Emperor Tsuchimikado

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Tsuchimikado
Emperor of Japan
Emperor Tsuchimikado.jpg
Reign 1198–1210
Predecessor Go-Toba
Successor Juntoku
Spouse Fujiwara no Reishi
Born January 3, 1194
Died November 6, 1231 (aged 37)
Burial Kanegahara no misasagi (Kyoto)

Emperor Tsuchimikado (土御門天皇 Tsuchimikado-tennō?, January 3, 1196 – November 6, 1231) was the 83rd emperor of Japan,[1] according to the traditional order of succession.[2]

Tsuchimikado's reign spanned the years from 1198 through 1210.[3]

Genealogy[edit]

Before Tsuchimikado's ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name (imina) was Tamehito-shinnō (為仁親王?).[4]

He was the firstborn son of Emperor Go-Toba. His mother was Ariko (在子) (1171–1257), daughter of Minamoto no Michichika (源通親).

Tsuchimikado's Imperial family lived with him in the Dairi of the Heian Palace. His family included three sons by three different consorts:[2]

  • Empress (Chūgū): Ōinomikado (Fujiwara) noReiko (大炊御門(藤原)麗子)
  • Lady-in-waiting: Tsuchimikado (Minamoto) no Michi-ko (土御門(源)通子)[5]
    • First daughter: Princess Haruko (春子女王)
    • Second daughter: Imperial Princess Akiko (覚子内親王)
    • Third son: Prince Jinsuke (仁助法親王) (Buddhist Priest)
    • Fourth son: Prince Chikahito (静仁法親王) (Buddhist Priest)
    • Sixth son: Prince Kunihito (邦仁王) (Emperor Go-Saga)[5]
    • Fifth daughter: Princess Hideko (秀子女王)

Events of Tsuchimikado's life[edit]

In 1198, he became emperor upon the abdication of Emperor Go-Toba, who continued to exercise Imperial powers as cloistered emperor.

  • 1198 (Kenkyū 9, 11th day of the 1st month): In the 15th year of Go-Toba-tennō 's reign (後鳥天皇15年), the emperor abdicated; and the succession (‘‘senso’’) was received by his eldest son.[6]
  • 1198 (Kenkyū 9, 3rd month): Emperor Tsuchimikado is said to have acceded to the throne (‘‘sokui’’).[7]
  • 1210: Go-Toba persuaded him Tsuchimikado to abdicate in favor of his younger brother, who would become known as Emperor Juntoku.

In Kyōto, Minamoto no Michichika took power as steward, and in Kamakura, in 1199, upon the death of Minamoto no Yoritomo, Hōjō Tokimasa began to rule as Gokenin.

Tsuchimikado removed himself from Kyoto, traveling first to Tosa province (now known as Kōchi Prefecture); and later, he moved to Awa province, where he died in exile.[9]

  • 1231: The former emperor died at age 37.[8]

Tsuchimikado's official Imperial tomb is in Kyoto. The emperor is venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine (misasagi). This mausoleum shrine is formally named Kanegahara no misasagi.[10]

Kugyō[edit]

Kugyō (公卿) is a collective term for the very few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras.

In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time. These were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Tsuchimikado's reign, this apex of the Daijō-kan included:

Eras of Tsuchimikado's reign[edit]

The years of Tschuimikado's reign are more specifically identified by more than one era name or nengō.[12]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

Japanese Imperial kamon — a stylized chrysanthemum blossom
  1. ^ Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō): 土御門天皇 (83)
  2. ^ a b Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, pp. 86–87.
  3. ^ Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du Japon, pp. 221–230; Brown, Delmer et al. (1979). Gukanshō, pp. 3339–341; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki. pp. 220–221.
  4. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, p. 9; Titsingh, p. 221; Brown, p. 339; Varley, p. 220.
  5. ^ a b mother of Emperor Go-Saga – see Ponsonby-Fane, p. 20.
  6. ^ Brown, p.339; Varley, p. 44; n.b., a distinct act of senso is unrecognized prior to Emperor Tenji; and all sovereigns except Jitō, Yōzei, Go-Toba, and Fushimi have senso and sokui in the same year until the reign of Emperor Go-Murakami.
  7. ^ Titsingh, p.221; Varley, p. 44.
  8. ^ a b c Ponsonby-Fane, p. 87.
  9. ^ Takekoshi, Yosaburō. (2004). The Economic Aspects of the History of the Civilization of Japan, Volume 1, p. 186; Ponsonby-Fane, p. 87.
  10. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, p. 422.
  11. ^ a b Brown, p. 339.
  12. ^ Titsingh, p. 221; Brown, p. 340.

References[edit]

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Emperor Go-Toba
Emperor of Japan:
Tsuchimikado

1198–1210
Succeeded by
Emperor Juntoku