Dazed and Confused
|Dazed and Confused|
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Richard Linklater|
|Produced by||Richard Linklater
|Written by||Richard Linklater|
|Editing by||Sandra Adair|
|Distributed by||Gramercy Pictures|
|Running time||102 minutes|
Dazed and Confused is a 1993 coming of age comedy film written and directed by Richard Linklater. The film features a large ensemble cast of actors who would later become stars, including Matthew McConaughey, Jason London, Ben Affleck, Milla Jovovich, Cole Hauser, Parker Posey, Adam Goldberg, Joey Lauren Adams, Nicky Katt, and Rory Cochrane. The plot follows various groups of teenagers during the last day of school in summer 1976.
The film grossed less than $8 million at the U.S. box office but later achieved cult film status. Quentin Tarantino included it on his list of the 10 greatest films of all time in a 2002 Sight and Sound poll. It also ranked third on Entertainment Weekly magazine's list of the 50 Best High School Movies. The magazine also ranked it 10th on their "Funniest Movies of the Past 25 Years" list.
The title of the film is derived from the Led Zeppelin version of the song of the same name. Linklater approached the surviving members of Led Zeppelin for permission to use their song "Rock and Roll" in the film, but, while Jimmy Page and John Paul Jones agreed, Robert Plant refused.
It is May 28, 1976, the last day of school at Lee High School in the suburbs of Austin, Texas. The next year's group of seniors are preparing for the annual hazing of incoming freshmen. Randall "Pink" Floyd, the school's star football player, is asked to sign a pledge promising not to take drugs during the summer or do anything that would "jeopardize the goal of a championship season". When classes end, the incoming freshman boys are hunted down by the seniors and paddled. The incoming freshman girls are also hazed; they are rounded up in the school parking lot by senior girls, covered in mustard, ketchup, flour and raw eggs, and forced to propose to senior boys.
Freshman Mitch Kramer escapes the hazing with his best friend Carl Burnett when Carl's mom pulls a shotgun on flunking-thus-repeating senior Fred O'Bannion, but he is later cornered at his baseball game, and violently paddled. O'Bannion, a senior participating in the hazing tradition for a second year after failing to graduate, delights in punishing Mitch. Pink gives the injured Mitch a ride home and offers to take him cruising with friends that night. Plans for the evening are ruined when Kevin Pickford's parents discover he planned to host a keg party. Elsewhere, the intellectual trio of Cynthia Dunn, Tony Olson and Mike Newhouse decide to participate in the evening's activities. Pink and his friend David Wooderson, a young adult who still socializes with high school students, pick up Mitch and head for the Emporium, a pool hall popular frequented by teenagers.
As the evening progresses, students loiter around the Emporium, listen to rock music, cruise the neighborhood and stop at the hamburger drive-in. Mitch is introduced to sophomore Julie Simms, with whom he shares a mutual attraction. While cruising again with Pink, Kevin, and Don Dawson, Mitch drinks beer and smokes marijuana for the first time. They play mailbox baseball, but a neighborhood resident brandishing a gun threatens to call the police. They barely escape after the resident fires at their car. After returning to the Emporium, Mitch runs into his middle school friends. They hatch a plan to get revenge on O'Bannion. The plan culminates with them dumping paint on O'Bannion and him leaving in a fit of rage.
After the Emporium closes, an impromptu keg party is planned in a field under a moonlight tower. Cynthia, Tony and Mike arrive at their first keg party. Mike is threatened by tough guy Clint Bruno. Tony runs into freshman Sabrina Davis, whom he met earlier during the hazing. They begin hanging out together. Cynthia likes Wooderson and exchanges phone numbers with him. Mike, suffering from the humiliation of his confrontation with Clint, decides to make a stand, punches him, and gets tackled. The fight is broken up by Pink and Wooderson. Football player Benny O'Donnell confronts Pink about his refusal to sign the pledge. Pink, the only player not to have signed, believes it violates his individuality and beliefs. Mitch leaves the keg party with Julie. They drive to a nearby hill overlooking town to make out. Tony gives Sabrina a ride home and they kiss good night.
As night turns to dawn, Pink, Wooderson, Don, and several friends including Ron Slater and Simone Kerr decide to smoke marijuana on the 50-yard line of the football field. The police arrive, so they ditch the drugs. Recognizing Pink, the police call football Coach Conrad. Conrad lectures Pink about hanging out with "losers" and insists that he sign the pledge. Pink says that he might play football, but he is not going to sign the pledge. Pink leaves with his friends to get tickets to an Aerosmith concert. Mitch arrives home after sunrise to find his mother has waited up for him. She decides against punishment but warns him about coming home late again. Mitch goes to his bedroom, puts on headphones and listens to "Slow Ride" by Foghat as Pink, Wooderson, Ron and Simone travel down a highway to purchase their tickets.
- Jason London as Randall "Pink" Floyd
- Wiley Wiggins as Mitch Kramer
- Rory Cochrane as Ron Slater
- Sasha Jenson as Don Dawson
- Michelle Burke as Jodi Kramer
- Christine Harnos as Kaye Faulkner
- Adam Goldberg as Mike Newhouse
- Anthony Rapp as Tony Olson
- Matthew McConaughey as David Wooderson
- Marissa Ribisi as Cynthia Dunn
- Jason O. Smith as Melvin Spivey
- Shawn Andrews as Kevin Pickford
- Cole Hauser as Benny O'Donnell
- Milla Jovovich as Michelle Burroughs
- Joey Lauren Adams as Simone Kerr
- Christin Hinojosa as Sabrina Davis
- Ben Affleck as Fred O'Bannion
- Parker Posey as Darla Marks
- Deena Martin as Shavonne Wright
- Nicky Katt as Clint Bruno
- Esteban Powell as Carl Burnett
- Jeremy Fox as Adam Hirschfelder
- Renée Zellweger as Nesi White
Dazed and Confused was released on September 24, 1993 in 183 theaters, grossing $918,127 on its opening weekend. It went on to make $7.9 million in North America.
The film received favorable reviews from critics. It garnered a 98% approval rating from 50 critics – an average rating of 8 out of 10 – on the review-aggregate website Rotten Tomatoes, whose consensus reads: "Featuring an excellent ensemble cast, a precise feel for the 1970s, and a killer soundtrack, Dazed and Confused is a funny, affectionate, and clear-eyed look at high school life." Metacritic provides a score of 78 out of 100 from 18 critics, indicating "generally favorable" reviews.
Film critic Roger Ebert awarded the film three stars out of four, praising the film as "art crossed with anthropology" with a "painful underside". In her review for The New York Times, Janet Maslin wrote, "Dazed and Confused has an enjoyably playful spirit, one that amply compensates for its lack of structure". Desson Howe, in his review for The Washington Post, wrote, "Dazed succeeds on its own terms and reflects American culture so well, it becomes part of it". In her review for The Austin Chronicle, Marjorie Baumgarten praised Matthew McConaughey's performance: "He is a character we're all too familiar with in the movies but McConaughey nails this guy without a hint of condescension or whimsy, claiming this character for all time as his own".
Rolling Stone's Peter Travers praised Linklater as a "sly and formidable talent, bringing an anthropologist's eye to this spectacularly funny celebration of the rites of stupidity. His shitfaced American Graffiti is the ultimate party movie – loud, crude, socially irresponsible and totally irresistible". In his review for Time, Richard Corliss wrote, "Linklater is surely no ham-fisted moralist, and his film has lots of attitude to shake a finger at. But it also has enough buoyant '70s music to shake anybody's tail feather, and a kind of easy jubilance of narrative and character". Entertainment Weekly gave the film an "A" rating, and Owen Gleiberman wrote, "Yet if Linklater captures the comic goofiness of the time, he also evokes its liberating spirit. The film finds its meaning in the subtle clash between the older, sadistic macho-jock ethos and the follow-your-impulse hedonism that was the lingering legacy of the '60s".
Entertainment Weekly ranked the film #17 on their list of "The Top 50 Cult Films", third on their list of the 50 Best High School Movies, 10th on their "Funniest Movies of the Past 25 Years" list, and ranked it #6 on their "The Cult 25: The Essential Left-Field Movie Hits Since '83" list. Quentin Tarantino included it on his list of the 10 greatest films of all time in the 2002 Sight and Sound poll.
The Criterion Collection released a two-disc boxed-set edition of the film on June 6, 2006 in the U.S. and Canada. Features included an audio commentary by Richard Linklater, deleted scenes, the original trailer, the 50 minute "Making Dazed" documentary that aired on the American Movie Classics channel on September 18, 2005, on-set interviews, behind-the-scenes footage, cast auditions and footage from the ten-year anniversary celebration. Also included is a 72-page book featuring new essays by Kent Jones, Jim DeRogatis, and Chuck Klosterman as well as memories from the cast and crew, character profiles and a mini reproduction of the original film poster designed by Frank Kozik. Entertainment Weekly gave it an "A" rating and called it a "fine edition grants this enduring cult classic the DVD treatment it deserves". In 2012, McConaughey reprised his role as Wooderson in the Butch Walker and The Black Widows music video "Synthesizers". To celebrate the film's 20th anniversary in 2013, the film received the Star of Texas award from the Texas Film Hall of Fame. Linklater accepted the award after being introduced by Tarantino, who reiterated his appreciation of the film as his favorite of the 1990s. The event featured a reunion of several cast members including Joey Lauren Adams, Wiley Wiggins, Christin Hinojosa, Nicky Katt, Mona Lee, Catherine Avril Morris, Anthony Rapp, Marissa Ribisi, Michelle Burke Thomas, and Mark Vandermeulen. At the event, Linklater described his intent to create an inverse John Hughes film: "The drama is so low-key in [Dazed & Confused]. I don’t remember teenage being that dramatic. I remember just trying to go with the flow, socialize, fit in and be cool. The stakes were really low. To get Aerosmith tickets or not? That’s a big thing. It was really rare when the star-crossed lovers from the opposite side of the tracks and the girl gets pregnant and there’s a car crash and somebody dies. That didn’t really happen much. But riding around and trying to look for something to do with the music cranked up, now that happened a lot!"
American Film Institute recognition:
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes:
- "That's what I love about these high school girls, man. I get older, they stay the same age." – Nominated
|Dazed and Confused|
|Soundtrack album by Various Artists|
|Released||September 28, 1993|
|Dazed and Confused (1993)|
|3.||"School's Out"||Alice Cooper||3:29|
|4.||"Jim Dandy"||Black Oak Arkansas||2:42|
|8.||"Cherry Bomb"||The Runaways||2:19|
|9.||"Fox on the Run"||Sweet||3:26|
|11.||"Tuesday's Gone"||Lynyrd Skynyrd||7:32|
|12.||"Highway Star"||Deep Purple||6:08|
|13.||"Rock and Roll All Nite"||KISS||2:57|
|Even More Dazed and Confused (1994)|
|1.||"Free Ride"||Edgar Winter Group||3:08|
|2.||"No More Mr. Nice Guy"||Alice Cooper||3:07|
|3.||"Livin' in the USA"||The Steve Miller Band||4:05|
|4.||"Never Been Any Reason"||Head East||5:12|
|5.||"Why Can't We Be Friends?"||War||3:51|
|6.||"Summer Breeze"||Seals and Crofts||3:25|
|7.||"Right Place, Wrong Time"||Dr. John||2:54|
|9.||"Lord Have Mercy On My Soul"||Black Oak Arkansas||6:14|
|10.||"I Just Want to Make Love to You"||Foghat||4:19|
|11.||"Show Me the Way"||Peter Frampton||4:41|
|12.||"Do You Feel Like We Do"||Peter Frampton||7:13|
In September 1993, St. Martin's Press published a 127-page, softcover book (ISBN 0-312-09466-3) inspired by Richard Linklater's screenplay. It was compiled by Linklater, Denise Montgomery, and others, and designed by Erik Josowitz. It was presented as a kind of yearbook, with character profiles, essays by characters, a time-line focusing on the years 1973 to 1977, and various 1970s pop culture charts and quizzes. It also featured dozens of black-and-white photos from the film.
Some of the material contained in the 1993 book was reprinted in the 72-page book included with the 2006 Criterion DVD.
In October 2004, three of Linklater's former classmates from Huntsville High School, whose surnames are Wooderson, Slater, and Floyd, filed a defamation lawsuit against Linklater, claiming to be the basis for the similarly named characters on the film. The lawsuit was filed in New Mexico rather than Texas because New Mexico has a longer statute of limitations. The suit was subsequently dismissed.
- "DAZED AND CONFUSED". British Board of Film Classification. February 12, 1993. Retrieved June 24, 2012.
- "Sight & Sound | Top Ten Poll 2002 – How the directors and critics voted". BFI. 2008-09-29. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- "50 Best High School Movies". Filmsite.org. 2006-09-15. Retrieved 2011-04-20.
- "The Comedy 25: The Funniest Movies of the Past 25 Years | Movies". EW.com. Retrieved 2011-04-20.
- "Interview – Richard Linklater". Mindjack. Retrieved 2011-04-20.
- Led-Zeppelin.org. "Led Zeppelin Assorted Info".
- "Dazed and Confused". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 2009-02-10.
- "Dazed and Confused (1993)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved June 23, 2012.
- "Dazed and Confused". Metacritic. Retrieved June 23, 2012.
- Ebert, Roger (September 24, 1993). "Dazed and Confused". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2009-02-10.
- Maslin, Janet (September 24, 1993). "Nervously Contemplating Life After High School". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-02-10.
- Howe, Desson (October 22, 1993). "Dazed and Confused". Washington Post. Retrieved 2009-02-10.
- Baumgarten, Marjorie (September 24, 1993). "Dazed and Confused". The Austin Chronicle. Retrieved 2009-02-10.
- Travers, Peter (December 8, 2000). "Dazed and Confused". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2009-02-10.
- Corliss, Richard (October 11, 1993). "A Toke of Our Esteem". Time. Retrieved 2009-02-10.
- Gleiberman, Owen (September 24, 1994). "Dazed and Confused". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2009-02-10.
- "The Top 50 Cult Films". Entertainment Weekly. May 23, 2003.
- "50 Best High School Movies". Entertainment Weekly. 2008-07-31. Retrieved 2009-04-21.
- "The Comedy 25: The Funniest Movies of the Past 25 Years". Entertainment Weekly. August 27, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-27.
- "The Cult 25: The Essential Left-Field Movie Hits Since '83" list". Entertainment Weekly. September 3, 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-04.
- Tarantino, Quentin. "Sight and Sound Top Ten Poll 2002". Sight and Sound. Retrieved 2009-04-21.
- Labrecque, Jeff (June 2, 2006). "Dazed and Confused". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2009-04-21.
- Hughes, Sarah Anne (January 23, 2012). "Matthew McConaughey reprises ‘Dazed and Confused’ role for music video". The Washington Post (The Washington Post Company). Archived from the original on April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- Valby, Karen (March 8, 2013). "Quentin Tarantino pays tribute to 'Dazed and Confused' at the Texas Film Hall of Fame Awards". Entertainment Weekly. Time Warner. Archived from the original on April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- "DAZED AND CONFUSED 20TH ANNIVERSARY REUNION". Austin Film Society. 2013. Archived from the original on April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- "AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes Nominees" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-05-21.
- Peter Carlson (2004-12-08). "Bummer, Man Portrayed as Potheads In 'Dazed,' Trio Has A New Joint Venture: Suing the Filmmaker". The Washington Post (washingtonpost.com). Retrieved 2009-11-17.
- Linklater, Richard. Director's commentary, Dazed and Confused, Criterion Collection DVD.
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Dazed and Confused|
- Dazed and Confused at the Internet Movie Database
- Dazed and Confused at AllRovi
- Dazed and Confused at Rotten Tomatoes
- Dazed and Confused at Box Office Mojo