|British Protectorate of Malta
Protettorato di Malta (Italian)
Protettorat ta' Malta (Maltese)
|Protectorate of the United Kingdom|
Map of Malta and Sicily, 1808.
|-||1799–1801||Sir Alexander Ball|
|-||1801||Sir Henry Pigot|
|-||1801–1802||Sir Charles Cameron|
|-||1802–1809||Sir Alexander Ball|
|-||1810–1813||Sir Hildebrand Oakes|
|Historical era||19th century|
|-||Established||4 September 1800|
|-||Became a Crown Colony||23 July 1813|
Malta Protectorate was officially part of the Kingdom of Naples under British protection between 1800 and 1813.
During the Maltese uprising against the French, the Maltese people formed a National Assembly as a provisional government. Messengers were sent to the British fleet in Sicily for help, and a British convoy consisting of 13 battered ships under Captain Sir James Saumarez appeared off the island in late September 1798. In October Sir Alexander Ball arrived in Malta, and a year later he was appointed as Civil Commissioner.
The French garrison under General Vaubois had been driven to Valletta, and finally surrendered on 4 September 1800. Malta (and its sister island Gozo which had enjoyed de facto independence since 28 October 1798) then became a Protectorate. Under the terms of the 1802 Treaty of Amiens, Britain was supposed to evacuate the islands, but failed to keep this obligation – one of several mutual cases of non-adherence to the treaty, which eventually led to its collapse and the resumption of war between Britain and France. In 1813 the island was transformed into a British crown colony by the Bathurst Constitution. On 23 July Sir Thomas Maitland replaced Sir Hildebrand Oakes and was the first Civil Commissioner to be given the title of "Governor". Malta officially became a colony by the Treaty of Paris in 1814.