Duchy of Massa and Carrara
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|Duchy of Massa and Carrara
Ducato di Massa e Carrara
Coat of arms
|Historical era||Italian Renaissance|
|-||Established||22 February 1473|
|-||Disestablished||14 November 1829|
The Duchy of Massa and Carrara was the duchy that controlled the towns of Massa di Carrara and Carrara; the area is now part of unified Italy, but retains its local identity as the province of Massa-Carrara.
The original core of this territory was officially created on 22 February 1473 with the purchase of the Signoria of Carrara (villages of Carrara, Moneta and Avenza) by the Signoria of Massa by the Marquis of Massa Iacopo Malaspina, which was obtained by count Antoniotto Filoremo of Genoa, head of the Campofregoso family line of Milan. The noble title of Malaspina then became the Marquis of Massa and lords of Carrara.
Originally the home of Malspina was in the town of Carrara but, as a result of frequent clashes with the French invaders which often occurred in the city, the marquis moved to the city of Massa.
Within two generations the family Malaspina exhausted the male descendants and Ricciarda Malaspina, granddaughter of Iacopo and last direct heir of the house, got married in 1520 with a Lorenzo Cybo, member of an influential Genoese family of principles related to the Medici and with Pope Innocent VIII. From this marriage originated the new house of Cybo-Malaspina.
Under his rule the land went through a very prosperous period, thanks to the favorable conjunction market of marble, which was highly requested by the Renaissance courts of the time. Alberico I, aware that its territory was surrounded by more powerful and influential neighbors than he, decided to submit to the Holy Roman Empire of Charles V (1554). Due to cultural and economic achievements under the government of Alberico I, the city of Carrara was awarded the title of marquisate in 1558. In 1568 Massa was elevated to a principality by Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II.
In 1664 the territory of Massa became a duchy and Carrara became a principality. The Cybo-Malaspina gained the title of Dukes of Massa and Princes of Carrara.
In 1738 Maria Teresa Cybo-Malaspina, the last descendant of the family, married Ercole d'Este, the last male heir of the Duchy of Modena. Their daughter Maria Beatrice Ricciarda d'Este thus received the government on both territories, which anyway remained separate state entities until her death.
In 1796 the Este were deprived of their possessions by the invasion of Napoleon Bonaparte's troops. Napoleon annexed the territory to the Cispadane Republic, then merging it in the Cisalpine Republic.
During this time the territory was briefly fought between Napoleon and the Austrian anti-French coalition (1799), and experienced a rapid succession of different administrative systems more or less provisional (Department of the Apuan Alps, Imperial and Royal Provisional Regency of Massa Carrara, then again Department of the Apuan Alps and finally District of Massa).
As a final administrative change, in 1806 the French emperor gave the Duchy of Massa and Carrara to the Principality of Lucca and Piombino, ruled by her elder sister Elisa Bonaparte. During the Napoleonic domination Mary Beatrice was forced to take refuge in Vienna at the court of her husband, the Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este, uncle of Emperor Francis I of Austria.
With the fall of the Napoleonic regime, the Congress of Vienna reassigned to Mary Beatrice all the territories that had been subtracted. At that time the Duchy of Massa and Carrara included the territories of Massa and Carrara, Aulla, Casola in Lunigiana, Comano, Filattiera, Fivizzano, Fosdinovo, Licciana, Montignoso, Mulazzo, Podenzana and Tresana.
In 1859, with the deposition of Francesco V d'Este, the Duchy of Modena and Reggio (which also includes the territories of Massa and Carrara) was permanently attached to the Kingdom of Sardinia, with the formation of province of Massa-Carrara in December 1859.
Marquis, Princes, then Dukes of Massa and Carrara 
- Antonio Malaspina (1442–1445) Marquis of Massa and Fosdinovo
- Iacopo Malaspina (1445–1481) Marquis of Massa and Lord of Carrara since 1473
- Alberico II Malaspina (1481–1519)
- Ricciarda Cybo-Malaspina (1519–1546) e (1547–1553)
- Giulio I Cybo-Malaspina (1546–1547)
- Alberico I Cybo-Malaspina (1554–1623) Marquis of Massa and Carrara from 1558, then Prince of Massa and Marquis of Carrara from 1568
- Carlo I Cybo-Malaspina (1623–1662)
- Alberico II Cybo-Malaspina (1662–1690) Duke of Massa and Prince of Carrara from 1664
- Carlo II Cybo-Malaspina (1690–1710)
- Alberico III Cybo-Malaspina (1710–1715)
- Alderamo Cybo-Malaspina (1715–1731)
- Maria Teresa Cybo-Malaspina (1731–1790)
- Maria Beatrice d'Este, Duchess of Massa (1790–1797) Duchess of Modena, Reggio, Massa and Carrara
- Annexation of the Republic and Cisalpine Cispadana following the invasion of Napoleon (1796–1806)
- The duchy is annexed to the Duchy of Modena
Policy and Economy 
From the information that can be extracted from the large Cybo-Malaspina Archive, and from rescripts and dispatches of the Crown of the two Duchess Maria Teresa and Maria Beatrice d'Este (apart from several other sources) can be reconstructed the policy held by the Duchy of Massa and Carrara in the period roughly between 1450 and 1800.
The merge of the Malaspina family with the Cybo family brought the territory to a rather lavish court life. In the conduct of foreign policy the Cybo-Malaspina maintained a role as an intermediary between the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the Republic of Genoa. Alberico I brought large urban restructurations in the cities of Carrara and Massa, mainly for prestige reasons. Both cities were equipped with new city walls - with representative functions, rather than military, since the policy of the territory was not expansionist - and new ducal palaces. In Carrara was established the Office of Marble (1564), to regulate the marble mining industry. The city of Massa, in particular, saw much of its plan redesigned (new roads, plazas, intersections, pavings) in order to make it worthy of an Italian country's capital.
The War of Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was the beginning of the period of deep economic crisis for the duchy. The Empire punished with heavy fines the Cybo-Malspina, who had given hospitality to French troops on its territory. Already Alberich III, but especially Alderamo, found themselves forced to sell many city goods. Alderamo arrived to force people to buy food at a premium, and also because of the luxurious and extravagant lifestyle of the nobleman, the economics of the Duchy was brought to its knees. The financial situation recovered only by dynastic union between the families of the Malaspina and the Este, achieved with the marriage of Maria Teresa and Ercole d'Este in 1741.
From that date, the Duchy of Massa and Carrara gradually lost its political autonomy, going to gravitate more and more closely into the city of Modena sphere of influence. Under the domination of the Este, the Duchy of Massa Carrara rose to occupy a strategic position, in that it provided a sea outlet to the hinterland domains and promised an easier trade route. Already under Maria Teresa road links between the Duchy of Modena to Massa Carrara were significantly improved: in these road reform attempts belongs the construction of the famous Via Vandelli, starting as early as 1738.
In 1751, was made a first attempt for the excavation of a dock and the construction of a port in the city of Carrara. The port would have been functional to the trade and military activities of the Este, would have housed in a safe place the small fleet of the Duchy of Modena and, finally, would have been essential to free the marble exports from dependence of other nearby ports. Unfortunately, the coast had a tendency to silt up and after a few years, the construction work had to be suspended.
In 1807 Napoleon's engineers built the important mail road to the Foce, to link the cities of Massa and Carrara through the inland hills. During the Napoleonic rule were also initiated other public works such as the bonification of the plains, the plantation of coastal pine trees to combat malaria and arrangement of river banks. These works were continued by Maria Beatrice and successors in subsequent decades. In 1821 the Este Land Registry was established, with the task of regulating and listing the properties of the inhabitants of the duchy.
The years following the annexation to the Duchy of Modena were particularly complex, both for the insurrectional riots that characterized the historical period, and for the economic crisis, which have long gripped the region. The rulers tried several times to exit the stagnation in promoting the construction of infrastructure to increase the volume of trade, but the lack of money often proves an insurmountable obstacle. A second attempt to build the port of Carrara was entrusted by Duke Francis IV to the engineer Aschenden in 1830, but the project was never made executivee for lack of funds. A dock loader, which came to be the first authentic port core of Carrara was built successfully only in 1851, thanks to the English engineer and tycoon William Walton. In 1846 the count Francesco del Medico proposed to the Duke Francis V the construction of the Marble Railway of Carrara, to link the marble quarries to the sea and thereby facilitating the transport of blocks to the areas of sorting and loading. This project was also suspended for lack of funds. The Marble Railway was built after the Italian unification (1871–1890).
In the last years of the duchy, an increasing number of clashes was seen between the liberals and the ducal government, especially in Carrara. The territory was chosen by Cavour and Napoleon III to organize popular anti-Austrian riots and give France an opportunity to intervene on the side of Piedmont in Italy, giving way to the Second War of Independence.