Carlo Azeglio Ciampi

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Carlo Azeglio Ciampi
Ciampi ritratto.jpg
10th President of Italy
In office
18 May 1999 – 15 May 2006
Prime Minister Massimo D'Alema
Giuliano Amato
Silvio Berlusconi
Preceded by Oscar Luigi Scalfaro
Succeeded by Giorgio Napolitano
49th Prime Minister of Italy
In office
28 April 1993 – 10 May 1994
President Oscar Luigi Scalfaro
Preceded by Giuliano Amato
Succeeded by Silvio Berlusconi
Minister of Culture and Tourism
In office
28 April 1993 – 10 May 1994
Prime Minister Himself
Preceded by Margherita Boniver
Succeeded by Domenico Fisichella
Minister of the Treasury, Budget and
Economic Programming
In office
17 July 1996 – 13 May 1999
Prime Minister Romano Prodi
Massimo D'Alema
Preceded by Lamberto Dini (Treasury)
Mario Arcelli (Budget)
Succeeded by Giuliano Amato
Governor of Banca d'Italia
In office
October 1979 – April 1993
President Sandro Pertini
Francesco Cossiga
Oscar Luigi Scalfaro
Preceded by Paolo Baffi
Succeeded by Antonio Fazio
Senator for life
Incumbent
Assumed office
18 May 2006
Constituency Former President
Personal details
Born (1920-12-09) 9 December 1920 (age 93)
Livorno, Italy
Nationality Italian
Political party Action Party
(1943–1947)
Independent
(1947–2007)[1]
Democratic Party (honorary)
(2007–present)
Other political
affiliations
The Olive Tree
(1995–2007)
Spouse(s) Franca Pilla
Children 2
Residence Rome, Italy
Alma mater Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa
Profession Economist
Politician
Religion Roman Catholic

Carlo Azeglio Ciampi (Italian pronunciation: [ˈkarlo adˈdzɛʎʎo ˈtʃampi]; born 9 December 1920) is an Italian politician and banker. He was the 49th Prime Minister of Italy from 1993 to 1994 and was the tenth President of the Italian Republic from 1999 to 2006. He is currently a Senator for life in the Italian Senate.

Biography[edit]

Education[edit]

Ciampi was born in Livorno (Province of Livorno).[2] He received a doctorate in ancient Greek literature and classical philology in 1941 from the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, one of the country's most prestigious universities, defending a thesis entitled Favorino d'Arelate e la consolazione Περὶ φυγῆς[3] under the direction of the Hellenist Augusto Mancini(it). Then he was called to military duty in Albania as a lieutenant. On 8 September 1943, on the date of the armistice with the Allies, he refused to remain in the Fascist Italian Social Republic, and took refuge in Abruzzo, in Scanno. He subsequently managed to pass the lines and reach Bari, where he joined the Partito d'Azione (and thus the Italian resistance movement).

In 1946 he married Franca Pilla. That same year, he obtained a doctorate in law from the University of Pisa and began working at the Banca d'Italia. He also joined the CGIL (Trade Union), which he left in 1980.

Bank of Italy[edit]

In 1960, he was called to work in the central administration of the Bank of Italy, where he became Secretary General in 1973, Vice Director General in 1976, and Director General in 1978. In October 1979, he was nominated Governor of the Bank of Italy and President of the national Bureau de Change, positions he filled until 1993.

Political career[edit]

Ciampi was the first non-parliamentarian prime minister of Italy in more than 100 years.[4] From April 1993 to May 1994 he oversaw a technical government. Later, as treasury minister from 1996 to May 1999 in the governments of Romano Prodi and Massimo D'Alema, he was credited with adopting the euro currency. He personally chose the Italian design for the 1-euro coin, whereas all others were left to a television vote among some candidates the ministry had prepared (see also: Italian euro coins).

Ciampi chose the Vitruvian man of Leonardo da Vinci, on the symbolic grounds that it represented man as a measure of all things, and in particular of the coin: in this perspective, money was at the service of man, instead of its opposite. The design also fitted very well on the bimetallic material of the coin.

President of Italy[edit]

Ciampi meets U.S. President George W. Bush at the Quirinale Palace, April 7, 2005.

Ciampi was elected with a broad majority, and was the second president ever to be elected at the first ballot (when there is a requirement of a two-thirds majority) in a joint session of the Chamber of Deputies, the Italian Senate and representatives of the Regions.

He usually refrained from intervening directly into the political debate while serving as President. However, he often addressed general issues, without mentioning their connection to the current political debate, in order to state his opinion without being too intrusive. His interventions have frequently stressed the need for all parties to respect the constitution and observe the proprieties of political debate. He was generally held in high regard by all political forces represented in the parliament. The possibility of persuading Ciampi to stand for a second term as President – the so-called Ciampi-bis – was widely discussed, despite his advancing age, but it was officially dismissed by Ciampi himself on 3 May 2006, just a few days before his mandate expired. Ciampi resigned as President before the swearing-in ceremony of his successor, Giorgio Napolitano.

As President, Ciampi was not considered to be close to the positions of the Vatican and the Catholic Church, in a sort of alternance after the devout Oscar Luigi Scalfaro. He has often praised patriotism, not always a common feeling in Italy because of its abuse by the fascist regime; Ciampi, however, seems to want to stress self-confidence rather than nationalism.

Awards and honours[edit]

This article incorporates information from the equivalent article on the Italian Wikipedia.

As President of the Italian Republic between 18 May 1999 and 15 May 2006, Ciampi held the roles of:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Breda, Marzio (15 July 2009). "Pd avvilente ma eviti scissioni. Sì a Bersani, vero rifondatore". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). "La mia ultima tessera […] è stata quella del Partito d'azione, e altre non ne ho mai più volute." 
  2. ^ Page at Senate website (Italian).
  3. ^ Favorinus of Arles and the Consolation Περὶ φυγῆς, anastatic reprint by the Scuola Normale di Pisa editions, editor Franco Montanari(it), introduction of Salvatore Settis(it), ISBN 978-88-7642-411-3.
  4. ^ Wentworth, Richard L. (28 April 1993). "Italy Turns to a Banker to Form Government". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 26 April 2013. 
  5. ^ Slovak republic website, State honours : 1st Class in 2002 (click on "Holders of the Order of the 1st Class White Double Cross" to see the holders' table)
  6. ^ Nomination by Sovereign Ordonnance n° 331 13 December 2005 (French)
Government offices
Preceded by
Mario Ercolani
Deputy Director General of Banca d'Italia
1976–1978
Succeeded by
Alfredo Persiani Acerbo
Preceded by
Mario Ercolani
Director General of Banca d'Italia
1978–1979
Succeeded by
Lamberto Dini
Preceded by
Paolo Baffi
Governor of Banca d'Italia
1979–1993
Succeeded by
Antonio Fazio
Political offices
Preceded by
Giuliano Amato
President of the Council of Ministers of Italy
1993–1994
Succeeded by
Silvio Berlusconi
Preceded by
Margherita Boniver
Minister of Tourism and Show
1993–1994
Succeeded by
Domenico Fisichella
Preceded by
Nicola Mancino
Minister of the Interior
1994
Succeeded by
Roberto Maroni
Preceded by
Lamberto Dini and
Mario Arcelli
Minister of Treasury, Budget and
Programming

1996–1999
Succeeded by
Giuliano Amato
Preceded by
Oscar Luigi Scalfaro
President of Italy
1999–2006
Succeeded by
Giorgio Napolitano
Order of precedence
Preceded by
Gaetano Silvestri
President of the Constitutional Court
Italian order of precedence
Former President of the Italian Republic
Succeeded by
Vice Presidents of the Italian Senate