|Emperor of Japan|
|Reign||98 BC – 30 BC (traditional)|
|Died||29 BC (aged 119)|
|Burial||Yamanobe no michi no Magari no oka no e no misasagi (Nara)|
Sujin's grave site has not been identified (and may not exist), however, Andonyama kofun(ja) in Tenri, Nara has been designated by the Imperial Household Agency as the kofun (tumulus). It is formally named Yamanobe no michi no Magari no oka no e no misasagi.
Sujin is responsible for setting up the Ise Shrine or the Saikū associated with it for to enshrine Amaterasu. He is also credited with initiating the worship of Ōmononushi(ja) (equated with the deity of Mount Miwa). He also confiscated certain sacred treasures that had been passed down the line in Izumo. The emperor may have been the first to perform a census and establish and regularize a system of taxation.
Modern scholars have come to question the existence of at least the first nine emperors (cf. List of Emperors of Japan); and Sujin is the first many agree might have actually existed, in the third or fourth centuries.
Sujin is regarded by historians as a "legendary emperor" and the paucity of material information about him makes difficult any further verification and study. The reign of Emperor Kimmei (509?–571 AD), the 29th emperor, is the first for which contemporary historiography is able to assign verifiable dates; however, the conventionally accepted names and dates of the early emperors were not to be confirmed as "traditional" until the reign of Emperor Kammu (737–806), the 50th sovereign of the Yamato dynasty.
According to the pseudo-historical Kojiki and Nihonshoki (collectively known as Kiki (Japanese chronicles)(ja)), Sujin was the second son of Emperor Kaika Sujin's mother was Ikagashikome no Mikoto, a stepmother of his father.
He acceded to the throne purportedly in 97 B.C. On the third year of his reign, he removed the capital to Shiki (磯城?), naming it the Palace of Midzu-gaki, or Mizugaki-no-miya (瑞籬宮?) (vicinity of Kanaya (金屋?), Sakurai, Nara).
The Kujiki records the legendary appointment of 137 governors for the provinces ruled by Emperor Sujin.
Enshrining Ōmononushi (Miwa Myōjin)
Up to this time, both the sun goddess Amaterasu and the god Yamato-ōkunitama(ja) were enshrined in imperial residence. The emperor, over-awed with having to cohabit with these two powerful deities, set up separate enshrinements to house them. Amaterasu was moved to Kasanui village (笠縫邑?) in Yamato Province (Nara), and there built as Himorogi altar (place for deities to make their descent) out of solid stone, placing a daughter, the princess Toyo-suki-iri-bime(ja) (豊鍬入姫命?) in charge. The other god was entrusted to another daughter named Nunaki-iri-bime(ja) (渟名城入媛命?) but her hair fell out and became emaciated so she could not perform her duties.
In the 7th year, the Emperor decreed a divination to be performed, and so he made a trip to the plain of Kami-asaji or Kamu-asaji-ga-hara (神浅茅原?), and invoked the eighty myriad deities. Yamato-to-to-hi-momoso-hime(ja) (倭迹迹日百襲姫命?) (daughter of 7th emperor Emperor Kōrei and identified as the emperor's aunt on the father's side) acting as sibyl became possessed by a god, who identified himself as Ōmononushi(ja) (大物主?), and said that the land will be pacified if he were to be venerated. The emperor complied, but there was no immediatate change for the better. The emperor was later given guidance in a dream to seek out a certain Ōtataneko (太田田根子?) and appoint him as head priest. Eventually, the pestilence subsided, the land was calmed, and the five cereal crops ripened. The Miwa sept of the Kamo clan claim descent from this Ōtataneko personage.
The emperor also appointed Ikagashikoo (伊香色雄?), ancestor of the Mononobe clan and elder brother of the empress as kami-no-mono-akatsu-hito (神班物者?), i.e., one who sorts the offerings to the gods. Other gods were vernerated as dictated by divinations, and eight red shields and spears were offered to Sumisaka Shrine (墨坂?) in the east, and eight black shields and spears were offered to Ōsaka Shrine (大坂?) in the west.
Installation of four generals and insurrection
General Ōhiko(ja) (大彦命?), who had been sent up north, was at the top of the Wani acclivity, when a certain maiden approached him and sang him a cryptic song, and disappeared. The emperor's aunt, Yamato-to-to-hi-momoso-hime was also skilled at clairvoyancy and interpreted this to mean that Take-hani-yasu-hiko (a prince of Emperor Kōgen) was plotting an insurrection. She pieced it together from the news she heard that the prince's wife Ata-bime came to Mount Amanokaguya(ja) and took a clump of earth in the corner of her neckerchief. Just as the Emperor gathered his generals in meeting, the couple had mustered troops to the west and was ready to attack the capital. The emperor sent an army under Isaseri-hiko no Mikoto, which crushed the rebel forces, and Ata-bime too was slain.
Subsequently, Hiko-kuni-fuku(ja) (彦国葺命?) was sent to Yamashiro Province to punish the rebel prince, and in an exchange of bowshots, the rebel prince Take-hani-yasu-hiko was struck in the chest and died.
Census and tax system
In the 12th year of his rule, he decreed a census be taken of the populace, "with grades of seniority, and the order of forced labour". The taxes, imposed in the form of mandatory labor, were called yuhazu no mitsugi (弭調 "bow-end tax"?) for men and tanasue no mitsugi (手末調 "finger-end tax"?) for women. Peace and prosperity ensued. The emperor received the title Hatsu kuni shirasu sumeramikoto (御肇国天皇 "The Emperor, the august founder of the country"?).
In the 48th year (50 B.C.), Sujin summoned two sons and told him he loved them equally and could not make up his mind which to make his heir, bidding them describe the dreams they had, so he may divine their lot by interpreting their dreams. The elder named Toyoki (豊城命?) dreamt of climbing Mt. Mimoro (Mount Miwa), and facing east, thrusting the spear eight times and waving the sword eight times skywards. The younger prince Ikume (活目命?) dreamt of climbing Mimoro and spanning ropes on four sides, chasing the sparrows that ate the millet. Accordingly, the younger Ikume was designated Crown prince, and the elder Toyoki was chosen to govern the east. He became the ancestor of Kamitsuke and Shimotsuke clans.
In the 60th year (38 B.C.), Sujin told his ministers he wanted to look at divine treasures brought from the heavens by Takehinateru(ja) which were housed in Izumo Shrine. Izumo Furune (出雲振根?) was the keeper of the treasures, but since he was away on business in Tsukushi province, his younger brother Izumo Iiirine (出雲飯入根?) accommodated the imperial edict on his behalf, and sent two younger brothers as carriers of these treasures to show the emperor. When Furune returned, he was inconsolably angered for having parted with the treasures, and slew him with the sword-swapping intrigue (after inviting his brother to wade in a pool (named Yamuya), he exchanged his own wooden sword with his brother's real sword and commenced battle).
Both Kojiki and Nihon shoki records indicate that Sujin encouraged the building of artificial ponds and canals. In October of his 62nd year of reign, Yosami pond (依網池?) (said to have been near Ōyosami Shrine(ja) in Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka or slightly south in Sakai, Osaka, the Ikeuchi area) was built. He is also credited with Sakaori pond (酒折池?) (in Karu, located in Kashihara, Nara)
Consorts and children
Empress: Mimakihime (御間城姫), daughter of Oohiko (大彦命)
- Prince Ikumeirihikoisachi (活目入彦五十狭茅尊) (Emperor Suinin)
- Prince Hikoisachi (彦五十狭茅命)
- Princess Kunikatahime (国方姫命)
- Princess Chichitsukuyamatohime (千千衝倭姫命)
- Prince Yamatohiko (倭彦命)
- Princess Ikahime (伊賀比売命)
Tootsuayumemaguwashihime (遠津年魚眼眼妙媛), daughter of Kii no Arakahatobe (荒河戸畔)
- Prince Toyokiirihiko (豊城入彦命), ancestor of Keno Clan (毛野君)
Owari no Ooamahime (尾張大海媛)
- Prince Ooiriki (大入杵命), ancestor of Noto no kuni no Miyatsuko (能登国造)
- Prince Yasakairihiko (八坂入彦命)
- Princess Nunakiirihime or Nunaki-iri-bime(ja) (渟名城入媛命?)
- Princess Toochiniirihime (十市瓊入媛命)
- "Genealogy of the Emperors of Japan" at Kunaicho.go.jp; retrieved 2013-8-28.
- Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō): 崇神天皇 (10); retrieved 2013-8-22.
- Aston 1896: after first emperor Jimmu, Book IV lists eight emperors; followed by Book V (Emperor Sūjin)
- Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, pp. 7-9, p. 7, at Google Books; Brown, Delmer M. (1979). Gukanshō, p. 253; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, pp. 93-95;
- Aston 1896, Book V, p.150, marginal date
- Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, p. 31.
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Sujin Tennō" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 910, p. 910, at Google Books.
- Yoshida, Reiji. "Life in the Cloudy Imperial Fishbowl," Japan Times. March 27, 2007; retrieved 2013-8-22.
- Suijin's misasagi -- map
- Ponsonby-Fane, p. 418
- Ponsonby-Fane, p.32.
- Kelly, Charles F. "Kofun Culture," Japanese Archaeology. April 27, 2009.
- Titsingh, pp. 34–36; Brown, pp. 261–262; Varley, pp. 123–124.
- Hoye, Timothy. (1999). Japanese Politics: Fixed and Floating Worlds, p. 78; excerpt, "According to legend, the first Japanese emperor was Jimmu. Along with the next 13 emperors, Jimmu is not considered an actual, historical figure. Historically verifiable Emperors of Japan date from the early sixth century with Kimmei.
- Aston, William. (1896). Nihongi, pp. 109.
- Brinkley, Frank. (1915). A History of the Japanese People from the Earliest Times to the end of the Meiji Era, p. 21, p. 21, at Google Books; excerpt, "Posthumous names for the earthly Mikados were invented in the reign of Emperor Kammu (782-805), i.e., after the date of the compilation of the Records and the Chronicles.
- Aston 1896, p.150 "second son of Waka-yamato-neko-hiko-oho-hi-hi", the latter identifiable (p.148) as Kwaika
- Ujiya 1988, p.121 伊香色謎命(いかがしこめのみこと "Ikagashikome no Mikoto"); However Aston 1896 transcribes "Ika-shiko-me"
- Tha is to say, Ikagashikome (Ika-shiko-me) became Emperor Kaika's empress, Kaika 6, 152 B.C., Aston 1896, p.149; but before that she had been concubine to the previous emperor (Kōgen 8, 208 B.C.), bearing a child (Aston, p.149). Obviously the same woman bearing a child after a fifty year is hardly credible.
- Aston 1896, p.150-164
- Ujiya 1988, p.121-
- Enbutsu, Sumiko. (1990). Chichibu: Japan's hidden treasure, p. 13.
- Aston 1896, p.156
- Chamberlain 1919 tr., Kojiki, p.219 "His Augustness Oho-tata-ne-ko,.. was the ancestor of the Dukes of Miwa and of the Dukes of Kamo."
- Chamberlain 1919 tr., Kojiki, Sect. LXVI, pp.220-
- Chamberlain 1919 tr., Kojiki, Sect. LXVII, pp.224-
- Takeda 1977, pp.94-99
- The kami of Suijin's son, Toyoki-iri-hiko no mikoto, is venerated at Futarayama jinja in Utsunomiya, Shimotsuke province -- see Ponsonby-Fane, p. 127.
- (Nihongi / Nihon Shoki)
→See under Nihon shoki for fuller bibliography.
- Aston, William George (1896). Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A.D. 697 1. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner (for the Japan Society of London). OCLC 448337491., alt-link English translation
- JHTI (2002). "Nihon Shoki". Japanese Historical Text Initiative (JHTI). UC Berkeley. Retrieved Apr 2012., searchtext resource to retrieve kanbun text vs. English tr. (Aston) in blocs.
- Ujiya, Tsutomu(宇治谷孟) (1988). Nihon shoki (日本書紀) 上. Kodansha. ISBN 978-0-8021-5058-5., modern Japanese translation.
- Chamberlain, Basil Hall (1919). The Kojiki. Kadokawa. OCLC 1882339. sacred texts
- Takeda, Yukichi(武田祐吉) (1977). Shintei Kojiki(新訂 古事記). Kadokawa. ISBN 4-04-400101-4., annotated Japanese.
- (Secondary sources)
- Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds. (1979). Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. 10-ISBN 0-520-03460-0; 13-ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0; OCLC 251325323
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 10-ISBN 0-674-01753-6; 13-ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 58053128
- Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887
- Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Nihon Odai Ichiran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691
- Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki: A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns. New York: Columbia University Press. 10-ISBN 0-231-04940-4; 13-ISBN 978-0-231-04940-5; OCLC 59145842
- Imperial Household Agency (2004). "崇神天皇 (10)山邉道勾岡上陵(やまのべのみちのまがりのおかのえのみささぎ)". 天皇陵. Retrieved Apr 2012.
|Legendary Emperor of Japan
98 BC–30 BC