neurological processes, personality type and creative ability, creativity and mental health; the potential for fostering creativity through education and training, especially as augmented by technology; and the application of creative resources to improve the effectiveness of teaching and learning.
- 1 Definition
- 2 Aspects
- 3 Etymology
- 4 History of the concept
- 5 Theories of creative processes
- 6 Assessing individual creative ability
- 7 Creativity and Intelligence
- 8 Neurobiology
- 9 Affect
- 10 Formal theory
- 11 Mental health
- 12 Some types of creativity according to R.J. Sternberg
- 13 In various contexts
- 14 Fostering creativity
- 15 Understanding and enhancing the creative process with new technologies
- 16 Social attitudes
- 17 See also
- 18 Notes
- 19 References
- 20 Further reading
- 21 External links
In a summary of scientific research into creativity, Michael Mumford suggested: "Over the course of the last decade, however, we seem to have reached a general agreement that creativity involves the production of novel, useful products" (Mumford, 2003, p. 110), or, in Robert Sternberg's words, the production of "something original and worthwhile". Authors have diverged dramatically in their precise definitions beyond these general commonalities: Peter Meusburger reckons that over a hundred different analyses can be found in the literature. As an illustration, one definition given by Dr. E. Paul Torrance described it as "a process of becoming sensitive to problems, deficiencies,gaps in knowledge, missing elements, disharmonies, and so on; identifying the difficulty; searching for solutions, making guesses, or formulating hypotheses about the deficiencies:testing and retesting these hypotheses and possibly modifying and retesting them; and finally communicating the results."
Theories of creativity (particularly investigation of why some people are more creative than others) have focused on a variety of aspects. The dominant factors are usually identified as "the four Ps" — process, product, person and place (according to Mel Rhodes). A focus on process is shown in cognitive approaches that try to describe thought mechanisms and techniques for creative thinking. Theories invoking divergent rather than convergent thinking (such as Guilford), or those describing the staging of the creative process (such as Wallas) are primarily theories of creative process. A focus on creative product usually appears in attempts to measure creativity (psychometrics, see below) and in creative ideas framed as successful memes. The psychometric approach to creativity reveals that it also involves the ability to produce more. A focus on the nature of the creative person considers more general intellectual habits, such as openness, levels of ideation, autonomy, expertise, exploratory behavior and so on. A focus on place considers the circumstances in which creativity flourishes, such as degrees of autonomy, access to resources and the nature of gatekeepers. Creative lifestyles are characterized by nonconforming attitudes and behaviors as well as flexibility.
The lexeme in the English word creativity comes from the Latin term creō "to create, make": its derivational suffixes also come from Latin. The word "create" appeared in English as early as the 14th century, notably in Chaucer, to indicate divine creation (in The Parson's Tale). However, its modern meaning as an act of human creation did not emerge until after the Enlightenment.
History of the concept
Most ancient cultures, including thinkers of Ancient Greece, Ancient China, and Ancient India, lacked the concept of creativity, seeing art as a form of discovery and not creation. The ancient Greeks had no terms corresponding to "to create" or "creator" except for the expression "poiein" ("to make"), which only applied to poiesis (poetry) and to the poietes (poet, or "maker") who made it. Plato did not believe in art as a form of creation. Asked in The Republic, "Will we say, of a painter, that he makes something?", he answers, "Certainly not, he merely imitates."
It is commonly argued that the notion of "creativity" originated in Western culture through Christianity, as a matter of divine inspiration. According to the historian Daniel J. Boorstin, "the early Western conception of creativity was the Biblical story of creation given in the Genesis." However, this is not creativity in the modern sense, which did not arise until the Renaissance. In the Judaeo-Christian tradition, creativity was the sole province of God; humans were not considered to have the ability to create something new except as an expression of God's work. A concept similar to that of Christianity existed in Greek culture, for instance, Muses were seen as mediating inspiration from the Gods. Romans and Greeks invoked the concept of an external creative "daemon" (Greek) or "genius" (Latin), linked to the sacred or the divine. However, none of these views are similar to the modern concept of creativity, and the individual was not seen as the cause of creation until the Renaissance. It was during the Renaissance that creativity was first seen, not as a conduit for the divine, but from the abilities of "great men".
The Enlightenment and after
The rejection of creativity in favor of discovery and the belief that individual creation was a conduit of the divine would dominate the West probably until the Renaissance and even later. The development of the modern concept of creativity begins in the Renaissance, when creation began to be perceived as having originated from the abilities of the individual, and not God. However, this shift was gradual and would not become immediately apparent until the Enlightenment. By the 18th century and the Age of Enlightenment, mention of creativity (notably in art theory), linked with the concept of imagination, became more frequent. In the writing of Thomas Hobbes, imagination became a key element of human cognition; William Duff was one of the first to identify imagination as a quality of genius, typifying the separation being made between talent (productive, but breaking no new ground) and genius.
As a direct and independent topic of study, creativity effectively received no attention until the 19th century. Runco and Albert argue that creativity as the subject of proper study began seriously to emerge in the late 19th century with the increased interest in individual differences inspired by the arrival of Darwinism. In particular they refer to the work of Francis Galton, who through his eugenicist outlook took a keen interest in the heritability of intelligence, with creativity taken as an aspect of genius.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, leading mathematicians and scientists such as Hermann von Helmholtz (1896) and Henri Poincaré (1908) began to reflect on and publicly discuss their creative processes.
Twentieth century to the present day
The insights of Poincaré and von Helmholtz were built on in early accounts of the creative process by pioneering theorists such as Graham Wallas and Max Wertheimer. In his work Art of Thought, published in 1926, Wallas presented one of the first models of the creative process. In the Wallas stage model, creative insights and illuminations may be explained by a process consisting of 5 stages:
- (i) preparation (preparatory work on a problem that focuses the individual's mind on the problem and explores the problem's dimensions),
- (ii) incubation (where the problem is internalized into the unconscious mind and nothing appears externally to be happening),
- (iii) intimation (the creative person gets a "feeling" that a solution is on its way),
- (iv) illumination or insight (where the creative idea bursts forth from its preconscious processing into conscious awareness);
- (v) verification (where the idea is consciously verified, elaborated, and then applied).
Wallas' model is often treated as four stages, with "intimation" seen as a sub-stage.
Wallas considered creativity to be a legacy of the evolutionary process, which allowed humans to quickly adapt to rapidly changing environments. Simonton provides an updated perspective on this view in his book, Origins of genius: Darwinian perspectives on creativity.
In 1927, Alfred North Whitehead gave the Gifford Lectures at the University of Edinburgh, later published as Process and Reality. He is credited with having coined the term "creativity" to serve as the ultimate category of his metaphysical scheme: "Whitehead actually coined the term – our term, still the preferred currency of exchange among literature, science, and the arts. . . a term that quickly became so popular, so omnipresent, that its invention within living memory, and by Alfred North Whitehead of all people, quickly became occluded".
The formal psychometric measurement of creativity, from the standpoint of orthodox psychological literature, is usually considered to have begun with J. P. Guilford's 1950 address to the American Psychological Association, which helped popularize the topic and focus attention on a scientific approach to conceptualizing creativity. (It should be noted that the London School of Psychology had instigated psychometric studies of creativity as early as 1927 with the work of H. L. Hargreaves into the Faculty of Imagination, but it did not have the same impact.) Statistical analysis led to the recognition of creativity (as measured) as a separate aspect of human cognition to IQ-type intelligence, into which it had previously been subsumed. Guilford's work suggested that above a threshold level of IQ, the relationship between creativity and classically measured intelligence broke down.
"Four C" model
James C. Kaufman and Beghetto introduced a "four C" model of creativity; mini-c ("transformative learning" involving "personally meaningful interpretations of experiences, actions and insights"), little-c (everyday problem solving and creative expression), Pro-C (exhibited by people who are professionally or vocationally creative though not necessarily eminent) and Big-C (creativity considered great in the given field). This model was intended to help accommodate models and theories of creativity that stressed competence as an essential component and the historical transformation of a creative domain as the highest mark of creativity. It also, the authors argued, made a useful framework for analyzing creative processes in individuals.
The contrast of terms "Big C" and "Little c" has been widely used. Kozbelt, Beghetto and Runco use a little-c/Big-C model to review major theories of creativity  Margaret Boden distinguishes between h-creativity (historical) and p-creativity (personal).
Robinson and Anna Craft have focused on creativity in a general population, particularly with respect to education. Craft makes a similar distinction between "high" and "little c" creativity. and cites Ken Robinson as referring to "high" and "democratic" creativity. Mihály Csíkszentmihályi has defined creativity in terms of those individuals judged to have made significant creative, perhaps domain-changing contributions. Simonton has analysed the career trajectories of eminent creative people in order to map patterns and predictors of creative productivity.
Theories of creative processes
There has been much empirical study in psychology and cognitive science of the processes through which creativity occurs. Interpretation of the results of these studies has led to several possible explanations of the sources and methods of creativity.
Incubation is a temporary break from creative problem solving that can result in insight. There has been some empirical research looking at whether, as the concept of "incubation" in Wallas' model implies, a period of interruption or rest from a problem may aid creative problem-solving. Ward lists various hypotheses that have been advanced to explain why incubation may aid creative problem-solving, and notes how some empirical evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that incubation aids creative problem-solving in that it enables "forgetting" of misleading clues. Absence of incubation may lead the problem solver to become fixated on inappropriate strategies of solving the problem. This work disputes the earlier hypothesis that creative solutions to problems arise mysteriously from the unconscious mind while the conscious mind is occupied on other tasks.
Convergent and divergent thinking
J. P. Guilford drew a distinction between convergent and divergent production (commonly renamed convergent and divergent thinking). Convergent thinking involves aiming for a single, correct solution to a problem, whereas divergent thinking involves creative generation of multiple answers to a set problem. Divergent thinking is sometimes used as a synonym for creativity in psychology literature. Other researchers have occasionally used the terms flexible thinking or fluid intelligence, which are roughly similar to (but not synonymous with) creativity.
Creative cognition approach
In 1992, Finke et al. proposed the "Geneplore" model, in which creativity takes place in two phases: a generative phase, where an individual constructs mental representations called preinventive structures, and an exploratory phase where those structures are used to come up with creative ideas. Some evidence shows that when people use their imagination to develop new ideas, those ideas are heavily structured in predictable ways by the properties of existing categories and concepts. Weisberg argued, by contrast, that creativity only involves ordinary cognitive processes yielding extraordinary results.
The Explicit–Implicit Interaction (EII) theory
Helie and Sun recently proposed a unified framework for understanding creativity in problem solving, namely the Explicit–Implicit Interaction (EII) theory of creativity. This new theory constitutes an attempt at providing a more unified explanation of relevant phenomena (in part by reinterpreting/integrating various fragmentary existing theories of incubation and insight). The EII theory relies mainly on five basic principles, namely 1) The co-existence of and the difference between explicit and implicit knowledge; 2) The simultaneous involvement of implicit and explicit processes in most tasks; 3) The redundant representation of explicit and implicit knowledge; 4) The integration of the results of explicit and implicit processing; and 5) The iterative (and possibly bidirectional) processing. A computational implementation of the theory was developed based on the CLARION cognitive architecture and used to simulate relevant human data. This work represents an initial step in the development of process-based theories of creativity encompassing incubation, insight, and various other related phenomena.
In The Act of Creation, Arthur Koestler introduced the concept of bisociation—that creativity arises as a result of the intersection of two quite different frames of reference. This idea was later developed into conceptual blending. In the '90s, various approaches in cognitive science that dealt with metaphor, analogy and structure mapping have been converging, and a new integrative approach to the study of creativity in science, art and humor has emerged under the label conceptual blending.
Honing theory posits that creativity arises due to the self-organizing, self-mending nature of a worldview, and that it is by way of the creative process the individual hones (and re-hones) an integrated worldview. Honing theory places equal emphasis on the externally visible creative outcome and the internal cognitive restructuring brought about by the creative process. Indeed one factor that distinguishes it from other theories of creativity is that it focuses on not just restructuring as it pertains to the conception of the task, but as it pertains to the worldview as a whole. When faced with a creatively demanding task, there is an interaction between the conception of the task and the worldview. The conception of the task changes through interaction with the worldview, and the worldview changes through interaction with the task. This interaction is reiterated until the task is complete, at which point not only is the task conceived of differently, but the worldview is subtly or drastically transformed. Thus another distinguishing feature of honing theory is that the creative process reflects the natural tendency of a worldview to attempt to resolve dissonance and seek internal consistency amongst its components, whether they be ideas, attitudes, or bits of knowledge; it mends itself as does a body when it has been injured.
Yet another central, distinguishing feature of honing theory is the notion of a potentiality state. Honing theory posits that creative thought proceeds not by searching through and randomly ‘mutating’ predefined possibilities, but by drawing upon associations that exist due to overlap in the distributed neural cell assemblies that participate in the encoding of experiences in memory. Midway through the creative process one may have made associations between the current task and previous experiences, but not yet disambiguated which aspects of those previous experiences are relevant to the current task. Thus the creative idea may feel ‘half-baked’. It is at that point that it can be said to be in a potentiality state, because how it will actualize depends on the different internally or externally generated contexts it interacts with.
Honing theory can account for many phenomena that are not readily explained by other theories of creativity. For example, creativity was commonly thought to be fostered by a supportive, nurturing, trustworthy environment conducive to self-actualization. However, research shows that creativity is actually associated with childhood adversity, which would stimulate honing. Honing theory also makes several predictions that differ from what would be predicted by other theories. For example, empirical support has been obtained using analogy problem solving experiments for the proposal that midway through the creative process one's mind is in a potentiality state. Other experiments show that different works by the same creator exhibit a recognizable style or 'voice', and that this same recognizable quality even comes through in different creative outlets. This is not predicted by theories of creativity that emphasize chance processes or the accumulation of expertise, but it is predicted by honing theory, according to which personal style reflects the creator's uniquely structured worldview. This theory has been developed by Liane Gabora.
Everyday imaginative thought
In everyday thought, people often spontaneously imagine alternatives to reality when they think "if only...". Their counterfactual thinking is viewed as an example of everyday creative processes. It has been proposed that the creation of counterfactual alternatives to reality depends on similar cognitive processes to rational thought.
Assessing individual creative ability
- Plot Titles, where participants are given the plot of a story and asked to write original titles.
- Quick Responses is a word-association test scored for uncommonness.
- Figure Concepts, where participants were given simple drawings of objects and individuals and asked to find qualities or features that are common by two or more drawings; these were scored for uncommonness.
- Unusual Uses is finding unusual uses for common everyday objects such as bricks.
- Remote Associations, where participants are asked to find a word between two given words (e.g. Hand _____ Call)
- Remote Consequences, where participants are asked to generate a list of consequences of unexpected events (e.g. loss of gravity)
Building on Guilford's work, Torrance developed the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking in 1966. They involved simple tests of divergent thinking and other problem-solving skills, which were scored on:
- Fluency – The total number of interpretable, meaningful and relevant ideas generated in response to the stimulus.
- Originality – The statistical rarity of the responses among the test subjects.
- Elaboration – The amount of detail in the responses.
The Creativity Achievement Questionnaire, a self-report test that measures creative achievement across 10 domains, was described in 2005 and shown to be reliable and valid when compared to other measures of creativity and to independent evaluation of creative output.
Considerable progress has been made in automated scoring of Divergent Thinking tests using semantic approach. When compared to human raters, NLP techniques were shown to be reliable and valid in scoring the originality (when compared to human raters). The reported computer programs were able to achieve a correlation of 0.60 and 0.72 respectively to human graders.
Semantic networks were also used to devise originality scores that yielded significant correlations with socio-personal measures. Most recently, An NSF-funded team of researchers led by James C. Kaufman and Mark A. Runco combined expertise in creativity research, natural language processing, computational linguistics, and statistical data analysis to devise a scalable system for computerized automated testing (SparcIt Creativity Index Testing system). This system enabled automated scoring of DT tests that is reliable, objective, and scalable, thus addressing most of the issues of DT tests that had been found and reported. The resultant computer system was able to achieve a correlation of 0.73 to human graders.
Some researchers have taken a social-personality approach to the measurement of creativity. In these studies, personality traits such as independence of judgement, self-confidence, attraction to complexity, aesthetic orientation and risk-taking are used as measures of the creativity of individuals. A meta-analysis by Gregory Feist showed that creative people tend to be "more open to new experiences, less conventional and less conscientious, more self-confident, self-accepting, driven, ambitious, dominant, hostile,and impulsive." Openness, conscientiousness, self-acceptance, hostility and impulsivity had the strongest effects of the traits listed. Within the framework of the Big Five model of personality some consistent traits have emerged. Openness to experience has been shown to be consistently related to a whole host of different assessments of creativity. Among the other Big Five traits, research has demonstrated subtle differences between different domains of creativity. Compared to non-artists, artists tend to have higher levels of openness to experience and lower levels of conscientiousness, while scientists are more open to experience, conscientious, and higher in the confidence-dominance facets of extraversion compared to non-scientists.
Creativity and Intelligence
The potential relationship between creativity and Intelligence has been of interest since the late 1900s, when a multitude of influential studies – from Getzels & Jackson, Barron, Wallach & Kogan, and Guilford – focused not only on creativity, but also on intelligence. This joint focus highlights both the theoretical and practical importance of the relationship: researchers are interested not only if the constructs are related, but also how and why.
There are multiple theories accounting for their relationship, with the 3 main theories as follows:
- Threshold Theory – Intelligence is a necessary, but not sufficient condition for creativity There is a moderate positive relationship between creativity and intelligence until IQ ~120 
- Certification Theory – Creativity is not intrinsically related to intelligence. Instead individuals are required to meet the requisite level intelligence in order to gain a certain level of education/work, which then in turn offers the opportunity to be creative. Displays of creativity are moderated by intelligence
- Interference Theory – Extremely high intelligence might interfere with creative ability 
Sternberg and O’Hara proposed a framework of 5 possible relationships between creativity and intelligence:
- Creativity is a subset of intelligence
- Intelligence is a subset of creativity
- Creativity and intelligence are overlapping constructs
- Creativity and intelligence are part of the same construct (coincident sets)
- Creativity and intelligence are distinct constructs (disjoint sets)
Creativity as a Subset of Intelligence
A number of researchers include creativity, either explicitly or implicitly, as a key component of intelligence.
Examples of theories that include creativity as a subset of intelligence
- Gardner’s Theory of multiple intelligences (MIT) – implicitly includes creativity as a subset of MIT. To demonstrate this, Gardner cited examples of different famous creators, each of whom differed in their types of intelligences e.g. Picasso (spatial intelligence); Freud (intrapersonal); Einstein (logical-mathematical); and Gandhi (interpersonal).
- Sternberg’s Theory of Successful intelligence (see Triarchic theory of intelligence) includes creativity as a main component, and comprises 3 sub-theories: Componential (Analytic), Contextual (Practical) and Experiential (Creative). Experiential sub-theory – the ability to use pre-existing knowledge and skills to solve new and novel problems – is directly related to creativity.
- The Cattell–Horn–Carroll theory includes creativity as a subset of intelligence. Specifically, it is associated with the broad group factor of long-term storage and retrieval (Glr). Glr narrow abilities relating to creativity include: ideational fluency, associational fluency and originality/creativity. Silvia et al. conducted a study to look at the relationship between divergent thinking and verbal fluency tests, and reported that both fluency and originality in divergent thinking were significantly affected by the broad level Glr factor. Martindale  extended the CHC-theory in the sense that it was proposed that those individuals who are creative are also selective in their processing speed Martindale argues that in the creative process, larger amounts of information are processed more slowly in the early stages, and as the individual begins to understand the problem, the processing speed is increased.
- The Dual Process Theory of Intelligence posits a two-factor/type model of intelligence. Type 1 is a conscious process, and concerns goal directed thoughts, which are explained by g. Type 2 is an unconscious process, and concerns spontaneous cognition, which encompasses daydreaming and implicit learning ability. Kaufman argues that creativity occurs as a result of Type 1 and Type 2 processes working together in combination. The use of each Type in the creative process can be used to varying degrees.
Intelligence as a Subset of Creativity
In this relationship model, intelligence is a key component in the development of creativity.
Theories of creativity that include intelligence as a subset of creativity
- Sternberg & Lubart’s Investment Theory. Using the metaphor of a stock market, they demonstrate that creative thinkers are like good investors – they buy low and sell high (in their ideas). Like under/low-valued stock, creative individuals generate unique ideas that are initially rejected by other people. The creative individual has to persevere, and convince the others of the ideas value. After convincing the others, and thus increasing the ideas value, the creative individual ‘sells high’ by leaving the idea with the other people, and moves onto generating anther idea. According to this theory, six distinct, but related elements contribute to successful creativity: intelligence, knowledge, thinking styles, personality, motivation, and environment. Intelligence is just one of the six factors that can either solely, or in conjunction with the other five factors, generate creative thoughts.
- Amabile’s Componential Model of Creativity. In this model there are 3 within-individual components needed for creativity – domain-relevant skills, creativity-relevant processes, and task motivation – and 1 component external to the individual: their surrounding social environment. Creativity requires a confluence of all components. High creativity will result when an individual is: intrinsically motivated, possesses both a high level of domain-relevant skills and has high skills in creative thinking, and is working in a highly creative environment.
- Amusement Park Theoretical Model. In this 4-step theory, both domain-specific and generalist views are integrated into a model of creativity. The researchers make use of the metaphor of the amusement park to demonstrate that within each of these creative levels, intelligence plays a key role:
- To get into the amusement park, there are initial requirements (e.g., time/transport to go to the park). Initial requirements (like intelligence) are necessary, but not sufficient for creativity. They are more like prerequisites for creativity, and if an individual does not possess the basic level of the initial requirement (intelligence), then they will not be able to generate creative thoughts/behaviour.
- Secondly are the subcomponents – general thematic areas – that increase in specificity. Like choosing which type of amusement park to visit (e.g. a zoo or a water park), these areas relate to the areas in which someone could be creative (e.g. poetry).
- Thirdly there are specific domains. After choosing the type of park to visit e.g. waterpark, you then have to choose which specific park to go to. Within the poetry domain, there are many different types (e.g. free verse, riddles, sonnet, etc.) that have to be selected from.
- Lastly, there are micro-domains. These are the specific tasks that reside within each domain e.g. individual lines in a free verse poem / individual rides at the waterpark.
Creativity and Intelligence As Overlapping Yet Distinct Constructs
This possible relationship concerns creativity and intelligence as distinct, but intersecting constructs.
Theories that include Creativity and Intelligence as Overlapping Yet Distinct Constructs
- Renzulli’s Three-Ring Conception of Giftedness. In this conceptualisation, giftedness occurs as a result from the overlap of above average intellectual ability, creativity, and task commitment. Under this view, creativity and intelligence are distinct constructs, but they do overlap under the correct conditions.
- PASS theory of intelligence. In this theory, the planning component – relating to the ability to solve problems, make decisions and take action – strongly overlaps with the concept of creativity.
- Threshold Theory (TT). A number of previous research findings have suggested that a threshold exists in the relationship between creativity and intelligence – both constructs are moderately positively correlated up to an IQ of ~120. Above this threshold of an IQ of 120, if there is a relationship at all, it is small and weak. TT posits that a moderate level of intelligence is necessary for creativity.
In support of the TT, Barron  reported finding a non-significant correlation between creativity and intelligence in a gifted sample; and a significant correlation in a non-gifted sample. Yamamoto in a sample of secondary school children, reported a significant correlation between creativity and intelligence of r = .3, and reported no significant correlation when the sample consisted of gifted children. Fuchs-Beauchamp et al. in a sample of preschoolers found that creativity and intelligence correlated from r = .19 to r = .49 in the group of children who had an IQ below the threshold; and in the group above the threshold, the correlations were r = <.12. Cho et al. reported a correlation of .40 between creativity and intelligence in the average IQ group of a sample of adolescents and adults; and a correlation of close to r = .0 for the high IQ group. Jauk et al. found support for the TT, but only for measures of creative potential; not creative performance.
Much modern day research reports findings against TT. Wai et al. in a study using data from the longitudinal Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth – a cohort of elite students from early adolescence into adulthood – found that differences in SAT scores at age 13 were predictive of creative real-life outcomes 20 years later. Kim’s meta-analysis of 21 studies did not find any supporting evidence for TT, and instead positive correlations were reported between intelligence, creativity, and divergent thinking both below and above IQ's of 120. Preckel et al., investigating fluid intelligence and creativity, reported small correlations of r = .3 to r = .4 across all levels of cognitive ability.
Creativity and Intelligence As Coincident Sets
Under this view, researchers posit that there are no differences in the mechanisms underlying creativity in those used in normal problem solving; and in normal problem solving, there is no need for creativity. Thus, creativity and Intelligence (problem solving) are the same thing. Perkins referred to this as the ‘nothing-special’ view.
Weisberg & Alba examined problem solving by having participants complete the 9-dot problem (see Thinking outside the box#Nine dots puzzle) – where the participants are asked to connect all 9 dots in the 3 rows of 3 dots using 4 straight lines or less, without lifting their pen or tracing the same line twice. The problem can only be solved if the lines go outside the boundaries of the square of dots. Results demonstrated that even when participants were given this insight, they still found it difficult to solve the problem, thus showing that to successfully complete the task it is not just insight (or creativity) that is required.
Creativity and Intelligence As Disjoint Sets
In this view, creativity and intelligence are completely different, unrelated constructs.
Getzels and Jackson administered 5 creativity measures to a group of 449 children from grades 6-12, and compared these test findings to results from previously administered (by the school) IQ tests. They found that the correlation between the creativity measures and IQ was r = .26. The high creativity group scored in the top 20% of the overall creativity measures, but were not included in the top 20% of IQ scorers. The high intelligence group scored the opposite: they scored in the top 20% for IQ, but were outside the top 20% scorers for creativity, thus showing that creativity and intelligence are distinct and unrelated.
However, this work has been heavily criticised. Wallach and Kogan highlighted that the creativity measures were not only weakly related to one another (to the extent that they were no more related to one another than they were with IQ), but they seemed to also draw upon non-creative skills. McNemar noted that there were major measurement issues, in that the IQ scores were a mixture from 3 different IQ tests.
Wallach and Kogan administered 5 measures of creativity, each of which resulted in a score for originality and fluency; and 10 measures of general intelligence to 151 5th grade children. These tests were untimed, and given in a game-like manner (aiming to facilitate creativity). Inter-correlations between creativity tests were on average r = .41. Inter-correlations between intelligence measures were on average r = .51 with each other. Creativity tests and intelligence measures correlated r = .09.
The neurobiology of creativity has been addressed in the article "Creative Innovation: Possible Brain Mechanisms." The authors write that "creative innovation might require coactivation and communication between regions of the brain that ordinarily are not strongly connected." Highly creative people who excel at creative innovation tend to differ from others in three ways:
- they have a high level of specialized knowledge,
- they are capable of divergent thinking mediated by the frontal lobe.
- and they are able to modulate neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine in their frontal lobe.
Thus, the frontal lobe appears to be the part of the cortex that is most important for creativity.
In 2005, Alice Flaherty presented a three-factor model of the creative drive. Drawing from evidence in brain imaging, drug studies and lesion analysis, she described the creative drive as resulting from an interaction of the frontal lobes, the temporal lobes, and dopamine from the limbic system. The frontal lobes can be seen as responsible for idea generation, and the temporal lobes for idea editing and evaluation. Abnormalities in the frontal lobe (such as depression or anxiety) generally decrease creativity, while abnormalities in the temporal lobe often increase creativity. High activity in the temporal lobe typically inhibits activity in the frontal lobe, and vice versa. High dopamine levels increase general arousal and goal directed behaviors and reduce latent inhibition, and all three effects increase the drive to generate ideas.
Working memory and the cerebellum
Vandervert described how the brain's frontal lobes and the cognitive functions of the cerebellum collaborate to produce creativity and innovation. Vandervert's explanation rests on considerable evidence that all processes of working memory (responsible for processing all thought) are adaptively modeled for increased efficiency by the cerebellum. The cerebellum (consisting of 100 billion neurons, which is more than the entirety of the rest of the brain) is also widely known to adaptively model all bodily movement for efficiency. The cerebellum's adaptive models of working memory processing are then fed back to especially frontal lobe working memory control processes where creative and innovative thoughts arise. (Apparently, creative insight or the "aha" experience is then triggered in the temporal lobe.)
According to Vandervert, the details of creative adaptation begin in "forward" cerebellar models which are anticipatory/exploratory controls for movement and thought. These cerebellar processing and control architectures have been termed Hierarchical Modular Selection and Identification for Control (HMOSAIC). New, hierarchically arranged levels of the cerebellar control architecture (HMOSAIC) develop as mental mulling in working memory is extended over time. These new levels of the control architecture are fed forward to the frontal lobes. Since the cerebellum adaptively models all movement and all levels of thought and emotion, Vandervert's approach helps explain creativity and innovation in sports, art, music, the design of video games, technology, mathematics, the child prodigy, and thought in general.
Essentially, Vandervert has argued that when a person is confronted with a challenging new situation, visual-spatial working memory and speech-related working memory are decomposed and re-composed (fractionated) by the cerebellum and then blended in the cerebral cortex in an attempt to deal with the new situation. With repeated attempts to deal with challenging situations, the cerebro-cerebellar blending process continues to optimize the efficiency of how working memory deals with the situation or problem. Most recently, he has argued that this is the same process (only involving visual-spatial working memory and pre-language vocalization) that led to the evolution of language in humans. Vandervert and Vandervert-Weathers have pointed out that this blending process, because it continuously optimizes efficiencies, constantly improves prototyping attempts toward the invention or innovation of new ideas, music, art, or technology. Prototyping, they argue, not only produces new products, it trains the cerebro-cerebellar pathways involved to become more efficient at prototyping itself. Further, Vandervert and Vandervert-Weathers believe that this repetitive "mental prototyping" or mental rehearsal involving the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex explains the success of the self-driven, individualized patterning of repetitions initiated by the teaching methods of the Khan Academy. The model proposed by Vandervert has however received incisive critique from several authors.
Creativity involves the forming of associative elements into new combinations that are useful or meet some requirement. Sleep aids this process. REM rather than NREM sleep appears to be responsible. This has been suggested to be due to changes in cholinergic and noradrenergic neuromodulation that occurs during REM sleep. During this period of sleep, high levels of acetylcholine in the hippocampus suppress feedback from the hippocampus to the neocortex, and lower levels of acetylcholine and norepinephrine in the neocortex encourage the spread of associational activity within neocortical areas without control from the hippocampus. This is in contrast to waking consciousness, where higher levels of norepinephrine and acetylcholine inhibit recurrent connections in the neocortex. It is proposed that REM sleep adds creativity by allowing "neocortical structures to reorganize associative hierarchies, in which information from the hippocampus would be reinterpreted in relation to previous semantic representations or nodes."
Some theories suggest that creativity may be particularly susceptible to affective influence. As noted in voting behavior the term "affect" in this context can refer to liking or disliking key aspects of the subject in question. This work largely follows from findings in psychology regarding the ways in which affective states are involved in human judgment and decision-making.
Positive affect relations
According to Alice Isen, positive affect has three primary effects on cognitive activity:
- Positive affect makes additional cognitive material available for processing, increasing the number of cognitive elements available for association;
- Positive affect leads to defocused attention and a more complex cognitive context, increasing the breadth of those elements that are treated as relevant to the problem;
- Positive affect increases cognitive flexibility, increasing the probability that diverse cognitive elements will in fact become associated. Together, these processes lead positive affect to have a positive influence on creativity.
According to these researchers, positive emotions increase the number of cognitive elements available for association (attention scope) and the number of elements that are relevant to the problem (cognitive scope).
Jürgen Schmidhuber's formal theory of creativity postulates that creativity, curiosity and interestingness are by-products of a simple computational principle for measuring and optimizing learning progress. Consider an agent able to manipulate its environment and thus its own sensory inputs. The agent can use a black box optimization method such as reinforcement learning to learn (through informed trial and error) sequences of actions that maximize the expected sum of its future reward signals. There are extrinsic reward signals for achieving externally given goals, such as finding food when hungry. But Schmidhuber's objective function to be maximized also includes an additional, intrinsic term to model "wow-effects." This non-standard term motivates purely creative behavior of the agent even when there are no external goals. A wow-effect is formally defined as follows. As the agent is creating and predicting and encoding the continually growing history of actions and sensory inputs, it keeps improving the predictor or encoder, which can be implemented as an artificial neural network or some other machine learning device that can exploit regularities in the data to improve its performance over time. The improvements can be measured precisely, by computing the difference in computational costs (storage size, number of required synapses, errors, time) needed to encode new observations before and after learning. This difference depends on the encoder's present subjective knowledge, which changes over time, but the theory formally takes this into account. The cost difference measures the strength of the present "wow-effect" due to sudden improvements in data compression or computational speed. It becomes an intrinsic reward signal for the action selector. The objective function thus motivates the action optimizer to create action sequences causing more wow-effects. Irregular, random data (or noise) do not permit any wow-effects or learning progress, and thus are "boring" by nature (providing no reward). Already known and predictable regularities also are boring. Temporarily interesting are only the initially unknown, novel, regular patterns in both actions and observations. This motivates the agent to perform continual, open-ended, active, creative exploration.
According to Schmidhuber, his objective function explains the activities of scientists, artists and comedians. For example, physicists are motivated to create experiments leading to observations obeying previously unpublished physical laws permitting better data compression. Likewise, composers receive intrinsic reward for creating non-arbitrary melodies with unexpected but regular harmonies that permit wow-effects through data compression improvements. Similarly, a comedian gets intrinsic reward for "inventing a novel joke with an unexpected punch line, related to the beginning of the story in an initially unexpected but quickly learnable way that also allows for better compression of the perceived data." Schmidhuber argues that that ongoing computer hardware advances will greatly scale up rudimentary artificial scientists and artists[clarification needed] based on simple implementations of the basic principle since 1990. He used the theory to create low-complexity art and an attractive human face.
A study by psychologist J. Philippe Rushton found creativity to correlate with intelligence and psychoticism. Another study found creativity to be greater in schizotypal than in either normal or schizophrenic individuals. While divergent thinking was associated with bilateral activation of the prefrontal cortex, schizotypal individuals were found to have much greater activation of their right prefrontal cortex. This study hypothesizes that such individuals are better at accessing both hemispheres, allowing them to make novel associations at a faster rate. In agreement with this hypothesis, ambidexterity is also associated with schizotypal and schizophrenic individuals. Three recent studies by Mark Batey and Adrian Furnham have demonstrated the relationships between schizotypal and hypomanic personality  and several different measures of creativity.
Particularly strong links have been identified between creativity and mood disorders, particularly manic-depressive disorder (a.k.a. bipolar disorder) and depressive disorder (a.k.a. unipolar disorder). In Touched with Fire: Manic-Depressive Illness and the Artistic Temperament, Kay Redfield Jamison summarizes studies of mood-disorder rates in writers, poets and artists. She also explores research that identifies mood disorders in such famous writers and artists as Ernest Hemingway (who shot himself after electroconvulsive treatment), Virginia Woolf (who drowned herself when she felt a depressive episode coming on), composer Robert Schumann (who died in a mental institution), and even the famed visual artist Michelangelo.
A study looking at 300,000 persons with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or unipolar depression, and their relatives, found overrepresentation in creative professions for those with bipolar disorder as well as for undiagnosed siblings of those with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. There was no overall overrepresenation, but overrepresentation for artistic occupations, among those diagnosed with schizophrenia. There was no association for those with unipolar depression or their relatives. 
Another study involving more than one million people, conducted by Swedish researchers at the Karolinska Institute, reported a number of correlations between creative occupations and mental illnesses. Writers had a higher risk of anxiety and bipolar disorders, schizophrenia, unipolar depression, and substance abuse, and were almost twice as likely as the general population to kill themselves. Dancers and photographers were also more likely to have bipolar disorder.
However, as a group, those in the creative professions were no more likely to suffer from psychiatric disorders than other people, although they were more likely to have a close relative with a disorder, including anorexia and, to some extent, autism, the Journal of Psychiatric Research reports.
According to psychologist Robert Epstein, PhD, creativity can be obstructed through stress.
Some types of creativity according to R.J. Sternberg
An article by R. J. Sternberg in the Creativity Research Journal reviewed the "investment" theory of creativity as well as the "propulsion" theory of creative contribution, suggesting that there are eight types of creative contribution; replication — confirming that the given field is in the correct place — redefinition — the attempt to redefine where the field is and how it is viewed — forward incrementation — a creative contribution that moves the field forward in the direction in which it is already moving — advance forward movement — which advances the field past the point where others are ready for it to go — redirection — which moves the field in a new, different direction — redirection from a point in the past — which moves the field back to a previous point to advance in a different direction — starting over/ re-initiation — moving the field to a different starting point — and integration — combining two or more diverse ways of thinking about the field into a single way of thinking.
In various contexts
Creativity has been studied from a variety of perspectives and is important in numerous contexts. Most of these approaches are undisciplinary, and it is therefore difficult to form a coherent overall view. The following sections examine some of the areas in which creativity is seen as being important.
Creativity can be expresses in a number of different forms, depending on the unique people and environments it exists. A number of different theorists have suggested models of the creative person. One model suggests that there are kinds to produce growth, innovation, speed, etc. These are referred to as the four "Creativity Profiles" that can help achieve such goals.
- (i) Incubate (Long-term Development)
- (ii) Imagine (Breakthrough Ideas)
- (iii) Improve (Incremental Adjustments)
- (iv) Invest (Short-term Goals)
Research by Dr Mark Batey of the Psychometrics at Work Research Group at Manchester Business School has suggested that the creative profile can be explained by four primary creativity traits with narrow facets within each
- (i) "Idea Generation" (Fluency, Originality, Incubation and Illumination)
- (ii) "Personality" (Curiosity and Tolerance for Ambiguity)
- (iii) "Motivation" (Intrinsic, Extrinsic and Achievement)
- (iv) "Confidence" (Producing, Sharing and Implementing)
This model was developed in a sample of 1000 working adults using the statistical techniques of Exploratory Factor Analysis followed by Confirmatory Factor Analysis by Structural Equation Modelling.
An important aspect of the creativity profiling approach is to account for the tension between predicting the creative profile of an individual, as characterised by the psychometric approach, and the evidence that team creativity is founded on diversity and difference.
One characteristic of creative people, as measured by some psychologists, is what is called divergent production. divergent production is the ability of a person to generate a diverse assortment, yet an appropriate amount of responses to a given situation. One way of measuring divergent production is by administering the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking assesses the diversity, quantity, and appropriateness of participants responses to a variety of open-ended questions.
Other researchers of creativity see the difference in creative people as a cognitive process of dedication to problem solving and developing expertise in the field of their creative expression. Hard working people study the work of people before them and within their current area, become experts in their fields, and then have the ability to add to and build upon previous information in innovative and creative ways. In a study of projects by design students, students who had more knowledge on their subject on average had greater creativity within their projects.
The aspect of motivation within a person's personality may predict creativity levels in the person. Motivation stems from two different sources, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is an internal drive within a person to participate or invest as a result of personal interest, desires, hopes, goals, etc. Extrinsic motivation is a drive from outside of a person and might take the form of payment, rewards, fame, approval from others, etc. Although extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation can both increase creativity in certain cases, strictly extrinsic motivation often impedes creativity in people.
From a personality-traits perspective, there are a number of traits that are associated with creativity in people. Creative people tend to be more open to new experiences, are more self-confident, are more ambitious, self-accepting, impulsive, driven, dominant, and hostile, compared to people with less creativity.
From an evolutionary perspective, creativity may be a result of the outcome of years of generating ideas. As ideas are continuously generated, the need to evolve produces a need for new ideas and developments. As a result, people have been creating and developing new, innovative, and creative ideas to build our progress as a society.
In studying exceptionally creative people in history, some common traits in lifestyle and environment are often found. Creative people in history usually had supportive parents, but rigid and non-nurturing. Most had an interest in their field at an early age, and most had a highly supportive and skilled mentor in their field of interest. Often the field they chose was relatively uncharted, allowing for their creativity to be expressed more in a field with less previous information. Most exceptionally creative people devoted almost all of their time and energy into their craft, and after about a decade had a creative breakthrough of fame. Their lives were marked with extreme dedication and a cycle of hard-work and breakthroughs as a result of their determination 
Another theory of creative people is the investment theory of creativity. This approach suggest that there are many individual and environmental factors that must exist in precise ways for extremely high levels of creativity opposed to average levels of creativity. In the investment sense, a person with their particular characteristics in their particular environment may see an opportunity to devote their time and energy into something that has been overlooked by others. The creative person develops an undervalued or under-recognised idea to the point that it is established as a new and creative idea. Just like in the financial world, some investments are worth the buy in, while others are less productive and do not build to the extent that the investor expected. This investment theory of creativity views creativity in a unique perspective compared to others, by asserting that creativity might rely to some extent on the right investment of effort being added to a field at the right time in the right way.
In diverse cultures
Creativity is viewed differently in different countries. For example, cross-cultural research centred on Hong Kong found that Westerners view creativity more in terms of the individual attributes of a creative person, such as their aesthetic taste, while Chinese people view creativity more in terms of the social influence of creative people e.g. what they can contribute to society. Mpofu et al. surveyed 28 African languages and found that 27 had no word which directly translated to 'creativity' (the exception being Arabic). The principle of linguistic relativity, i.e. that language can affect thought, suggests that the lack of an equivalent word for 'creativity' may affect the views of creativity among speakers of such languages. However, more research would be needed to establish this, and there is certainly no suggestion that this linguistic difference makes people any less (or more) creative; Africa has a rich heritage of creative pursuits such as music, art, and storytelling. Nevertheless, it is true that there has been very little research on creativity in Africa, and there has also been very little research on creativity in Latin America. Creativity has been more thoroughly researched in the northern hemisphere, but here again there are cultural differences, even between countries or groups of countries in close proximity. For example, in Scandinavian countries, creativity is seen as an individual attitude which helps in coping with life's challenges, while in Germany, creativity is seen more as a process that can be applied to help solve problems.
In art and literature
Most people associate creativity with the fields of art and literature. In these fields, originality is considered to be a sufficient condition for creativity, unlike other fields where both originality and appropriateness are necessary.
Within the different modes of artistic expression, one can postulate a continuum extending from "interpretation" to "innovation". Established artistic movements and genres pull practitioners to the "interpretation" end of the scale, whereas original thinkers strive towards the "innovation" pole. Note that we conventionally expect some "creative" people (dancers, actors, orchestral members, etc.) to perform (interpret) while allowing others (writers, painters, composers, etc.) more freedom to express the new and the different.
Contrast alternative theories, for example:
- artistic inspiration, which provides the transmission of visions from divine sources such as the Muses; a taste of the Divine. Compare with invention.
- artistic evolution, which stresses obeying established ("classical") rules and imitating or appropriating to produce subtly different but unshockingly understandable work. Compare with crafts.
- artistic conversation, as in Surrealism, which stresses the depth of communication when the creative product is the language.
In the art practice and theory of Davor Dzalto, human creativity is taken as a basic feature of both the personal existence of human being and art production. For this thinker, creativity is a basic cultural and anthropological category, since it enables human manifestation in the world as a "real presence" in contrast to the progressive "virtualization" of the world.
Psychological examples from science and mathematics
Jacques Hadamard, in his book Psychology of Invention in the Mathematical Field, uses introspection to describe mathematical thought processes. In contrast to authors who identify language and cognition, he describes his own mathematical thinking as largely wordless, often accompanied by mental images that represent the entire solution to a problem. He surveyed 100 of the leading physicists of his day (ca. 1900), asking them how they did their work. Many of the responses mirrored his own.
Hadamard described the experiences of the mathematicians/theoretical physicists Carl Friedrich Gauss, Hermann von Helmholtz, Henri Poincaré and others as viewing entire solutions with "sudden spontaneity."
To elaborate on one example, Einstein, after years of fruitless calculations, suddenly had the solution to the general theory of relativity revealed in a dream "like a giant die making an indelible impress, a huge map of the universe outlined itself in one clear vision."
Hadamard described the process as having steps (i) preparation, (ii) incubation, (iv) illumination, and (v) verification of the five-step Graham Wallas creative-process model, leaving out (iii) intimation, with the first three cited by Hadamard as also having been put forth by Helmholtz:
Marie-Louise von Franz, a colleague of the eminent psychiatrist Carl Jung, noted that in these unconscious scientific discoveries the "always recurring and important factor … is the simultaneity with which the complete solution is intuitively perceived and which can be checked later by discursive reasoning." She attributes the solution presented "as an archetypal pattern or image." As cited by von Franz, according to Jung, "Archetypes … manifest themselves only through their ability to organize images and ideas, and this is always an unconscious process which cannot be detected until afterwards."
Creative industries and services
Today, creativity forms the core activity of a growing section of the global economy—the so-called "creative industries"—capitalistically generating (generally non-tangible) wealth through the creation and exploitation of intellectual property or through the provision of creative services. The Creative Industries Mapping Document 2001 provides an overview of the creative industries in the UK. The creative professional workforce is becoming a more integral part of industrialized nations' economies.
Creative professions include writing, art, design, theater, television, radio, motion pictures, related crafts, as well as marketing, strategy, some aspects of scientific research and development, product development, some types of teaching and curriculum design, and more. Since many creative professionals (actors and writers, for example) are also employed in secondary professions, estimates of creative professionals are often inaccurate. By some estimates, approximately 10 million US workers are creative professionals; depending upon the depth and breadth of the definition, this estimate may be double.
Creativity is required at all stages of the product development process, from the generation of new product ideas to their commercialization. A work environment that stimulates employee creativity is generally believed to be beneficial for a firm's new product performance. When people at any level in the organization have creative capabilities they can contribute to innovation, despite claims that people at lower levels of an organization introduce fewer and less radical innovation. All organizational members can directly (e.g., as part of new product development (NPD) team) or indirectly contribute to product innovation, especially in less structured organizations.
In other professions
Creativity is also seen as being increasingly important in a variety of other professions. Architecture and industrial design are the fields most often associated with creativity, and more generally the fields of design and design research. These fields explicitly value creativity, and journals such as Design Studies have published many studies on creativity and creative problem solving.
Fields such as science and engineering have, by contrast, experienced a less explicit (but arguably no less important) relation to creativity. Simonton shows how some of the major scientific advances of the 20th century can be attributed to the creativity of individuals. This ability will also be seen as increasingly important for engineers in years to come.
Accounting has also been associated with creativity with the popular euphemism creative accounting. Although this term often implies unethical practices, Amabile has suggested that even this profession can benefit from the (ethical) application of creative thinking.
In a recent global survey of approximately 1600 CEO's, the leadership trait that was considered to be most crucial for success was creativity. This suggests that the world of business is beginning to accept that creativity is of value in a diversity of industries, rather than being simply the preserve of the creative industries. For instance, the civil service (opularly derided as wholly opposite to the creative), has benefitted from employing creative writers, from John Milton, to Anthony Trollope, to 'Flann O'Brien', who are capable of analysing the workings of their own institutions.
It has been the topic of various research studies to establish that organizational effectiveness depends on the creativity of the workforce to a large extent. For any given organization, measures of effectiveness vary, depending upon its mission, environmental context, nature of work, the product or service it produces, and customer demands. Thus, the first step in evaluating organizational effectiveness is to understand the organization itself — how it functions, how it is structured, and what it emphasizes.
Amabile argued that to enhance creativity in business, three components were needed:
- Expertise (technical, procedural and intellectual knowledge),
- Creative thinking skills (how flexibly and imaginatively people approach problems),
- and Motivation (especially intrinsic motivation).
There are two types of motivation:
- extrinsic motivation – external factors, for example threats of being fired or money as a reward,
- intrinsic motivation – comes from inside an individual, satisfaction, enjoyment of work etc.
Six managerial practices to encourage motivation are:
- Challenge – matching people with the right assignments;
- Freedom – giving people autonomy choosing means to achieve goals;
- Resources – such as time, money, space etc. There must be balance fit among resources and people;
- Work group features – diverse, supportive teams, where members share the excitement, willingness to help and recognize each other's talents;
- Supervisory encouragement – recognitions, cheering, praising;
- Organizational support – value emphasis, information sharing, collaboration.
Nonaka, who examined several successful Japanese companies, similarly saw creativity and knowledge creation as being important to the success of organizations. In particular, he emphasized the role that tacit knowledge has to play in the creative process.
In business, originality is not enough. The idea must also be appropriate—useful and actionable. Creative competitive intelligence is a new solution to solve this problem. According to Reijo Siltala it links creativity to innovation process and competitive intelligence to creative workers.
Creativity can be encouraged in people and professionals and in the workplace. It is essential for innovation, and is a factor affecting economic growth and businesses. In 2013 the sociologist Silvia Leal Martín, using the Innova 3DX method, suggested measuring the various parameters that encourage creativity and innovation: corporate culture, work environment, leadership and management, creativity, self-esteem and optimism, locus of control and learning orientation, motivation and fear.
Economic views of creativity
Economic approaches to creativity have focussed on three aspects — the impact of creativity on economic growth, methods of modelling markets for creativity, and the maximisation of economic creativity (innovation).
In the early 20th century, Joseph Schumpeter introduced the economic theory of creative destruction, to describe the way in which old ways of doing things are endogenously destroyed and replaced by the new. Some economists (such as Paul Romer) view creativity as an important element in the recombination of elements to produce new technologies and products and, consequently, economic growth. Creativity leads to capital, and creative products are protected by intellectual property laws.
Mark A. Runco and Daniel Rubenson have tried to describe a "psychoeconomic" model of creativity. In such a model, creativity is the product of endowments and active investments in creativity; the costs and benefits of bringing creative activity to market determine the supply of creativity. Such an approach has been criticised for its view of creativity consumption as always having positive utility, and for the way it analyses the value of future innovations.
The creative class is seen by some to be an important driver of modern economies. In his 2002 book, The Rise of the Creative Class, economist Richard Florida popularized the notion that regions with "3 T's of economic development: Technology, Talent and Tolerance" also have high concentrations of creative professionals and tend to have a higher level of economic development.
The creative industries in Europe — including the audiovisual sector — make a significant contribution to the EU economy, creating about 3% of EU GDP — corresponding to an annual market value of €500 billion — and employing about 6 million people. In addition, the sector plays a crucial role in fostering innovation, in particular for devices and networks. The EU records the second highest TV viewing figures globally, producing more films than any other region in the world. In that respect, the newly proposed 'Creative Europe' programme will help preserve cultural heritage while increasing the circulation of creative works inside and outside the EU. The programme will play a consequential role in stimulating cross border co-operation, promoting peer learning and making these sectors more professional. The Commission will then propose a financial instrument run by the European Investment Bank to provide debt and equity finance for cultural and creative industries. The role of the non-state actors within the governance regarding Medias will not be neglected anymore due to a holistic approach.
Social network view of creativity
Creativity research has long been polarized between the ‘romantic’ view that major creative achievements are sparked by imaginative and uniquely gifted individuals at the margin of an intellectual field. Although this remains the dominant approach when examining individual creativity, an increasingly large number of studies have stressed the importance of also looking at social factors. Following this line of thought and drawing more explicitly from research by sociologists and sociopsychologists, organizational scholars have increasingly recognized the importance of the network side of individual creativity.
The key idea of this perspective is that a deeper understanding of how creative outputs are generated and become accepted can be achieved only by placing the individual within a network of interpersonal relationships. The influence of the social context in which individuals are embedded determines the range of information and opportunities available to them during the creative process. Several studies have begun to expose the network mechanisms that underlie the genesis and legitimacy of creative work.
Daniel Pink, in his 2005 book A Whole New Mind, repeating arguments posed throughout the 20th century, argues that we are entering a new age where creativity is becoming increasingly important. In this conceptual age, we will need to foster and encourage right-directed thinking (representing creativity and emotion) over left-directed thinking (representing logical, analytical thought). However, this simplification of 'right' versus 'left' brain thinking is not supported by the research data.
Nickerson provides a summary of the various creativity techniques that have been proposed. These include approaches that have been developed by both academia and industry:
- Establishing purpose and intention
- Building basic skills
- Encouraging acquisitions of domain-specific knowledge
- Stimulating and rewarding curiosity and exploration
- Building motivation, especially internal motivation
- Encouraging confidence and a willingness to take risks
- Focusing on mastery and self-competition
- Promoting supportable beliefs about creativity
- Providing opportunities for choice and discovery
- Developing self-management (metacognitive skills)
- Teaching techniques and strategies for facilitating creative performance
- Providing balance
Some see the conventional system of schooling as "stifling" of creativity and attempt (particularly in the pre-school/kindergarten and early school years) to provide a creativity-friendly, rich, imagination-fostering environment for young children. Researchers have seen this as important because technology is advancing our society at an unprecedented rate and creative problem solving will be needed to cope with these challenges as they arise. In addition to helping with problem solving, creativity also helps students identify problems where others have failed to do so. See the Waldorf School as an example of an education program that promotes creative thought.
Promoting intrinsic motivation and problem solving are two areas where educators can foster creativity in students. Students are more creative when they see a task as intrinsically motivating, valued for its own sake. To promote creative thinking educators need to identify what motivates their students and structure teaching around it. Providing students with a choice of activities to complete allows them to become more intrinsically motivated and therefore creative in completing the tasks.
Teaching students to solve problems that do not have well defined answers is another way to foster their creativity. This is accomplished by allowing students to explore problems and redefine them, possibly drawing on knowledge that at first may seem unrelated to the problem in order to solve it.
Several different researchers have proposed methods of increasing the creativity of an individual. Such ideas range from the psychological-cognitive, such as Osborn-Parnes Creative Problem Solving Process, Synectics, Science-based creative thinking, Purdue Creative Thinking Program, and Edward de Bono's lateral thinking; to the highly structured, such as TRIZ (the Theory of Inventive Problem-Solving) and its variant Algorithm of Inventive Problem Solving (developed by the Russian scientist Genrich Altshuller), and Computer-Aided Morphological analysis.
Understanding and enhancing the creative process with new technologies
A simple but accurate review on this new Human-Computer Interactions (HCI) angle for promoting creativity has been written by Todd Lubart, an invitation full of creative ideas to develop further this new field.
Groupware and other Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW) platforms are now the stage of Network Creativity on the web or on other private networks. These tools have made more obvious the existence of a more connective, cooperative and collective nature of creativity rather than the prevailing individual one. Creativity Research on Global Virtual Teams is showing that the creative process is affected by the national identities, cognitive and conative profiles, anonymous interactions at times and many other factors affecting the teams members, depending on the early or later stages of the cooperative creative process. They are also showing how NGO's cross-cultural virtual team's innovation in Africa would also benefit from the pooling of best global practices online. Such tools enhancing cooperative creativity may have a great impact on society and as such should be tested while they are built following the Motto: "Build the Camera while shooting the film". Some European FP7 scientific programs like Paradiso are answering a need for advanced experimentally driven research including large-scale experimentation test-beds to discover the technical, societal and economic implications of such groupware and collaborative tools to the Internet.
On the other hand, creativity research may one day be pooled with a computable metalanguage like IEML from the University of Ottawa Collective Intelligence Chair, Pierre Levy. It might be a good tool to provide an interdisciplinary definition and a rather unified theory of creativity. The creative processes being highly fuzzy, the programming of cooperative tools for creativity and innovation should be adaptive and flexible. Empirical Modelling seems to be a good choice for Humanities Computing.
The Creativity and Cognition conference series, sponsored by the ACM and running since 1993, has been an important venue for publishing research on the intersection between technology and creativity. The conference now runs biennially, next taking place in 2015.
Although the benefits of creativity to society as a whole have been noted, social attitudes about this topic remain divided. The wealth of literature regarding the development of creativity and the profusion of creativity techniques indicate wide acceptance, at least among academics, that creativity is desirable.
There is, however, a dark side to creativity, in that it represents a "quest for a radical autonomy apart from the constraints of social responsibility". In other words, by encouraging creativity we are encouraging a departure from society's existing norms and values. Expectation of conformity runs contrary to the spirit of creativity. Ken Robinson argues that the current education system is "educating people out of their creativity". 
Nevertheless, employers are increasingly valuing creative skills. A report by the Business Council of Australia, for example, has called for a higher level of creativity in graduates. The ability to "think outside the box" is highly sought after. However, the above-mentioned paradox may well imply that firms pay lip service to thinking outside the box while maintaining traditional, hierarchical organization structures in which individual creativity is condemned.
- Adaptive performance
- Computational creativity
- Confabulation (neural networks)
- E-scape, a technology and approach that looks specifically at the assessment of creativity and collaboration.
- Heroic theory of invention and scientific development
- Invention (such as "artistic invention" in the Visual Arts)
- Lateral thinking
- Learned industriousness
- Malevolent creativity
- Multiple discovery
- Music therapy
- Musical improvisation
- Why Man Creates (film)
- Mumford, M. D. (2003). Where have we been, where are we going? Taking stock in creativity research. Creativity Research Journal, 15, 107–120.
- Sternberg, Robert J. (2011). "Creativity". Cognitive Psychology (6 ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 479. ISBN 978-1-133-38701-5.
- Meusburger, Peter (2009). "Milieus of Creativity: The Role of Places, Environments and Spatial Contexts". In Meusburger, P., Funke, J. and Wunder, E. Milieus of Creativity: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Spatiality of Creativity. Springer. ISBN 978-1-4020-9876-5.
- Torrance, Paul. "Verbal Tests. Forms A and B-Figural Tests, Forms A and B.". The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking-Norms-Technical Manual Research Edition. Princeton, New Jersey: Personnel Press. p. 6.
- Mel Rhodes: An Analysis of Creativity. in Phi Delta Kappan 1961, Vol. 42, No. 7, p. 306–307
- Gabora, Liane (1997). "The Origin and Evolution of Culture and Creativity". Journal of Memetics – Evolutionary Models of Information Transmission 1.
- Sternberg, Robert J. (2009). Jaime A. Perkins, Dan Moneypenny, Wilson Co, ed. Cognitive Psychology. CENGAGE Learning. p. 468. ISBN 978-0-495-50629-4.
- Runco, Mark A.; Albert, Robert S. (2010). "Creativity Research". In James C. Kaufman and Robert J. Sternberg. The Cambridge Handbook of Creativity. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-73025-9.
- "And eke Job saith, that in hell is no order of rule. And albeit that God hath created all things in right order, and nothing without order, but all things be ordered and numbered, yet nevertheless they that be damned be not in order, nor hold no order."
- Władysław Tatarkiewicz, A History of Six Ideas: an Essay in Aesthetics, p. 244.
- Albert, R. S.; Runco, M. A. (1999). ":A History of Research on Creativity". In Sternberg, R. J. Handbook of Creativity. Cambridge University Press.
- Plato, The Republic, Book X – wikisource:The Republic/Book X
- Albert, R. S.; Runco, M. A. (1999). ":A History of Research on Creativity". In Sternberg, R. J. Handbook of Creativity. Cambridge University Press. p. 5.
- Niu, Weihua; Sternberg, Robert J. (2006). "The Philosophical Roots of Western and Eastern Conceptions of Creativity" (PDF). Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 26: 18–38. doi:10.1037/h0091265. Retrieved 23 October 2010.
- Dacey, John (1999). "Concepts of Creativity: A history". In Mark A. Runco and Steven R. Pritzer. Encyclopedia of Creativity, Vol. 1. Elsevier. ISBN 0-12-227076-2.
- Albert, R. S.; Runco, M. A. (1999). ":A History of Research on Creativity". In Sternberg, R. J. Handbook of Creativity. Cambridge University Press. p. 6.
- Tatarkiewicz, Władysław (1980). A History of Six Ideas: an Essay in Aesthetics. Translated from the Polish by Christopher Kasparek, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
- Wallas, G. (1926). Art of Thought.
- Simonton, D. K. (1999). Origins of genius: Darwinian perspectives on creativity. Oxford University Press.
- Whitehead, Alfred North (1978). Process and reality : an essay in cosmology ; Gifford Lectures delivered in the University of Edinburgh during the session 1927–28 (Corrected ed.). New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-02-934580-4.
- Meyer, Steven (2005). "Introduction: Whitehead Now". Configurations 1 (13): 1–33.
- Sternberg, R. J.; Lubart, T. I. (1999). "The Concept of Creativity: Prospects and Paradigms". In ed. Sternberg, R. J. Handbook of Creativity. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-57285-1.
- (Hargreaves, H. L. (1927). "The faculty of imagination: An enquiry concerning the existence of a general faculty, or group factor, of imagination." British Journal of Psychology Monograph Supplement 3: 1-74.)
- Kozbelt, Aaron; Beghetto, Ronald A. and Runco, Mark A. (2010). "Theories of Creativity". In James C. Kaufman and Robert J. Sternberg. The Cambridge Handbook of Creativity. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-73025-9.
- Kaufman, James C.; Beghetto, Ronald A. (2009). "Beyond Big and Little: The Four C Model of Creativity". Review of General Psychology 13 (1): 1–12. doi:10.1037/a0013688.
- Boden, Margaret (2004). The Creative Mind: Myths And Mechanisms. Routledge. ISBN 0-297-82069-9.
- Robinson, Ken (1998). All our futures: Creativity, culture, education (PDF). National Advisory Committee on Creative and Cultural Education. Retrieved 2 October 2010.
- Craft, Anna (2001). "'Little C' creativity". In Craft, A., Jeffrey, B. and Leibling, M. Creativity in education. Continuum International. ISBN 978-0-8264-4863-7.
- Csíkszentmihályi, Mihály (1996). Creativity:Flow and the Psychology of Discovery and Invention. Harper Collins. ISBN 978-0-06-092820-9.
- Simonton, D. K. (1997). "Creative Productivity: A Predictive and Explanatory Model of Career Trajectories and Landmarks". Psychological Review 104 (1): 66–89. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.104.1.66.
- Smith, S. M. (2011). "Incubation". In M. A. Runco & S. R. Pritzker. Encyclopedia of Creativity Volume I (2nd ed.). Academic Press. pp. 653–657. ISBN 978-0-12-375039-6.
- Ward, T. (2003). "Creativity". In ed. Nagel, L. Encyclopaedia of Cognition. New York: Macmillan.
- Smith, Steven M. (1995). "Fixation, Incubation, and Insight in Memory and Creative Thinking". In Steven M. Smith, Thomas B. Ward and Ronald A. Finke. The Creative Cognition Approach. MIT Press.
- "Anderson, J. R. (2000). Cognitive psychology and its implications. Worth Publishers. ISBN 0-7167-1686-0.
- Guilford, J. P. (1967). The Nature of Human Intelligence.
- Ward, T.B. (1995). What’s old about new ideas. In S. M. Smith, T. B. Ward & R. A. & Finke (Eds.) The creative cognition approach, 157–178, London: MIT Press.
- Weisberg, R. W. (1993). Creativity: Beyond the myth of genius. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-2119-8.
- Helie S., Sun R. (2010). "Incubation, insight, and creative problem solving: A unified theory and a connectionist model". Psychological Review 117: 994–1024. doi:10.1037/a0019532.
- Koestler, A. (1964). The Act of Creation. London: Pan Books. ISBN 0-330-73116-5.
- Gabora, L. & Saab, A. (2011). Creative interference and states of potentiality in analogy problem solving. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society. July 20–23, 2011, Boston MA.
- Roese, N. J. & Olson, J. M. (1995). What Might Have Been: The Social Psychology of Counterfactual Thinking. Mahwah, New Jersey: Erlbaum
- Markman, K. Klein, W. & Suhr, E. (eds) (2009). Handbook of mental simulation and the human imagination. Hove, Psychology Press
- Byrne, R. M. J. (2005). The Rational Imagination: How People Create Counterfactual Alternatives to Reality. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
- (Kraft, 2005)
- (Torrance, 1974)
- (Carson, 2005)
- Kim, K. H. (2006). "Can We Trust Creativity Tests? A Review of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT)". Creativity Research Journal 18: 3–1. doi:10.1207/s15326934crj1801_2.
- Zeng, L.; Proctor, R. W.; Salvendy, G. (2011). "Can Traditional Divergent Thinking Tests Be Trusted in Measuring and Predicting Real-World Creativity?". Creativity Research Journal 23: 24. doi:10.1080/10400419.2011.545713.
- Forster, E. A., & Dunbar, K. N. (2009). Creativity evaluation through latent semantic analysis. In Proceedings of the 31st Annual meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 602–607).
- Harbison, I. J., & Haarmann, H. (2014). Automated scoring of originality using semantic representations. In Proceedings of the 36th Annual meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (poster paper).
- Acar, S., & Runco, M. A. (2014). Assessing associative distance among ideas elicited by tests of Divergent Thinking. Creativity Research Journal 26(2), pp. 229-238.
- NSF SBIR Grant Number 1315053.
- Other members include Kenes Beketayev PhD Computer Science; Liberty Lidz, PhD Linguistics; Perman Gochyyev, PhD Statistics
- Beketayev, K., Runco, M. A. (2014) Semantics-based algorithmic method for assessing divergent thinking. TBP.
- Feist, G. J. (1998). A meta-analysis of the impact of personality on scientific and artistic creativity. Personality and Social Psychological Review, 2, 290–309.
- Batey, M. & Furnham, A. (2006). Creativity, intelligence and personality: A critical review of the scattered literature. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 132, p. 355-429.
- Batey, M., Furnham, A. F. & Safiullina, X. (2010). Intelligence, General Knowledge and Personality as Predictors of Creativity. Learning and Individual Differences, 20, p. 532-535.
- Getzels, J. W., & Jackson, P. W. (1962). Creativity and intelligence: Explorations with gifted students. New York: Wiley.
- Barron, F. (1963). Creativity and psychological health. Princeton: D. Van Nostrand Company.
- Wallach, M. A., & Kogan, N. (1965). Modes of thinking in young children: A study of the creativity-intelligence distinction. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
- Guilford, J. P. (1967). The nature of human intelligence. New York: McGraw-Hill.
- Plucker, J., & Renzulli, J. S. (1999). Psychometric approaches to the study of human creativity. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of creativity (pp. 35–60). New York: Cambridge University Press.
- Hayes, J. R. (1989). Cognitive processes in creativity. In J. A. Glover, R. R. Ronning, & C. R. Reynolds (Eds.), Handbook of creativity (pp. 135–145). New York: Plenum.
- Sternberg, R. J. (1996). Successful Intelligence. NewYork: Simon & Schuster.
- Sternberg, R. J., & O’Hara, L. A. (1999). Creativity and intelligence. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of creativity (pp. 251–272). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
- Gardner, H. (1993). Creating minds. New York: Basic Books.
- Sternberg, R. J., Kaufman, J. C., & Grigorenko, E. L. (2008). Applied intelligence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Kaufman, J. C., Kaufman, S. B., & Lichtenberger, E. O. (2011). Finding creativity on intelligence tests via divergent production. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 26, 83–106.
- Silvia, P. J., Beaty, R. E., & Nusbaum, E. C. (2013). Verbal fluency and creativity: General and specific contributions of broad retrieval ability (Gr) factors to divergent thinking. Intelligence, 41, 328–340.
- Martindale, C. (1999). Biological bases of creativity. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of creativity (pp. 137– 152). New York: Cambridge University Press.
- Kaufman, J.C., Kaufman, S.B., & Plucker, J.A. (2013). Contemporary theories of intelligence. In J. Reisberg (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Psychology (pp. 811-822). New York, NY: Oxford University Press
- Sternberg, R. J. and Lubart, T. I. (1991). An investment theory of creativity and its development, Human Development, 34, 1-32.
- Sternberg, R. J. and Lubart, T. I. (1992). Buy low and sell high: An investment approach to creativity, Current Directions in Psychological Science, 1 (1), 1-5.
- Amabile, T. M. (1982). Social psychology of creativity: A consensual assessment technique. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 997–1013.
- Amabile, T. M. (1996). Creativity in context: Update to “The Social Psychology of Creativity”. Boulder: Westview Press.
- Baer, J., & Kaufman, J. C. (2005). Bridging generality and specificity: The Amusement Park Theoretical (APT) Model of creativity. Roeper Review, 27, 158–163.
- Renzulli, J. S. (1978). What makes giftedness? Reexamining a definition. Phi Delta Kappan, 60, 180–261.
- Naglieri, J. A., & Kaufman, J. C. (2001). Understanding intelligence, giftedness, and creativity using PASS theory. Roeper Review, 23, 151–156.
- Torrance, E. P. (1962). Guiding creative talent. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
- Barron, F. (1969). Creative person and creative process. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
- Yamamoto, K. (1964). Creativity and sociometric choice among adolescents. Journal of Social Psychology, 64, 249–261.
- Fuchs-Beauchamp, K. D., Karnes, M. B., & Johnson, L. J. (1993). Creativity and intelligence in preschoolers. Gifted Child Quarterly, 37, 113–117.
- Cho, S. H., Nijenhuis, J. T., van Vianen, N. E. M., Kim, H.-B., & Lee, K. H. (2010). The relationship between diverse components of intelligence and creativity. Journal of Creative Behavior, 44, 125–137.
- Jauk, E., Benedek, M., Dunst, B., & Neubauer, A. C. (2013). The relationship between intelligence and creativity: New support for the threshold hypothesis by means of empirical breakpoint detection. Intelligence, 41, 212–221.
- Wai, J., Lubinski, D., & Benbow, C. P. (2005). Creativity and occupational accomplishments among intellectually precocious youths: An age 13 to age 33 longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 484–492.
- Kim, K. H. (2005). Can only intelligent people be creative? Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 16, 57–66.
- Preckel, F., Holling, H., & Wiese, M. (2006). Relationship of intelligence and creativity in gifted and non-gifted students: An investigation of threshold theory. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 159–170.
- Perkins, D. N. (1981) The mind’s best work. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- Weisberg, R. W. & Alba, J. W. (1981). An examination of the alleged role of “fixation” in the solution of several “insight” problems. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 110, 169 – 192.
- McNemar, O. (1964) Lost: Our Intelligence? Why? American Psychologist, 19, 871 – 882.
- Kenneth M Heilman, MD, Stephen E. Nadeau, MD, and David Q. Beversdorf, MD. "Creative Innovation: Possible Brain Mechanisms" Neurocase (2003)
- Flaherty AW (2005). "Frontotemporal and dopaminergic control of idea generation and creative drive". J Comp Neurol 493 (1): 147–53. doi:10.1002/cne.20768. PMC 2571074. PMID 16254989.
- Vandervert 2003a, 2003b; Vandervert, Schimpf & Liu, 2007
- Miyake & Shah, 1999
- Schmahmann, 1997, 2004
- Andersen, Korbo & Pakkenberg, 1992.
- Miller & Cohen, 2001
- Vandervert, 2003a
- Jung-Beeman, Bowden, Haberman, Frymiare, Arambel-Liu, Greenblatt, Reber & Kounios, 2004
- Imamizu, Kuroda, Miyauchi, Yoshioka & Kawato, 2003
- Schmahmann, 2004,
- Vandervert, in press-a
- Vandervert, 2011, in press-b
- Vandervert & Vandervert-Weathers, 2013
- Brown, J. et al. (2007). "On Vandervert et al. "Working memory cerebellum, and creativity"". Creat. Res. J. 19: 25–29. doi:10.1080/10400410709336875.
- Abraham, A. (2007). "Can a neural system geared to bring about rapid, predictive, and efficient function explain creativity?". Creat. Res. J. 19: 19–24. doi:10.1080/10400410709336874.
- Wagner U., Gais S., Haider H., Verleger R., Born J. (2004). "Sleep inspires insight". Nature 427 (6972): 352–5. doi:10.1038/nature02223. PMID 14737168.
- Cai D. J., Mednick S. A., Harrison E. M., Kanady J. C., Mednick S. C. (2009). "REM, not incubation, improves creativity by priming associative networks". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106 (25): 10130–10134. doi:10.1073/pnas.0900271106. PMC 2700890. PMID 19506253.
- Walker MP, Liston C, Hobson JA, Stickgold R (November 2002). "Cognitive flexibility across the sleep-wake cycle: REM-sleep enhancement of anagram problem solving". Brain Res Cogn Brain Res 14 (3): 317–24. doi:10.1016/S0926-6410(02)00134-9. PMID 12421655.
- Hasselmo ME (September 1999). "Neuromodulation: acetylcholine and memory consolidation". Trends Cogn. Sci. (Regul. Ed.) 3 (9): 351–359. doi:10.1016/S1364-6613(99)01365-0. PMID 10461198.
- Winkielman, P.; Knutson, B. (2007), "Affective Influence on Judgments and Decisions: Moving Towards Core Mechanisms", Review of General Psychology 11 (2): 179–192, doi:10.1037/1089-26188.8.131.52
- Mark A. Davis (January 2009). "Understanding the relationship between mood and creativity: A meta-analysis". Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 100 (1): 25–38. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2008.04.001.
- Baas, Matthijs; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Nijstad, Bernard A. (November 2008). "A meta-analysis of 25 years of mood-creativity research: Hedonic tone, activation, or regulatory focus?" (PDF). Psychological Bulletin 134 (6): 779–806. doi:10.1037/a0012815. PMID 18954157.
- Schmidhuber, Jürgen (2006), Developmental Robotics, Optimal Artificial Curiosity, Creativity, Music, and the Fine Arts. Connection Science, 18(2): 173-187
- Schmidhuber, Jürgen (2010), Formal Theory of Creativity, Fun, and Intrinsic Motivation (1990–2010). IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development, 2(3):230-247
- Video of Jürgen Schmidhuber's keynote at the 2011 Winter Intelligence Conference, Oxford: Universal AI and Theory of Fun and Creativity. Youtube, 2012
- Video of Jürgen Schmidhuber's talk at the 2009 Singularity Summit, NYC: Compression Progress: The Algorithmic Principle Behind Curiosity and Creativity. Youtube, 2010
- Kurzweil AI: Transcript of Jürgen Schmidhuber's TEDx talk (2012): When creative machines overtake man
- Schmidhuber, J. (1991), Curious model-building control systems. In Proc. ICANN, Singapore, volume 2, pp 1458–1463. IEEE.
- Schmidhuber, J. (2012), A Formal Theory of Creativity to Model the Creation of Art. In McCormack, Jon and M. d'Inverno (eds), Computers and Creativity, Springer 2012
- Schmidhuber, J. (2007), Simple Algorithmic Principles of Discovery, Subjective Beauty, Selective Attention, Curiosity & Creativity. In V. Corruble, M. Takeda, E. Suzuki, eds., Proc. 10th Intl. Conf. on Discovery Science 2007 pp 26-38, LNAI 4755, Springer
- (Rushton, 1990)
- http://exploration.vanderbilt.edu/news/news_schizotypes.htm (Actual paper)
- Batey, M. Furnham, A. (2009). The relationship between creativity, schizotypy and intelligence. Individual Differences Research, 7, p.272-284.
- Batey, M. & Furnham, A. (2008). The relationship between measures of creativity and schizotypy. Personality and Individual Differences, 45, p.816-821.
- Furnham, A., Batey, M., Anand, K. & Manfield, J. (2008). Personality, hypomania, intelligence and creativity. Personality and Individual Differences, 44, p.1060-1069.
- Kyaga, S.; Lichtenstein, P.; Boman, M.; Hultman, C.; Långström, N.; Landén, M. (2011). "Creativity and mental disorder: Family study of 300 000 people with severe mental disorder". The British Journal of Psychiatry 199 (5): 373–379. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.110.085316. PMID 21653945.
- Roberts, Michelle. Creativity 'closely entwined with mental illness'. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-19959565. 16 October 2012.
- Sternberg, R.J. (2006). "The Nature of Creativity" (PDF). Creativity Research Journal 18 (1): 87–98. doi:10.1207/s15326934crj1801_10.
- (DeGraff, Lawrence 2002)
- (Batey & Irwing, 2010) http://www.e-metrixx.com/creativity-profit/me2-spec/
- Nijstad B. A., De Dreu C. K. (2002). "Creativity and Group Innovation". Applied Psychology 51: 400–406. doi:10.1111/1464-0597.00984.
- (Guilford, 1950)
- (Torrance, 1974, 1984)
- (Christiaans & Venselaar, 2007)
- (Amabile, 1996; Prabhu et al., 2008)
- (Feist, 1998, 1999; Prabhu et al., 2008; Zhang & Sternberg, 2009)
- (Campbell, 1960)
- (Gardner, 1993a, Policastro & Gardner, 1999)
- (Sternberg & Lubart, 1991, 1995, 1996)
- Sternberg RJ 'Introduction' in Kaufman JC and Sternberg RJ (2006) (eds) The International Handbook of Creativity pp 1-9. Cambridge University Press ISBN 0-521-54731-8
- Niu W (2006) 'Development of Creativity Research in Chinese Societies' in Kaufman JC and Sternberg RJ (eds) The International Handbook of Creativity pp 386-387. Cambridge University Press ISBN 0-521-54731-8
- Mpofu E et al (2006) 'African Perspectives on Creativity' in Kaufman JC and Sternberg RJ (eds) The International Handbook of Creativity p 465. Cambridge University Press ISBN 0-521-54731-8
- Mpofu E et al (2006) 'African Perspectives on Creativity' in Kaufman JC and Sternberg RJ (eds) The International Handbook of Creativity p 458. Cambridge University Press ISBN 0-521-54731-8
- Preiss DD and Strasser K (2006) 'Creativity in Latin America' in Kaufman JC and Sternberg RJ (eds) The International Handbook of Creativity p 46. Cambridge University Press ISBN 0-521-54731-8
- Smith GJW and Carlsson I (2006) 'Creativity under the Northern Lights' in Kaufman JC and Sternberg RJ (eds) The International Handbook of Creativity p 202. Cambridge University Press ISBN 0-521-54731-8
- Preiser S (2006) 'Creativity Research in German-Speaking Countries' in Kaufman JC and Sternberg RJ (eds) The International Handbook of Creativity p 175. Cambridge University Press ISBN 0-521-54731-8
- (Amabile, 1998; Sullivan and Harper, 2009)
- Dekel, Gil. Inspiration: a functional approach to creative practice. http://www.insight.poeticmind.co.uk/15-thesis-conclusions/. 23 February 2013.
- Hadamard, 1954, pp. 13-16.
- Brian, 1996, p. 159.
- G. H. Hardy cited how the mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan had "moments of sudden illumination." See Kanigel, 1992, pp. 285-286.
- Interview with Walter Heitler by John Heilbron (March 18, 1963. Archives for the History of Quantum Physics), as cited in and quoted from in Gavroglu, Kostas Fritz London: A Scientific Biography p. 45 (Cambridge, 2005).
- von Franz, 1992, p. 297 and 314. Cited work: B. L. van der Waerden, Einfall und Überlegung: Drei kleine Beiträge zur Psychologie des mathematischen Denkens (Gasel & Stuttgart, 1954).
- von Franz, 1992, p. 297 and 314. Cited work: Harold Ruegg, Imagination: An Inquiry into the Sources and Conditions That Stimulate Creativity (New York: Harper, 1954).
- Hadamard, 1954, p. 56.
- von Franz, 1992, pp. 297-298.
- von Franz, 1992 297-298 and 314.
- Jung, 1981, paragraph 440, p. 231.
- Dul, J. and Ceylan, C. (2014), The Impact of a Creativity-supporting Work Environment on a Firm's Product Innovation Performance. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 31: 1254–1267. doi: 10.1111/jpim.12149
- For a typical example see (Dorst et al., 2001).
- National Academy of Engineering (2005).
- C. Sullivan, Literature in the Civil Service: Sublime Bureaucracy (2013)
- (Nonaka, 1991)
- Amabile, T. M. (1998). "How to kill creativity". Harvard Business Review
- Siltala, R. 2010. Innovativity and cooperative learning in business life and teaching. University of Turku
- Leal, S. y Urrea J. "Ingenio y Pasión" (2013), Lid Publishers (Spanish) and Forbes India Magazine http://forbesindia.com/article/ie/new-trends-in-innovation-management/33905/1#ixzz2iiuuDxVq
- Rubenson, Daniel L.; Runco, Mark (1992). "The psychoeconomic approach to creativity". New Ideas in Psychology 10 (2): 131–147. doi:10.1016/0732-118X(92)90021-Q.
- Diamond, Arthur M. (1992). "Creativity and Interdisciplinarity: A Response to Rubenson and Runco". New Ideas in Psychology 10 (2): 157–160. doi:10.1016/0732-118X(92)90023-S.
- by Markus Karlsson v. Violaine Hacker, PhD European law
- Cattani, Gino, and Ferriani, Simone. 2008. "A Core/Periphery Perspective on Individual Creative Performance: Social Networks and Cinematic Achievements in the Hollywood Film Industry." Organization Science, vol. 19(6): pp.824-844.
- Cattani, Gino, Ferriani, Simone, and Colucci, Mariachiara. 2013. "Creativity in Social Networks." In C. Jones, Lazersen, M. & Sapsed, J. (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Creative Industries, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.1-16.
- Nickerson, R. S. (1999). "Enhancing creativity". In R. J. Sternberg. Handbook of Creativity. Cambridge University Press.
- Csíkszentmihályi, Mihály (1999). "Implications of a systems perspective for the study of creativity". In R. J. Sternberg. Handbook of Creativity. Cambridge University Press.
- Robinson, K.; Azzam, A. M. (2009). "Why creativity now?". Educational Leadership 67 (1): 22–26.
- Paris, C., Edwards, N., Sheffield, E., Mutinsky, M., Olexa, T., Reilly, S., & Baer, J. (2006). How early school experiences impact creativity. In J. C. Kaufman & J. Baer (Eds.), Creativity and Reason in Cognitive Development (pp. 333-350). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
- Byrge, C.; Hanson. S. (2009). "The creative platform: A new paradigm for teaching creativity". Problems of Education in the 21st Century 18: 33–50.
- Csikzentmihalyi, M. (1993). Evolution and flow. In M. Csikzentmihalyi (Ed.), The evolving self: A psychology for the third millennium (pp. 175-206). New York: Harper Perennial.
- National Advisory Committee on Creative and Cultural Education (1998). All our futures: Creativity, culture, and education. UK: NACCCE
- (Runco 2004)
- see (Feldman, 1999) for example
- (McLaren, 1999)
- Why schools kill creativity — The case for an education system that nurtures creativity: Ken Robinson's TED Conference talk, Monterey, California, 2006
- (BCA, 2006)
- Amabile, Teresa M.; Barsade, Sigal G; Mueller, Jennifer S; Staw, Barry M., "Affect and creativity at work," Administrative Science Quarterly, 2005, vol. 50, pp. 367–403.
- Amabile, T. M. (1998). "How to kill creativity". Harvard Business Review 76 (5).
- Amabile, T. M. (1996). Creativity in context. Westview Press.
- Balzac, Fred (2006). "Exploring the Brain's Role in Creativity". NeuroPsychiatry Reviews 7 (5): 1, 19–20.
- BCA (2006). New Concepts in Innovation: The Keys to a Growing Australia. Business Council of Australia.
- Brian, Denis, Einstein: A Life (John Wiley and Sons, 1996) ISBN 0-471-11459-6
- Byrne, R. M. J. (2005). The Rational Imagination: How People Create Counterfactual Alternatives to Reality. MIT Press.
- Carson, S. H.; Peterson, J. B.; Higgins, D. M. (2005). "Reliability, Validity, and Factor Structure of the Creative Achievement Questionnaire". Creativity Research Journal 17 (1): 37–50. doi:10.1207/s15326934crj1701_4.
- Craft, A. (2005). Creativity in Schools: tensions and dilemmas. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-32414-9.
- Dorst, K.; Cross, N. (2001). "Creativity in the design process: co-evolution of problem–solution". Design Studies 22 (5): 425–437. doi:10.1016/S0142-694X(01)00009-6.
- Feldman, D. H. (1999). "The Development of Creativity". In ed. Sternberg, R.J. Handbook of Creativity. Cambridge University Press.
- Finke, R.; Ward, T. B. & Smith, S. M. (1992). Creative cognition: Theory, research, and applications. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-06150-3.
- Flaherty, A. W. (2005). "Frontotemporal and dopaminergic control of idea generation and creative drive". Journal of Comparative Neurology 493 (1): 147–153. doi:10.1002/cne.20768. PMC 2571074. PMID 16254989.
- Florida, R. (2002). The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It's Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-02476-9.
- Fredrickson B. L. (2001). "The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions". American Psychologist 56 (3): 218–26. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.56.3.218. PMC 3122271. PMID 11315248.
- Hadamard, Jacques, The Psychology of Invention in the Mathematical Field (Dover, 1954) ISBN 0-486-20107-4
- Helmholtz, H. v. L. (1896). Vorträge und Reden (5th edition). Friederich Vieweg und Sohn.
- Isen A. M., Daubman K. A., Nowicki G. P. (1987). "Positive affect facilitates creative problem solving". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 52 (6): 1122–31. doi:10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2062. PMID 3598858.
- Jeffery, G. (2005). The Creative College: building a successful learning culture in the arts. Trentham Books.
- Johnson, D. M. (1972). Systematic introduction to the psychology of thinking. Harper & Row.
- Jullien, F.; Paula M. Varsano (translator) (2004). In Praise of Blandness: Proceeding from Chinese Thought and Aesthetics. Zone Books, U.S. ISBN 1-890951-41-2; ISBN 978-1-890951-41-2
- Jung, C. G., The Collected Works of C. G. Jung. Volume 8. The Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche. (Princeton, 1981) ISBN 0-691-09774-7
- Kanigel, Robert, The Man Who Knew Infinity: A Life of the Genius Ramanujan (Washington Square Press, 1992) ISBN 0-671-75061-5
- Kraft, U. (2005). "Unleashing Creativity". Scientific American Mind. April: 16–23.
- Kolp, P., Lammé, A., Regnard, Fr., Rens, J. M. (ed.) (2009). "Musique et créativité". Orphée Apprenti (Conseil de la Musique) NS (1): 9–119. D/2009/11848/5
- *Lehrer, Jonah (2012), Imagine: How Creativity Works.
- McLaren, R. B. (1999). "Dark Side of Creativity". In ed. Runco, M. A. & Pritzker, S. R. Encyclopedia of Creativity. Academic Press.
- McCrae, R. R. (1987). "Creativity, Divergent Thinking, and Openness to Experience". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 52 (6): 1258–1265. doi:10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.118.
- Michalko, M. (1998). Cracking Creativity: The Secrets of Creative Genius. Berkeley, Calif.: Ten Speed Press. ISBN 0-89815-913-X.
- Nachmanovitch, Stephen (1990). Free Play: Improvisation in Life and Art. Penguin-Putnam. ISBN 0-87477-578-7.
- National Academy of Engineering (2005). Educating the engineer of 2020: adapting engineering education to the new century. National Academies Press. ISBN 0-309-09649-9.
- Nonaka, I. (1991). "The Knowledge-Creating Company". Harvard Business Review 69 (6): 96–104.
- O'Hara, L. A. & Sternberg, R. J. (1999). "Creativity and Intelligence". In ed. Sternberg, R. J. Handbook of Creativity. Cambridge University Press.
- Pink, D. H. (2005). A Whole New Mind: Moving from the information age into the conceptual age. Allen & Unwin.
- Poincaré, H. (1908/1952). "Mathematical creation". In ed. Ghiselin, B. The Creative Process: A Symposium. Mentor. Check date values in:
- Rhodes, M. (1961). "An analysis of creativity". Phi Delta Kappan 42: 305–311.
- Rushton, J. P. (1990). "Creativity, intelligence, and psychoticism". Personality and Individual Differences 11: 1291–1298. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(90)90156-L.
- Runco, M. A. (2004). "Creativity". Annual Review of Psychology 55: 657–687. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.141502. PMID 14744230.
- Sabaneev, Leonid. The Psychology of the Musico-Creative Process // Psyche. - Vol. 9 (July 1928). - pp. 37–54.
- Smith, S. M. & Blakenship, S.E. (1 April 1991). "Incubation and the persistence of fixation in problem solving". American Journal of Psychology 104 (1): 61–87. doi:10.2307/1422851. ISSN 0002-9556. JSTOR 1422851. PMID 2058758.
- Taylor, C. W. (1988). "Various approaches to and definitions of creativity". In ed. Sternberg, R. J. The nature of creativity: Contemporary psychological perspectives. Cambridge University Press.
- Torrance, E. P. (1974). Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. Personnel Press.
- von Franz, Marie-Louise, Psyche and Matter (Shambhala, 1992) ISBN 0-87773-902-1
- Andersen B., Korbo L., Pakkenberg B. (1992). "A quantitative study of the human cerebellum with unbiased stereological techniques". The Journal of Comparative Neurology 326 (4): 549–560. doi:10.1002/cne.903260405. PMID 1484123.
- Imamizu H., Kuroda T., Miyauchi S., Yoshioka T., Kawato M. (2003). "Modular organization of internal models of tools in the cerebellum". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100 (9): 5461–5466. doi:10.1073/pnas.0835746100.
- Jung-Beeman, M., Bowden, E., Haberman, J., Frymiare, J., Arambel-Liu, S., Greenblatt, R., Reber, P., & Kounios, J. (2004). Neural activity when people solve verbal problems with insight. PLOS Biology, 2, 500-510.
- Miller E., Cohen J. (2001). "An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex function". Annual Review of Neuroscience 24: 167–202. doi:10.1146/annurev.neuro.24.1.167. PMID 11283309.
- Miyake, A., & Shah, P. (Eds.). (1999). Models of working memory: Mechanisms of active maintenance and executive control. New York: Cambridge University Press.
- Schmahmann, J. (Ed.). (1997). The cerebellum and cognition. New York: Academic Press.
- Schmahmann J (2004). "Disorders of the cerebellum: Ataxia, dysmetria of thought, and the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome". Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 16 (3): 367–378. doi:10.1176/appi.neuropsych.16.3.367. PMID 15377747.
- Sullivan, Ceri and Graeme Harper, ed., The Creative Environment: Authors at Work (Cambridge: English Association/Boydell and Brewer, 2009)
- Vandervert, L. (2003a). How working memory and cognitive modeling functions of the cerebellum contribute to discoveries in mathematics. New Ideas in Psychology, 21, 159-175.
- Vandervert, L. (2003b). The neurophysiological basis of innovation. In L. V. Shavinina (Ed.) The international handbook on innovation (pp. 17–30). Oxford, England: Elsevier Science.
- Vandervert, L. (2011). The evolution of language: The cerebro-cerebellar blending of visual-spatial working memory with vocalizations. The Journal of Mind and Behavior, 32, 317-334.
- Vandervert, L. (in press). How the blending of cerebellar internal models can explain the evolution of thought and language. Cerebellum.
- Vandervert, L., Schimpf, P., & Liu, H. (2007). How working memory and the cerebellum collaborate to produce creativity and innovation [Special Issue]. Creativity Research Journal, 19(1), 1-19.
- Vandervert, L., & Vandervert-Weathers, K. (in press). New brain-imaging studies indicate how prototyping is related to entrepreneurial giftedness and innovation education in children. In L. Shavinina (Ed.), The International Handbook of Innovation Education. London: Routlage.
- DeGraff, J.; Lawrence, K. (2002). Creativity at Work. Jossey-Bass. ISBN 0-7879-5725-9.
- Gielen, P. (2013). Creativity and other Fundamentalisms. Mondriaan: Amsterdam.
- Chung-yuan, Chang (1970). Creativity and Taoism, A Study of Chinese Philosophy, Art, and Poetry. New York: Harper Torchbooks. ISBN 0-06-131968-6.
- Cropley, David H.; Cropley, Arthur J.; Kaufman, James C. et al., eds. (2010). The Dark Side of Creativity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-13960-1. Lay summary (24 November 2010).
- Robinson, Andrew (2010). Sudden Genius?: The Gradual Path to Creative Breakthroughs. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-956995-3. Lay summary (24 November 2010).
- The Roots of Human Genius Are Deeper Than Expected (March 10, 2013) Scientific American
- Isaac Asimov (2014-10-20) on Cultivating Creativity
- John Cleese (2014-08-08) on Fostering Creativity
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Creativity|
- Raphael DiLuzio (2012-06-28) on 7 Steps of Creative Thinking