Enrico De Nicola

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Enrico De Nicola
De Nicola ritratto.jpg
1st President of Italy
In office
1 July 1946 – 12 May 1948
Prime Minister Alcide De Gasperi
Preceded by Umberto II
(King of Italy)
Succeeded by Luigi Einaudi
Speaker of the Italian Senate
In office
28 April 1951 – 24 June 1952
Preceded by Ivanoe Bonomi
Succeeded by Giuseppe Paratore
Speaker of the Italian House
In office
26 June 1920 – 25 January 1924
Preceded by Vittorio Emanuele Orlando
Succeeded by Alfredo Rocco
Chairman of the Constitutional Court
In office
23 January 1956 – 26 March 1957
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Gaetano Azzariti
Lifetime Senator
In office
12 May 1948 – 1 October 1959
Constituency Former President
Personal details
Born (1877-11-09)9 November 1877
Naples, Campania, Italy
Died 1 October 1959(1959-10-01) (aged 81)
Torre del Greco, Italy
Nationality Italian
Political party Italian Liberal Party
Alma mater Frederick II University
Profession Lawyer
Religion Roman Catholicism
Signature

Enrico De Nicola (Italian pronunciation: [enˈriːko de niˈkɔːla] ( ); 9 November 1877 – 1 October 1959) was an Italian jurist, journalist, politician, and provisional Head of State of republican Italy from 1946 to 1948.[1]

Biography[edit]

Enrico De Nicola was born in Naples and became famous as one of the most esteemed penal lawyers in Italy. He studied law in the University of Naples, graduating in 1896.[2] As a Liberal he was elected a deputy for the first time in 1909 and, from 1913 to 1921, he filled minor governmental posts until the advent of fascism, when he retired from political life. He served as Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies in the Giolitti government (November 1913-March 1914) and Under-Secretary of State for the Treasury in the Orlando cabinet (January–June 1919). On 26 June 1920, he was elected speaker of the Chamber of Deputies, holding office until January 1924. He was appointed senator by King Victor Emmanuel III in 1929, but he refused to take his seat and never took part in the workings of the Assembly.[3]

He returned to his law practice, only taking an interest in politics again after the fall of Italian Fascism. After Benito Mussolini's fall from power in 1943, king Victor Emmanuel tried to extricate the monarchy from its collaboration with the Fascist regime; De Nicola was perhaps the most influential mediator in the ensuing transition. The king's son Umberto acquired a new title of "Lieutenant-General of the Realm" and took over most of the functions of the sovereign. Victor Emanuel later abdicated; Umberto became king as Umberto II and a Constitutional Referendum was held, won by republicans. A new Constituent Assembly was elected, and prime minister Alcide de Gasperi became acting head of state for a few weeks when Umberto II was exiled and left Italy. The Constituent Assembly then elected De Nicola Provisional Head of State on 28 June 1946, with 80% of the votes, at the first round of voting. Giulio Andreotti later recalled that De Nicola — a man of great modesty — was not sure whether to accept the nomination, and underwent frequent changes of mind in the face of repeated insistence by all the major political leaders. Andreotti had then to write to him: "Your Excellency, please, decide to decide if you can accept to accept...."[4]

On 25 June 1947, De Nicola resigned from the post, citing health reasons, but the Constituent Assembly immediately re-elected him again the following day, having recognized in his act signs of nobility and humility. After the Italian Constitution took effect, he was formally named the "President of the Italian Republic" on 1 January 1948. He finally refused to be a candidate for the first constitutional election the following May, in which Luigi Einaudi was elected to the Quirinale, the formal seat of the Italian presidency.[5]

In 1956, De Nicola became a senator for life as a former Head of State, and later was elected President of the Senate, and of the Constitutional Court.

He died at Torre del Greco, in the province of Naples, in 1959.

De Nicola signs the Italian Constitution on 27 December 1947

Honors[edit]

OSSIbis3.png - Order of the Star of Italian Solidarity

Cordone di gran Croce di Gran Cordone OMRI BAR.svg - Order of Merit of the Italian Republic (1956)[6]

Political Titles[edit]

His other Political Titles included President of the Italian Chamber of Deputies, Temporary Chief of the Italian State and President of the Italian Senate.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Favor, Lesli J. (2004). Italy: a primary source cultural guide. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 36. ISBN 0-8239-3839-5. 
  2. ^ http://www.worldpresidentsdb.com/Enrico-De-Nicola/
  3. ^ S.M. Sergio, Elogio dell'Avvocato, Pironti [1] (Italian) Accessed 27 October 2010
  4. ^ B. Vespa, Storia d'Italia da Mussolini a Berlusconi, p. 32 (Italian)
  5. ^ Cristina Mascheroni, Enrico De Nicola, Infobergamo (2006) [2] (Italian) Accessed 26 January 2012
  6. ^ Italian Government website: details of award to De Nicola
  7. ^ http://www.archontology.org/nations/italy/presidents_italy1/denicola.php

Bibliography[edit]

  • Andrea Jelardi, Enrico De Nicola. Il presidente galantuomo, Kairòs [3], Naples (2009). (Italian)
Political offices
Preceded by
New title
Umberto II as King of Italy
President of Italy
1946 – 1948
Succeeded by
Luigi Einaudi
Italian Chamber of Deputies
Preceded by
Luigi Simeoni
Member of Parliament for Afragola
Legislatures: XXIII, XXIV
Suffrages:
1291 (57%), 8140 (87%)
1909 – 1919
Succeeded by
Constituency abolished
Preceded by
Constituency established
Member of Parliament for Campania
Legislatures: XXV, XXVI

1919 – 1924
Succeeded by
Title jointly held
Preceded by
Vittorio Emanuele Orlando
Speaker of the Italian Chamber of Deputies
1920 – 1924
Succeeded by
Alfredo Rocco
Italian Senate
Preceded by
Title jointly held
Italian Royal Senator
Legislatures: XXVIII, XXX

1929 – 1943
Succeeded by
Title jointly held
Preceded by
None, Senate re-established
Italian Lifetime Senator
Legislatures: I, II, III

1948 – 1959
Succeeded by
Title jointly held
Preceded by
Ivanoe Bonomi
Speaker of the Italian Senate
1951 – 1952
Succeeded by
Giuseppe Paratore
Legal offices
Preceded by
New title
Chairman of the Italian Constitutional Court
1956 – 1957
Succeeded by
Gaetano Azzariti
City of Naples
Preceded by
Title jointly held
Municipal Councillor
1907 – 1912
Succeeded by
Title jointly held