Doñana National Park
|This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Spanish Wikipedia. (December 2009)|
|Doñana National Park|
Wetlands in Doñana
|Location||Huelva, Seville and Cádiz provinces - Andalusia, Spain|
|Area||543 km2 (209.65 sq mi)|
|Visitors||392,958 (in 2007)|
|Governing body||Andalusian Autonomous Government|
|Criteria:||vii, ix, x|
|Designated:||1994 (18th session)|
|Region:||Europe and North America|
|Designated:||May 4, 1982 |
Doñana National Park is a natural reserve in Andalusia, southern Spain, in the provinces of Huelva and Seville. It covers 543 km2 (209.65 sq mi), of which 135 km2 (52.12 sq mi) are a protected area. The park is an area of marsh, shallow streams, and sand dunes in Las Marismas, the Guadalquivir River Delta region where it flows into the Atlantic Ocean. It was established as a nature reserve in 1969 when the World Wildlife Fund joined with the Spanish government and purchased a section of marshes to protect it. There has been a constant threat to the eco-system, that of drainage of the marshes, the use of river water to boost agricultural production by irrigating land along the coast, and the expansion of tourist facilities.
In 1989 the surroundings of the national park were given more protection when a buffer zone was declared a natural park under the management of the regional government. The two parks, national and natural, have since been classified as a single natural landscape.
The park has a biodiversity that is unique in Europe, although there are some similarities to the Camargue, with which Doñana is twinned.  Doñana contains a great variety of ecosystems and shelters wildlife including thousands of European and African migratory birds, fallow deer, Spanish red deer, wild boar, European badger, Egyptian mongoose, and endangered species such as the Spanish Imperial Eagle and Iberian Lynx.
During the 19th and 20th centuries, a herd of feral dromedaries roamed the area. They may have been introduced during the Moorish Conquest of Spain in the 8th century, or they may have escaped from a herd introduced by the Marquis de Molina as beasts of burden in 1829. By the 1950s, there were only eight individuals left, and these were threatened by poachers.
The park is used by pilgrims participating in the Romería de El Rocío. As this event is attracting a million pilgrims annually, it can have a negative impact on the park's eco-system.
The park and its highly sensitive ecology were threatened in 1998 by a massive spill of metallic waste from a reservoir at the Aznalcollar mine into the Guadiamar River, which flows through the park; however, the spill was diverted into the Guadalquivir River, reprieving the park.
Impact of agriculture
In 2007, the World Wildlife Fund warned that strawberry farms surrounding the park, where 95% of Spanish strawberries were produced, threatened to cause catastrophic damage to the park by depleting the surrounding groundwater, notably where illegal boreholes were involved, as well as creating considerable pesticide pollution and plastic waste which was accumulating in local creeks; AFP further reported that WWF was calling for a boycott of Spanish strawberries, but this is contradicted by the remarks of a WWF-Spain spokesperson, and it is uncharacteristic of WWF to call for blanket boycotts.
- List of Sites of Community Importance in Andalusia
- Costa de la Luz
- List of Spanish national parks
- "Ramsar List". Ramsar.org. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
- A History of WWF
- Apart from being important for wildlife, the Camargue has a pilgrimage site, Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer. The twinning is with the Parc Naturel Régional de Camargue. 
- Chapman, Abel; Walter John Buck (1893). Wild Spain. London: Gurney and Jackson. pp. 94–101.
- Chapman, Abel; Walter John Buck (1910). Unexplored Spain. New York: E. Arnold. pp. 275–282.
- Meissner, Hans Otto (1963). Unknown Europe. trans. Florence and Isabel McHugh. London and Glasgow: Blackie & Sons. pp. 100–124.
- "Call for Spain strawberry boycott". BBC News, 16/3/07
- "How the thirst for strawberries is draining Spain's precious water". The Independent, 14/2/07: 
- Doñana, Spain's Wildlife Wilderness, Juan Antonio Fernández, Taplinger Publishing Company, New York, 1974, hardcover, 253 pages, ISBN 0-8008-8324-1
- Where to watch birds in Doñana by Jorge Garzón, Francisco Chiclana. (2006) Published by [Lynx Edicions] ISBN 978-84-96553-20-0
- Where to watch birds in Spain. The 100 best sites by José Antonio Montero & SEO/BirdLife (2006). Published by Lynx Edicions,ISBN 978-84-96553-04-0
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Doñana National Park.|
- Doñana Biological Station CSIC
- (Spanish)Parque Nacional de Doñana (Spanish Environment Ministry)
- (Spanish)Doñana: National Park and Natural Park (Regional Government)
- CNN report on the 1998 spill
- Official UNESCO website entry