Devon

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Devon
County
St Petroc's flag of Devon Coat of arms of Devon County Council
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: "Auxilio Divino" ("With God's help")
Devon within England
Devon shown within England
Coordinates: 50°42′N 3°48′W / 50.7°N 3.8°W / 50.7; -3.8Coordinates: 50°42′N 3°48′W / 50.7°N 3.8°W / 50.7; -3.8
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Region South West
Established Ancient
Ceremonial county
Lord Lieutenant Eric Dancer
High Sheriff John Albert Thomas Lee
Area 6,707 km2 (2,590 sq mi)
 – Ranked 4th of 48
Population (2011 est.) 1,135,700
 – Ranked 11th of 48
Density 169 /km2 (440 /sq mi)
Ethnicity 98.7% White British
Non-metropolitan county
County council Devon County Council
Executive Conservative
Admin HQ Exeter
Area 6,564 km2 (2,534 sq mi)
 – Ranked 3rd of 27
Population 747,900
 – Ranked 12th of 27
Density 114 /km2 (300 /sq mi)
ISO 3166-2 GB-DEV
ONS code 18
GSS code E10000008
NUTS UKK43
Website www.devon.gov.uk
Unitary authorities
Councils Plymouth City Council
Torbay Council
Devon numbered districts.svg
Districts of Devon
Unitary County council area
Districts
  1. Exeter
  2. East Devon
  3. Mid Devon
  4. North Devon
  5. Torridge
  6. West Devon
  7. South Hams
  8. Teignbridge
  9. Plymouth
  10. Torbay
Members of Parliament List of MPs
Police Devon and Cornwall Police
Time zone GMT (UTC)
– Summer (DST) BST (UTC+1)

Devon (/ˈdɛvən/; archaically known as Devonshire) is a county of England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south. It is part of South West England, bounded by Cornwall to the west, Somerset to the northeast, and Dorset to the east. The City of Exeter is the county town; seven other districts of East Devon, Mid Devon, North Devon, South Hams, Teignbridge, Torridge, and West Devon are under the jurisdiction of Devon County Council; Plymouth and Torbay are each a part of Devon but administered as unitary authorities. Combined as a ceremonial county, Devon's area is 6,707 km2 (2,590 square miles),[1] and its population is about 1.1 million.

Devon derives its name from Dumnonia, which, during the British Iron Age and Roman Britain, was the homeland of the Dumnonii Celts. The Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain resulted in the partial assimilation of Dumnonia into the Kingdom of Wessex during the eighth and ninth centuries. The western boundary with Cornwall was set at the River Tamar by King Æthelstan in 936. Devon was constituted as a shire of the Kingdom of England thereafter.

Geographically, Devon is the only county of England to have non-continuous stretches of coastline. Both north and south coasts include both cliffs and sandy shores; Devon's bays contain seaside resorts, fishing towns, and ports. The county's inland terrain is rural, generally hilly, and has a low population density in comparison to many other parts of England. Dartmoor, the largest open space in southern England at 954 km2 (368 square miles),[2] is covered with wide moorland and underlying granite geology; to its north are the Culm measures and Exmoor. In the valleys and lowlands of south and east Devon the soil is more fertile, traversed by rivers such as the Exe, the Culm, the Dart, and the Otter.

The economy of Devon is linked closely with tourism. The comparatively mild climate, coastline and landscape give rise to Devon as a destination for recreation and leisure in England, with visitors particularly attracted to the Dartmoor and Exmoor national parks; its coasts, including the resort towns along the south coast known collectively as the English Riviera, the Jurassic Coast, and North Devon's UNESCO Biosphere Reserve; and the countryside including the Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape.

History[edit]

Main article: History of Devon

Toponymy[edit]

The name Devon derives from the name of the Celts who inhabited the southwestern peninsula of Britain at the time of the Roman conquest of Britain known as the Dumnonii, thought to mean "deep valley dwellers" from proto Celtic *dubnos 'deep'. In the Brittonic Celtic languages, Devon is known as Welsh: Dyfnaint, Breton: Devnent and Cornish: Dewnens, each meaning "deep valleys." (For an account of Celtic Dumnonia, see the separate article.)

William Camden, in his 1607 edition of Britannia, described Devon as being one part of an older, wider country that once included Cornwall:

THAT region which, according to the Geographers, is the first of all Britaine, and, growing straiter still and narrower, shooteth out farthest into the West, [...] was in antient time inhabited by those Britans whom Solinus called Dumnonii, Ptolomee Damnonii [...] For their habitation all over this Countrey is somewhat low and in valleys, which manner of dwelling is called in the British tongue Dan-munith, in which sense also the Province next adjoyning in like respect is at this day named by the Britans Duffneit, that is to say, Low valleys. [...] But the Country of this nation is at this day divided into two parts, knowen by later names of Cornwall and Denshire, [...]

—William Camden, Britannia.[3]

The term "Devon" is normally used for everyday purposes e.g. "Devon County Council" but "Devonshire" continues to be used in the names of the "Devonshire and Dorset Regiment" and "The Devonshire Association". One erroneous theory is that the "shire" suffix is due to a mistake in the making of the original letters patent for the Duke of Devonshire, resident in Derbyshire. However, there are references to "Defenascire" in Anglo-Saxon texts from before 1000 AD (this would mean "Shire of the Devonians"),[4] which translates to modern English as "Devonshire". The term Devonshire may have originated around the 8th century, when it changed from Dumnonia (Latin) to Defenascir.[5]

Human occupation[edit]

Kents Cavern in Torquay had produced human remains from 30–40,000 years ago. Dartmoor is thought to have been occupied by Mesolithic hunter-gatherer peoples from about 6000 BC. The Romans held the area under military occupation for around 350 years. Later, the area began to experience Saxon incursions from the east around 600 AD, firstly as small bands of settlers along the coasts of Lyme Bay and southern estuaries and later as more organised bands pushing in from the east. Devon became a frontier between Brittonic Dumnonia and Anglo-Saxon Wessex, and it was largely absorbed into Wessex by the mid 9th century. The border with Cornwall was set by King Æthelstan on the east bank of the River Tamar in 936 AD. Danish raids also occurred sporadically along many coastal parts of Devon between around 800AD and just before the time of the Norman conquest, including at Taintona (a settlement on the Teign estuary) in 1001.

Devon has also featured in most of the civil conflicts in England since the Norman conquest, including the Wars of the Roses, Perkin Warbeck's rising in 1497, the Prayer Book Rebellion of 1549, and the English Civil War. The arrival of William of Orange to launch the Glorious Revolution of 1688 took place at Brixham.

Devon has produced tin, copper and other metals from ancient times. Devon's tin miners enjoyed a substantial degree of independence through Devon's Stannary Parliament, which dates back to the 12th century. The last recorded sitting was in 1748.[6]

Economy and industry[edit]

Main article: Economy of Devon

Like neighbouring Cornwall to the west, historically Devon has been disadvantaged economically compared to other parts of Southern England, owing to the decline of a number of core industries, notably fishing, mining and farming. Agriculture has been an important industry in Devon since the 19th century.[7] The 2001 UK foot and mouth crisis harmed the farming community severely.[8] Since then some parts of the agricultural industry have begun to diversify and recover, with a strong local food sector and many artisan producers. Nonetheless the dairy industry is still suffering from the low prices offered for wholesale milk by major dairies and especially large supermarket chains.

Part of the seafront of Torquay, south Devon, at high tide

The attractive lifestyle of the area is drawing in new industries which are not heavily dependent upon geographical location;[citation needed] Dartmoor, for instance, has recently seen a significant rise in the percentage of its inhabitants involved in the financial services sector. The Met Office, the UK's national and international weather service, moved to Exeter in 2003.

Since the rise of seaside resorts with the arrival of the railways in the 19th century, Devon's economy has been heavily reliant on tourism. The county's economy followed the declining trend of British seaside resorts since the mid-20th century, but with some recent revival and regeneration of its resorts, particularly focused around camping; sports such as surfing, cycling, sailing and heritage. This revival has been aided by the designation of much of Devon's countryside and coastline as the Dartmoor and Exmoor national parks, and the Jurassic Coast and Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape World Heritage Sites. In 2004 the county's tourist revenue was £1.2 billion.[9] More successful visitor attractions in recent years have tended to target higher-spending tourists, particularly focusing around the food and drink sector and watersports. Examples such as the Venus Cafes; Damien Hirst's restaurant in Ilfracombe; Burgh Island; surfing and camping around Croyde and Woolacombe and sailing around Salcombe have all proved a big draw in recent years.[citation needed]

Incomes vary significantly across the county, with parts of Torridge and Torbay having among the lowest earnings in the whole of the UK. Incomes in much of the South Hams and in villages surrounding Exeter and Plymouth are by contrast above the national average. Likewise levels of deprivation tend to be highest in urban areas such as Torbay, Plymouth, plus parts of Exeter and Ilfracombe. They are lowest in the rural fringes of big settlements, easily commutable, such as Ivybridge, Woodbury, Kenton and Braunton.[citation needed]

Transport[edit]

Rail[edit]

The key train operator for Devon is First Great Western, which operates numerous regional, local and suburban services, as well as intercity services to and from London Paddington. Other intercity services are operated by CrossCountry, to Manchester Piccadilly, Edinburgh Waverley, Glasgow Central, Dundee, Aberdeen and Penzance, and South West Trains, operating express services between London Waterloo and Exeter St Davids on the West of England Main Line. All Devon services are diesel-hauled, since there are no electrified lines in the county.

The Exeter to Plymouth railway of the LSWR needs to be reopened to connect Cornwall and Plymouth to the rest of the UK railway system on an all weather basis. There are proposals to reopen the line from Tavistock to Bere Alston for a through service to Plymouth.[10] On the night of 4 February 2014, amid high winds and extremely rough seas, part of the sea wall at Dawlish was breached washing away around 40 metres (130 ft) of the wall and the ballast under the railway immediately behind. The line was closed. Network Rail began repair work [11] and the line reopened on 4 April 2014.[12]In the wake of widespread disruption caused by damage to the mainline track at Dawlish by coastal storms in February 2014, Network Rail are considering reopening the Tavistock to Okehampton and Exeter section of the line as an alternative to the coastal route.[13]

Devon Metro[edit]

Devon County Council has proposed a "Devon Metro" scheme to improve rail services in the county and offer a realistic alternative to car travel. This includes the delivery of Cranbrook station (which has already been approved), plus four new stations (including Edginswell) as a priority.[14]

Air[edit]

Exeter International Airport is a base for Flybe. Destinations include Manchester, Glasgow, Paris and Amsterdam.

Geography and geology[edit]

Geological map of Wales & Southwest England
Heathland at Woodbury Common in south east Devon

A geological dividing line cuts across Devon roughly along the line of the M5 motorway east of Tiverton and Exeter. It is a part of the Tees-Exe line broadly dividing Britain into a southeastern lowland zone typified by gently dipping sedimentary rocks and a northwestern upland zone typified by igneous rocks and folded sedimentary and metamorphic rocks.

The principal geological components of Devon are the Devonian (in north Devon, south west Devon and extending into Cornwall); the Culm Measures (north western Devon also extending into north Cornwall); and the granite intrusion of Dartmoor in central Devon, part of the Cornubian batholith forming the 'spine' of the southwestern peninsula. There are small remains of pre-Devonian rocks on the south Devon coast.[15]

The oldest rocks which can be dated are those of the Devonian period which are approximately 395–345 million years old. Sandstones and shales were deposited in North and South Devon beneath tropical seas. In shallower waters, limestone beds were laid down in the area now near Torquay and Plymouth.[16] This geological period was named after Devon by Roderick Murchison and Adam Sedgwick in the 1840s and is the only British county whose name is used worldwide as a geological time period.[17]

Devon's second major rock system[18] is the Culm Measures, a geological formation of the Carboniferous period that occurs principally in Devon and Cornwall. The measures are so called either from the occasional presence of a soft, sooty coal, which is known in Devon as culm, or from the contortions commonly found in the beds.[19] This formation stretches from Bideford to Bude in Cornwall, and contributes to a gentler, greener, more rounded landscape. It is also found on the western, north and eastern borders of Dartmoor.

Ilfracombe, on the coast of North Devon.

The sedimentary rocks in more eastern parts of the county include Permian and Triassic sandstones (giving rise to Devon's well known fertile red soils); Bunter pebble beds around Budleigh Salterton and Woodbury Common and Jurassic rocks in the easternmost parts of Devon. Smaller deposits of even newer rocks also exist, such as Cretaceous chalk cliffs at Beer head and gravels on Haldon, plus Eocene and Oligocene ball clay and lignite deposits in the Bovey Basin, formed around 50m years ago under tropical forest conditions.

Devon is the only county in England to have two separate coastlines; the South West Coast Path runs along the entire length of both, around 65% of which is named as Heritage Coast.[20] Devon has more mileage of road than any other county in England: before the changes to counties in 1974 it was the largest by area of the counties not divided into two or three parts. (Its acreage was until 1974 1,658,288: only exceeded by the West Riding of Yorkshire.)[21] The islands of Lundy and Eddystone are also in Devon.

Inland, the Dartmoor National Park lies wholly in Devon, and the Exmoor National Park lies in both Devon and Somerset. Apart from these areas of high moorland the county has attractive rolling rural scenery and villages with thatched cob cottages. All these features make Devon a popular holiday destination.

In South Devon the landscape consists of rolling hills dotted with small towns, such as Dartmouth, Ivybridge, Kingsbridge, Salcombe, and Totnes. The towns of Torquay and Paignton are the principal seaside resorts on the south coast. East Devon has the first seaside resort to be developed in the county, Exmouth and the more upmarket Georgian town of Sidmouth, headquarters of the East Devon District Council. Exmouth marks the western end of the Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site. Another notable feature is the coastal railway line between Newton Abbot and the Exe Estuary: the red sandstone cliffs and sea views are very dramatic and in the resorts railway line and beaches are very near.

Cliffs in Devon

North Devon is very rural with few major towns except Barnstaple, Great Torrington, Bideford and Ilfracombe. Devon's Exmoor coast has the highest cliffs in southern Britain, culminating in the Great Hangman, a 318 m (1,043 ft) "hog's-back" hill with an 250 m (820 ft) cliff-face, located near Combe Martin Bay.[22] Its sister cliff is the 218 m (715 ft) Little Hangman, which marks the western edge of coastal Exmoor. One of the features of the North Devon coast is that Bideford Bay and the Hartland Point peninsula are both west-facing, Atlantic facing coastlines; so that a combination of an off-shore (east) wind and an Atlantic swell produce excellent surfing conditions. The beaches of Bideford Bay (Woolacombe, Saunton, Westward Ho! and Croyde), along with parts of North Cornwall and South Wales, are the main centres of surfing in Britain.

Climate[edit]

Devon generally has a mild climate, heavily influenced by the North Atlantic Drift. In winter snow is relatively uncommon away from high land, although there are exceptions, such as the snowfalls of February 2009, and December 2010. The county has warm summers with occasional hot spells and cool rainy periods. Winters are generally mild and the county often experiences some of the mildest winters in the world for its latitude, along with Brittany and Vancouver, Canada, with average daily maximum temperatures in January approaching 10 degrees C. Rainfall varies significantly across the county, ranging from over 2,000 mm (79 in) on parts of Dartmoor, to around 750 mm (30 in) in the rain shadow along the coast in southeastern Devon and around Exeter. Sunshine amounts also vary widely: the moors are generally cloudy, but the SE coast from Salcombe to Exmouth is one of the sunniest parts of the UK. In summer, easterly or southeasterly winds mean the area around Saunton and Croyde often records among the highest temperatures in Britain, exceeding 32 Celsius about twice every decade. Similarly, with westerly or southwesterly winds and high pressure the area around Torbay and Teignmouth will often be very warm, with long sunny spells due to shelter by high ground (Foehn wind).

Climate data for Devon
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 8
(46)
8
(46)
10
(50)
12
(54)
15
(59)
18
(64)
19
(66)
19
(66)
18
(64)
15
(59)
11
(52)
9
(48)
13.5
(56.3)
Average low °C (°F) 4
(39)
4
(39)
5
(41)
6
(43)
8
(46)
11
(52)
13
(55)
13
(55)
12
(54)
9
(48)
7
(45)
5
(41)
8
(46)
[citation needed]
Fields in south Devon after a snowfall.

Ecology[edit]

Ponies grazing on Exmoor near Brendon, North Devon

The variety of habitats means that there is a wide range of wildlife (see Dartmoor wildlife, for example). A popular challenge among birders is to find over 100 species in the county in a day. The county's wildlife is protected by several wildlife charities such as the Devon Wildlife Trust, a charity which looks after 40 nature reserves. The Devon Bird Watching and Preservation Society (DBWPS) is a county bird society with a long and distinguished history dating back to 1928. It is dedicated to the study and conservation of wild birds looks after several areas, such as Beesands Ley. There is also the RSPB, which has reserves in the county, as well as English Nature, who look after several reserves such as Dawlish Warren. The botany of the county is very diverse and includes some rare species not found elsewhere in the British Isles other than Cornwall. Botanical reports begin in the 17th century and there is a Flora Devoniensis by Jones and Kingston in 1829, and a Flora of Devon in 1939 by Keble Martin and Fraser.[23][24] There is a general account by W. P. Hiern and others in The Victoria History of the County of Devon, vol. 1 (1906); pp. 55–130, with map. Devon is divided into two Watsonian vice-counties: north and south, the boundary being an irregular line approximately across the higher part of Dartmoor and then along the canal eastwards.

Rising temperatures have led to Devon becoming the first place in modern Britain to cultivate olives commercially.[25]

Politics and administration[edit]

The administrative centre of Devon is the city of Exeter. The largest city in Devon, Plymouth, and the conurbation of Torbay (which includes the largest town in Devon and capital of Torbay Torquay, as well as Paignton and Brixham) have been unitary authorities since 1998, separate from the remainder of Devon which is administered by Devon County Council for the purposes of local government.

Devon County Council is controlled by the Conservatives, and the political representation of its 62 councillors are: 38 Conservatives, 9 Liberal Democrats, seven Labour, four UKIP, three Independents and one Green.[26]

General Election 2010 : Devon
Conservative Liberal Democrats Labour UKIP Green BNP Others Liberal Socialist Labour English Democrats Communist Turnout
260,513
+46,969
200,777
+17,154
85,556
−29,004
36,896
+2,072
9,493
+2,369
4,824
N/A
1,550
+1,351
1,108
N/A
331
−344
146
N/A
96
N/A
601,290
+46,741
Overall Number of seats as of 2010
Conservative Liberal Democrats Labour UKIP Green BNP Others Liberal Socialist Labour English Democrats Communist
9 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Hundreds

Historically Devon was divided into 32 hundreds:[27] Axminster, Bampton, Black Torrington, Braunton, Cliston, Coleridge, Colyton, Crediton, East Budleigh, Ermington, Exminster, Fremington, Halberton, Hartland, Hayridge, Haytor, Hemyock, Lifton, North Tawton and Winkleigh, Ottery, Plympton, Roborough, Shebbear, Shirwell, South Molton, Stanborough, Tavistock, Teignbridge, Tiverton, West Budleigh, Witheridge, and Wonford.

Cities, towns and villages[edit]

The inner harbour, Brixham, south Devon, at low tide

The main settlements in Devon are the cities of Plymouth, a historic port now administratively independent, Exeter, the county town, and Torbay, the county's tourist centre. Devon's coast is lined with tourist resorts, many of which grew rapidly with the arrival of the railways in the 19th century. Examples include Dawlish, Exmouth and Sidmouth on the south coast, and Ilfracombe and Lynmouth on the north. The Torbay conurbation of Torquay, Paignton and Brixham on the south coast is now administratively independent of the county. Rural market towns in the county include Barnstaple, Bideford, Honiton, Newton Abbot, Okehampton, Tavistock, Totnes and Tiverton.

The boundary with Cornwall has not always been on the River Tamar as at present: until the late 19th century a few parishes in the Torpoint area were in Devon and five parishes now in north-east Cornwall were in Devon until 1974. (However for ecclesiastical purposes these were nevertheless in the Archdeaconry of Cornwall and in 1876 became part of the Diocese of Truro.)

Religion[edit]

Ancient and medieval history[edit]

Celtic and Roman practices were the first known religions in Devon, although in the first centuries AD, Christianity was introduced to Devon. In the Sub-Roman period the church in the British Isles was characterised by some differences in practice from the Latin Christianity of the continent of Europe and is known as Celtic Christianity;[28] however it was always in communion with the wider Roman Catholic Church. Many Cornish saints are commemorated also in Devon in legends, churches and placenames. Western Christianity came to Devon when it was over a long period incorporated into the kingdom of Wessex and the jurisdiction of the bishop of Wessex. Saint Petroc is said to have passed through Devon, where ancient dedications to him are even more numerous than in Cornwall: a probable seventeen (plus Timberscombe just over the border in Somerset), compared to Cornwall's five. The position of churches bearing his name, including one within the old Roman walls of Exeter, are nearly always near the coast, reminding us that in those days travelling was done mainly by sea. The Devonian villages of Petrockstowe and Newton St Petroc are also named after Saint Petroc and the flag of Devon is dedicated to him.

The history of Christianity in the South West of England remains to some degree obscure. Parts of the historic county of Devon formed part of the diocese of Wessex, while nothing is known of the church organisation of the Celtic areas. About 703 Devon and Cornwall were included in the separate diocese of Sherborne and in 900 this was again divided into two, the Devon bishop having from 905 his seat at Tawton (now Bishop's Tawton) and from 912 at Crediton, birthplace of St Boniface. Lyfing became Bishop of Crediton in 1027 and shortly afterwards became Bishop of Cornwall.

The two dioceses of Crediton and Cornwall, covering Devon and Cornwall, were permanently united under Edward the Confessor by Lyfing's successor Bishop Leofric, hitherto Bishop of Crediton, who became first Bishop of Exeter under Edward the Confessor, which was established as his cathedral city in 1050. At first, the abbey church of St Mary and St Peter, founded by Athelstan in 932 and rebuilt in 1019, served as the cathedral.

Later history[edit]

In 1549, the Prayer Book Rebellion caused the deaths of thousands of people from Devon and Cornwall. During the English Reformation, churches in Devon officially became affiliated with the Church of England. From the late sixteenth century onwards, zealous Protestantism - or ‘puritanism’ - became increasingly well-entrenched in some parts of Devon, while other districts of the county remained much more conservative. These divisions would become starkly apparent during the English Civil War of 1642-46, when the county split apart along religious and cultural lines.[29] The Methodism of John Wesley proved to be very popular with the working classes in Devon in the 19th century. Methodist chapels became important social centres, with male voice choirs and other church-affiliated groups playing a central role in the social lives of working class Devonians. Methodism still plays a large part in the religious life of Devon today, although the county has shared in the post-World War II decline in British religious feeling.

The Diocese of Exeter remains the Anglican diocese including the whole of Devon. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Plymouth was established in the mid 19th century.[30]

Judaism[edit]

Despite its small Jewish population, Devon is also noted for containing two of Britain's oldest synagogues, located in Plymouth and Exeter, built in 1762 and 1763 respectively.

Symbols[edit]

Coat of arms[edit]

The coat of arms of Devon County Council

There was no established coat of arms for the county until 1926: the arms of the City of Exeter were often used to represent Devon, for instance in the badge of the Devonshire Regiment. During the forming of a county council by the Local Government Act 1888 adoption of a common seal was required. The seal contained three shields depicting the arms of Exeter along with those of the first chairman and vice-chairman of the council (Lord Clinton and the Earl of Morley).[31]

On 11 October 1926, the county council received a grant of arms from the College of Arms. The main part of the shield displays a red crowned lion on a silver field, the arms of Richard Plantagenet, Earl of Cornwall. The chief or upper portion of the shield depicts an ancient ship on wavers, for Devon's seafaring traditions. The Latin motto adopted was Auxilio Divino (by Divine aid), that of Sir Francis Drake. The 1926 grant was of arms alone. On 6 March 1962 a further grant of crest and supporters was obtained. The crest is the head of a Dartmoor Pony rising from a "Naval Crown". This distinctive form of crown is formed from the sails and sterns of ships, and is associated with the Royal Navy. The supporters are a Devon bull and a sea lion.[32][33]

Devon County Council adopted a "ship silhouette" logo after the 1974 reorganisation, adapted from the ship emblem on the coat of arms, but following the loss in 1998 of Plymouth and Torbay re-adopted the coat of arms. In April 2006 the council unveiled a new logo which was to be used in most everyday applications, though the coat of arms will continue to be used for "various civic purposes".[34][35]

Flag[edit]

Main article: Flag of Devon

Devon also has its own flag which has been dedicated to Saint Petroc, a local saint with dedications throughout Devon and neighbouring counties. The flag was adopted in 2003 after a competition run by BBC Radio Devon.[36] The winning design was created by website contributor Ryan Sealey, and won 49% of the votes cast. The colours of the flag are those popularly identified with Devon, for example, the colours of Exeter University, the rugby union team, and the Green and White flag flown by the first Viscount Exmouth at the Bombardment of Algiers (now on view at the Teign Valley Museum), as well as one of the county's football teams, Plymouth Argyle. On 17 October 2006, the flag was hoisted for the first time outside County Hall in Exeter to mark Local Democracy Week, receiving official recognition from the county council.[37]

Place names and customs[edit]

The beach at Westward Ho!, North Devon, looking north towards the shared estuary of the rivers Taw and Torridge.

Devon's toponyms include many with the endings "coombe/combe" and "tor". Both 'coombe' (valley or hollow, cf. Welsh cwm, Cornish komm) and 'tor' (Old Welsh twrr and Scots Gaelic tòrr from Latin turris; 'tower' used for granite formations) are rare Celtic loanwords in English and their frequency is greatest in Devon which shares a boundary with Brittonic speaking Cornwall. Ruined medieval settlements of Dartmoor longhouses indicate that dispersed rural settlement (OE tun, now often -ton) was very similar to that found in Cornish 'tre-' settlements, however these are generally described with the local placename -(a)cott, from the Old English for homestead, cf. cottage. Saxon endings in -worthy (from Anglo-Saxon worthig) indicate larger settlements. Several 'Bere's indicate Anglo-Saxon wood groves, as 'leighs' indicate clearings.[38]

Devon has a variety of festivals and traditional practices, including the traditional orchard-visiting Wassail in Whimple every 17 January, and the carrying of flaming tar barrels in Ottery St. Mary, where people who have lived in Ottery for long enough are called upon to celebrate Bonfire Night by running through the village (and the gathered crowds) with flaming barrels on their backs.[39] Berry Pomeroy still celebrates "Queen's Day" for Elizabeth I.

Education[edit]

Devon has a mostly comprehensive education system. There are 37 state and 23 independent secondary schools. There are three tertiary (FE) colleges and an agricultural college (Bicton College, near Budleigh Salterton). Torbay has 8 state (with 3 grammar schools) and 3 independent secondary schools, and Plymouth has 17 state (with 3 grammar schools – two female and one male) and one independent school, Plymouth College. East Devon and Teignbridge have the largest school populations, with West Devon the smallest (with only two schools). Only one school in Exeter, Mid Devon, Torridge and North Devon have a sixth form – the schools in other districts mostly have sixth forms, with all schools in West Devon and East Devon having a sixth form.

The county also plays host to two major British universities, the University of Exeter (split between the Streatham Campus and St Luke's Campus both in Exeter and a campus in Cornwall); in Plymouth the University of Plymouth in Britain is present, along with the University of St Mark & St John to the city's north. Both the universities of Exeter and Plymouth have co-formed the Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry which has bases in Exeter and Plymouth. There is also Schumacher College.

Cuisine[edit]

Main article: Cuisine of Devon

The county has given its name to a number of culinary specialities. The Devonshire cream tea, involving scones, jam and clotted cream, is thought to have originated in Devon (though claims have also been made for neighbouring counties); in other countries, such as Australia and New Zealand, it is known as a "Devonshire tea".[40][41][42] In Australia, Devon is a name for luncheon meat (processed ham).

In October 2008, Devon was awarded Fairtrade County status by the Fairtrade Foundation.

Sport[edit]

Devon has been home to a number of customs, such as its own form of wrestling. As recently as the 19th century, a crowd of 17,000 at Devonport, near Plymouth, attended a match between the champions of Devon and Cornwall. Another Devon sport was outhurling which was played in some regions until the 20th century (e.g. 1922, at Great Torrington). Other ancient customs which survive include Dartmoor step dancing, and "Crying The Neck".

Devon has three professional football teams, based in each of its three most populous towns and cities. In the 2014/2015 football season Exeter City F.C. and Plymouth Argyle F.C. compete in Football League Two, while Torquay United F.C compete in the Conference Premier. Plymouth's highest Football League finish was fourth in the Second Division which was achieved twice in 1932 and 1953 respectively, while Torquay and Exeter have never progressed beyond the third tier of the league although Torquay did miss out on winning the Third Division (S) by finishing 2nd on goal difference to Sir Alf Ramsey's Ipswich Town in 1957, Exeter's highest position has been 8th in the Third Division (S). The county's biggest non-league club's is Bideford F.C. which competes in the Southern Football League Premier Division and Tiverton Town F.C. which is in the Southern Football League Division One South and West.

Rugby Union is popular in Devon with two teams – Exeter Chiefs play in the Aviva Premiership and Plymouth Albion who are, as of 2011, in the RFU Championship. In basketball, Plymouth Raiders play in the British Basketball League. Tamar Valley Cannons, also based in Plymouth, are Devon's only other representatives in the National Leagues. Motorcycle speedway is also supported in the county, with both the Exeter Falcons and Plymouth Devils succeeding in the National Leagues in recent years.

There are five rugby league teams in Devon. Plymouth Titans, Exeter Centurions, Devon Sharks from Torquay, North Devon Raiders from Barnstaple and East Devon Eagles from Exmouth. They all play in the Rugby League Conference.

Devon also boasts a field hockey club who play in the National Premier League, the University of Exeter Hockey Club

Horse Racing, particularly point to point racing and National Hunt Racing is also popular in the county, with two National Hunt racecourses (Exeter and Newton Abbot), and numerous point to point courses. There are also many successful professional racehorse trainers based in Devon.

The county is represented in cricket by Devon County Cricket Club, who play at a Minor counties level.

Devonians[edit]

Devon is known for its mariners, such as Sir Francis Drake, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, Sir Richard Grenville, Sir Walter Raleigh, and Sir Francis Chichester. Henry Every, described as the most notorious pirate of the late 17th century, was probably born in the village of Newton Ferrers.[43] John Oxenham (1536–1580) was a lieutenant of Drake but considered a pirate by the Spanish. Thomas Morton (1576–1647?) was an avid Elizabethan outdoorsman probably born in Devon who became an attorney for The Council For New England, and built the New England fur-trading-plantation called Ma-Re Mount or Merrymount around a West Country-style Maypole, much to the displeasure of Pilgrim and Puritan colonists. Morton wrote a 1637 book New English Canaan about his experiences, partly in verse, and may have thereby become America's first poet to write in English.[44] Another famous mariner and Devonian was Robert Falcon Scott, the leader of the unfortunate Terra Nova Expedition to reach the geographical South Pole.[45] The poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge, the crime writer Agatha Christie and the poet Ted Hughes lived in Devon (his funeral and cremation were held there). The painter and founder of the Royal Academy, Sir Joshua Reynolds, was born in Devon.

The actor Matthew Goode was raised in Devon, and Bradley James, also an actor, was born there. The singer Joss Stone was brought up in Devon and frontman Chris Martin from the British rock group Coldplay was born there. Matt Bellamy, Dominic Howard and Christopher Wolstenholme from the English group Muse all grew up in Devon and formed the band there. Dave Hill of rock band Slade was born in Flete House which is in the South Hams district of Devon. Singer-songwriter Ben Howard grew up in Totnes, a small town in Devon. Another famous Devonian is the model and actress Rosie Huntington-Whiteley, who was born in Plymouth and raised in Tavistock.

Trevor Francis, former Nottingham Forest and Birmingham City professional footballer was born and brought up in Plymouth. Swimmer Sharron Davies[46] and diver Tom Daley were born in Plymouth. Peter Cook the satirist, writer and comedian was born in Torquay, Devon. Leicester Tigers and British and Irish Lions Rugby player Julian White MBE was born and raised in Devon and now farms a herd of pedigree South Devon beef cattle. The dog breeder John "Jack" Russell was also from Devon. Jane McGrath, who married Australian cricketer Glenn McGrath was born in Paignton, her long battle with and subsequent death from breast cancer inspired the formation of the McGrath Foundation, which is one of Australia's leading charities.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Devon County Council Geographic areas". Devon County Council. Retrieved 12 December 2012. 
  2. ^ http://www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatedareas/nationalparks/dartmoor.aspx%7CNatural England: Dartmoor retrieved 13 May 2009
  3. ^ "William Camden, Britannia (1607) with an English translation by Philemon Holland – Danmonii". The University of Birmingham. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  4. ^ "Manuscript A: The Parker Chronicle". Retrieved 29 June 2007. 
  5. ^ Davies, Norman (2000). The Isles: A History. p. 207. ISBN 0-333-69283-7. 
  6. ^ "Devon's Mining History and Stannary parliament". users.senet.com.au. Retrieved 29 March 2008. 
  7. ^ [1], South West Chamber of Rural Enterprise
  8. ^ In Devon, the county council estimated that 1,200 jobs would be lost in agriculture and ancillary rural industriesHansard, 25 April 2001
  9. ^ Devon County Council, 2005. Tourism trends in Devon.
  10. ^ Harris, Nigel (2008). "Taking trains back to Tavistock". Rail (Bauer) (590): 40–45. 
  11. ^ "UK storms destroy railway line and leave thousands without power". BBC Online. Retrieved 5 February 2014. 
  12. ^ "Dawlish's storm-damaged railway line reopens". BBC news. 4 April 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2014. 
  13. ^ "Network Rail chooses Dawlish alternative route". BBC News. 10 February 2014. Retrieved 10 February 2014. 
  14. ^ http://www.devon.gov.uk/devon_metro_briefing.pdf
  15. ^ Edmonds, E. A., et al. (1975) South-West England; based on previous editions by H. Dewey (British Geological Survey UK Regional Geology Guide series no. 17, 4th ed.) London: HMSO ISBN 0-11-880713-7
  16. ^ Hesketh, Robert (2006). Devon's Geology: An Introduction. Bossiney Books. ISBN 978-1-899-383-89-4. 
  17. ^ Laming, Deryck; Roche, David. "Devon Geology Guide – Devonian Slates, Sandstones and Volcanics". Retrieved 14 May 2014. 
  18. ^ "Devon's Rocks – A Geological Guide". Devon County Council. Retrieved 18 May 2011. 
  19. ^ Edmonds, E. A.; McKeown, M. C.; Williams, M. (1975). "Carboniferous Rocks". South-West England. British Geology. Dewey, H. (4th ed.). London: HMSO/British Geological Survey. p. 34. ISBN 0-11-880713-7. 
  20. ^ Dewey, Henry (1948) British Regional Geology: South West England, 2nd ed. London: H.M.S.O.
  21. ^ Whitaker's Almanack, 1972; p. 631
  22. ^ http://www.exmoor-nationalpark.gov.uk/index/learning_about/moor_facts.htm%7CExmoor National Park, National Park Facts |accessdate=10 May 2009
  23. ^ Jones, John Pike & Kingston, J. F. (1829) Flora Devoniensis. 2 pts, in 1 vol. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green
  24. ^ Martin, W. Keble & Fraser, G. T. (eds.) (1939) Flora of Devon. Arbroath
  25. ^ Paul Simons (14 May 2007). "Britain warms to the taste for home-grown olives". The Times (UK). Retrieved 20 September 2007. 
  26. ^ "Tories take over county council". The BBC. 5 June 2009. Retrieved 6 June 2009. 
  27. ^ GENUKI http://genuki.cs.ncl.ac.uk/DEV/Hundreds.html
  28. ^ Bowen, E. G. (1977) Saints, Seaways and Settlements in the Celtic Lands. Cardiff: University of Wales Press ISBN 0-900768-30-4
  29. ^ Stoyle, Mark (1994). Loyalty and Locality: Popular Allegiance in Devon during the English Civil War. Exeter: University of Exeter Press. p. passim. ISBN 0-85989-428-2. 
  30. ^ "Diocese of Plymouth". Retrieved 13 April 2009. 
  31. ^ Fox-Davies, A. C. (1915) The Book of Public Arms, 2nd edition, London
  32. ^ W. C. Scott-Giles, Civic Heraldry of England and Wales, 2nd edition, London, 1953
  33. ^ "A brief history of Devon's coat of arms (Devon County Council)". Devon.gov.uk. Retrieved 14 June 2010. 
  34. ^ "Council's designs cause logo row". BBC News. 27 March 2006. Retrieved 14 June 2010. 
  35. ^ "Policy and Resources Overview Scrutiny Committee Minutes, 3 April 2006". Devon.gov.uk. Retrieved 14 June 2010. 
  36. ^ "Devon Community Life – Devon gets its own flag". BBC. 18 July 2003. Retrieved 14 June 2010. 
  37. ^ Devon County Council Press Release, 16 October 2006[dead link]
  38. ^ Madalene Frost, "Origins of Devon Place-Names", http://genuki.cs.ncl.ac.uk/. Retrieved 17 June 2014
  39. ^ "Ottery Tar Barrels". BBC. Retrieved 14 May 2008. 
  40. ^ Mason, Laura; Brown, Catherine (1999) From Bath Chaps to Bara Brith. Totnes: Prospect Books
  41. ^ Pettigrew, Jane (2004) Afternoon Tea. Andover: Jarrold
  42. ^ Fitzgibbon, Theodora (1972) A Taste of England: the West Country. London: J. M. Dent
  43. ^ Marley, David F. (2010). Pirates of the Americas. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. p. 589. ISBN 978-1-59884-201-2. 
  44. ^ New English Canaan or New Canaan. Containing an abstract of New England, composed in three bookes. The first booke setting forth the originall of the natives, their manners and customes, together with their tractable nature and love towards the English. The second booke setting forth the naturall indowments of the country, and what staple commodities it yealdeth. The third booke setting forth, what people are planted there, their prosperity, what remarkable accidents have happened since the first planting of it, together with their tenents and practise of their church. Written by Thomas Morton of Cliffords Inne gent, upon tenne yeares knowledge and experiment of the country. Amsterdam: Jacob Stam
  45. ^ H. G. R. King, 'Scott, Robert Falcon (1868–1912)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, January 2011 accessed 21 June 2011
  46. ^ "New centre to honour Plymouth Olympian Sharron Davies". Plymouth City Council. 14 March 2007. Retrieved 31 August 2008. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Oliver, George (1846) Monasticon Dioecesis Exoniensis: being a collection of records and instruments illustrating the ancient conventual, collegiate, and eleemosynary foundations, in the Counties of Cornwall and Devon, with historical notices, and a supplement, comprising a list of the dedications of churches in the Diocese, an amended edition of the taxation of Pope Nicholas, and an abstract of the Chantry Rolls [with supplement and index]. Exeter: P. A. Hannaford, 1846, 1854, 1889
  • Pevsner, N. (1952) North Devon and South Devon (Buildings of England). 2 vols. Penguin Books
  • Stabb, John Some Old Devon Churches: their rood screens, pulpits, fonts, etc.. 3 vols. London: Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent, 1908, 1911, 1916
  • Stoyle, Mark (1994) Loyalty and Locality: Popular Allegiance in Devon during the English Civil War. Exeter: University of Exeter Press

External links[edit]