Duchy of Modena and Reggio

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Duchy of Modena and Reggio
Ducato di Modena e Reggio  (Italian)
Ducatus Mutinae et Regii  (Latin)
State of the Holy Roman Empire (until 1806)

 

1452–1796
1814–1859

 


Flag

Motto
Dextera Domini exaltavit me
"The right hand of the Lord is exalted"
Anthem
Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser
"God Save Emperor Francis"
Northern Italy in 1494:
Este territories (Modena, Reggio and Ferrara) in yellow
Capital Modena
Languages Latin, Italian
Religion Catholicism
Government Principality
Duke
 -  1450-1471 Borso d'Este
 -  1471-1505 Ercole I d'Este
 -  1505-1534 Alfonso I d'Este
 -  1534-1559 Ercole II d'Este
 -  1559-1597 Alfonso II d'Este
Historical era Early modern era
 -  Created 1452
 -  Conquered by France 1796
 -  Re-established 1814
 -  Popular revolution 1859
Today part of  Italy

The Duchy of Modena and Reggio (Italian: Ducato di Modena e Reggio, Latin: Ducatus Mutinae et Regii was a small northwestern Italian state that existed from 1452 to 1859, with a break during the Napoleonic Wars between 1796 and 1814 (When Emperor Napoleon I reorganized the states and republics of formerly medieval and renaissance era Italy, now under the domination of his French Empire.[1] It was ruled by the noble House of Este, from 1814 Austria-Este.

House of Este[edit]

In 1452 Emperor Frederick III offered the duchy to Borso d'Este, whose family had ruled the city of Modena and nearby Reggio Emilia for centuries. Borso in 1450 had also succeeded his brother as margrave in the adjacent Papal Duchy of Ferrara, where he received the ducal title in 1471. The Este lands on the southern border of the Holy Roman Empire with the Papal States formed a stabilizing buffer state in the interest of both.

The first Este dukes ruled invulnerably and achieved an economic and cultural peak: Borso's successor Duke Ercole I had the city of Modena rebuilt according to plans designed by Biagio Rossetti, his successors were patrons of artists like Titian and Ludovico Ariosto. In the War of the League of Cambrai from 1508, troops from Modena fought in Papal service against the Republic of Venice. Upon the death of Duke Alfonso II in 1597, the ducal line became extinct. The Este lands were bequested to Alfonso's cousin Cesare d'Este, however, the succession was not acknowledged by Pope Clement VIII and Ferrara was finally seized by the Papacy. Cesare could retain Modena and Reggio as Imperial fiefs.

In the 1628 War of the Mantuan Succession, the dukes of Modena sided with Habsburg Spain and in turn received the town of Correggio from the hands of Emperor Ferdinand II. During the War of the Spanish Succession, Duke Rinaldo was ousted by French troops under Louis Joseph de Bourbon, he could not return until 1707. In 1711 the small duchy of Mirandola was absorbed by the Este.
His successor Francesco III backed France in the 1740 War of the Austrian Succession, and was expelled by Habsburg forces, but his duchy was restored by the 1748 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.
In 1796, Modena was again occupied by a French army under Napoleon Bonaparte, (1769-1821), who deposed Duke Ercole III and created the Cispadane Republic out of his territory. By the 1801 Treaty of Lunéville the last Este Duke was compensated with the Breisgau region of the former Further Austrian territories in southwestern Germany, and died in 1803. Following his death, the ducal title was inherited by his son-in-law, the Habsburg-Lorraine archduke Ferdinand of Austria, an uncle of Emperor Francis II.

House of Austria-Este[edit]

With the dissolution of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy in 1814, following the final fall of Emperor Napoleon I after the Battle of Waterloo, the following year, Ferdinand's son, Francis IV, again assumed the rule as Duke of Modena under the domination of the Austrian Empire. Soon after, he inherited the territories of Massa and Carrara from his mother. In the course of the Italian unification period in the 1830's-60's, the "Austria-Este" dukes were briefly ousted in the revolutions 1831 and 1848, but soon returned.

During the Second Italian War of Independence, (April to July, 1859) following the Battle of Magenta, the last Duke Francis V was again forced to flee, this time permanently. In December, Modena joined with the Tuscany and the Parma to form the "United Provinces of Central Italy", which were annexed to the growing Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont in March 1860, which led the Italian unification movement, which further led to the re-naming proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy under Victor Emmanuel II, (1820-1878), and eventually to its final form by 1870, with the royal capital moved to the "Eternal City" - Rome.

Provinces of the Duchy before the dissolution[edit]

Traditional titles[edit]

The Duke of Modena was:[2]

Knighthood orders[edit]

The Duke of Modena, since Francis V, was Grand Master of the :

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Trudy Ring; Robert M. Salkin; Sharon La Boda (1 January 1996). International Dictionary of Historic Places: Southern Europe. Taylor & Francis. pp. 446–. ISBN 978-1-884964-02-2. Retrieved 21 February 2011. 
  2. ^ Modena Ducale – Associazione "Legittimismo Estense"