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Entomology (from Greek ἔντομος, entomos, "that which is cut in pieces or engraved/segmented", hence "insect"; and -λογία, -logia) is the scientific study of insects, a branch of arthropodology. In the past the term "insect" was more vague, and historically the definition of entomology included the study of terrestrial animals in other arthropod groups or other phyla, such as arachnids, myriapods, earthworms, land snails, and slugs. This wider meaning may still be encountered in informal use.
Like several of the other fields that are categorized within zoology, entomology is a taxon-based category; any form of scientific study in which there is a focus on insect related inquiries is, by definition, entomology. Entomology therefore includes a cross-section of topics as diverse as molecular genetics, behavior, biomechanics, biochemistry, systematics, physiology, developmental biology, ecology, morphology, paleontology, mathematics, anthropology, robotics, agriculture, nutrition, forensic science, and more.
At some 1.3 million described species, insects account for more than two-thirds of all known organisms, date back some 400 million years, and have many kinds of interactions with humans and other forms of life on earth.
History of entomology
Entomology is rooted in nearly all human cultures from prehistoric times, primarily in the context of agriculture (especially biological control and beekeeping), but scientific study began only as recently as the 16th century.
William Kirby is widely considered as the father of Entomology. In collaboration with William Spence he published a definitive entomological encyclopedia, Introduction to Entomology, regarded as the subject's foundational text. He also helped to found the Royal Entomological Society in London in 1833, one of the earliest such societies in the world; (earlier antecedents, such as the Aurelian society date back to the 1740s.)
Entomology developed rapidly in the 19th and 20th centuries, and was studied by large numbers of people, including such notable figures as Charles Darwin, Jean-Henri Fabre, Vladimir Nabokov, Karl von Frisch (winner of the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine), and two-time Pulitzer Prize winner E. O. Wilson.
Identification of insects
Most insects can easily be recognized to order such as Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, and ants) or Coleoptera (beetles). However, insects other than Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) are typically identifiable to genus or species only through the use of Identification keys and Monographs. Because the class Insecta contains a very large number of species (over 330,000 species of beetles alone) and the characteristics separating them are unfamiliar, and often subtle (or invisible without a microscope), this is often very difficult even for a specialist. This has led to the development of automated species identification systems targeted on insects, for example, Daisy, ABIS, SPIDA and Draw-wing
Entomology in Pest Control
In 1994 the Entomological Society of America launched a new professional certification program for the pest control industry called The Associate Certified Entomologist (ACE). To qualify as a true entomologist an individual would normally require an advanced degree, with most entomologists pursuing their PhD. While not true entomologists in the traditional sense, individuals who attain the ACE certification may be referred to as ACEs, Amateur entomologists, Associate entomologists or –more commonly– Associate-Certified Entomologists.
Many entomologists specialize in a single order or even a family of insects, and a number of these subspecialties are given their own informal names, typically (but not always) derived from the scientific name of the group:
- Coleopterology - beetles
- Dipterology - flies
- Hemipterology - true bugs
- Lepidopterology - moths and butterflies
- Melittology (or Apiology) - bees
- Myrmecology - ants
- Orthopterology - grasshoppers, crickets, etc.
- Trichopterology - caddis flies
- Vespology - Social wasps
Like other scientific specialties, entomologists have a number of local, national, and international organizations. There are also many organizations specializing in specific subareas.
- Amateur Entomologists' Society
- Deutsches Entomologisches Institut
- Entomological Society of America
- Entomological Society of Canada
- Entomological Society of Japan
- International Union for the Study of Social Insects
- Kansas Entomological Society
- Netherlands Entomological Society
- Royal Belgian Entomological Society
- Royal Entomological Society of London
- Société entomologique de France
Here is a list of selected museums which contain very large insect collections.
- Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris, France
- Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, Germany
- Natural History Museum, Budapest Hungarian Natural History Museum
- Natural History Museum, Geneva
- Natural History Museum, Leiden, the Netherlands
- Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom
- Natural History Museum, Oslo Norway
- Natural History Museum, St. Petersburg Zoological Collection of the Russian Academy of Science
- Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria
- Oxford University Museum of Natural History, Oxford
- Royal Museum for Central Africa, Brussels, Belgium
- Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden
- The Bavarian State Collection of Zoology Zoologische Staatssammlung München
- World Museum Liverpool, the Bug House
- Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia
- American Museum of Natural History, New York City
- Auburn University Museum of Natural History, Auburn, Alabama
- Audubon Insectarium, New Orleans
- Bohart Museum of Entomology, Davis, California
- California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco
- Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh
- Essig Museum, Berkeley, California
- Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago
- Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
- Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, Illinois
- Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts
- Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Los Angeles
- National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.
- New Mexico State University Arthropod Museum
- North Carolina State University Insect Museum, Raleigh, North Carolina
- Peabody Museum of Natural History, New Haven, Connecticut
- The National Museum of Play, Rochester, N.Y.
- Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas
- University of Minnesota, St. Paul campus (UMSP), Minnesota
- University of Kansas Natural History Museum, Lawrence, Kansas
- University of Nebraska State Museum, Lincoln, Nebraska
- University of Missouri Enns Entomology Museum, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri
- Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa
- Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes, Ottawa, Ontario
- E.H. Strickland Entomological Museum, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta
- Lyman Entomological Museum, Macdonald Campus of McGill University, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec
- Montreal Insectarium, Montreal, Quebec
- Newfoundland Insectarium, Reidville, Newfoundland and Labrador
- Royal Alberta Museum, Edmonton, Alberta
- Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto
- University of Guelph Insect Collection, Guelph, Ontario
- Victoria Bug Zoo, Victoria, British Columbia
Entomology in popular culture
Gil Grissom on the CSI: Crime Scene Investigation TV show is an entomologist, who is played by actor William Petersen. Similarly, entomologist Dr. Jack Hodgins of Bones, portrayed by T. J. Thyne, helps his team by analyzing insects (such as Hydrotaea) and "particulates" near to or attached to decomposed victims, often identifying the precise location a murder originally occurred; he is also an expert in botany and mineralogy.
The Aubrey–Maturin sea novels of Patrick O'Brian have frequent appearances by Sir Joseph Blaine, a Royal Navy intelligence official who is also an avid entomologist. He recruits Dr. Stephen Maturin, one of the principal characters, as a spy. Their conferences on espionage activities invariably make room for their shared interest in naturalist studies.
There are numerous science fiction books which have plots based on humans becoming smaller and having to deal with insects at their level. Some examples are The Insect Warriors by Rex Dean Levie, Atta by Francis Rufus Bellamy, Bug Park by James P. Hogan, The Micronauts series by Gordon Williams, and The Forgotten Planet by Murray Leinster. The Forgotten Planets plot is twisted in that the insects are the size of men (or larger) on a planet "seeded" to prepare it for human habitation. Robert Asprin wrote The Bug Wars, a novel about war between reptiles and insects on an interplanetary scale.
There are quite a few films about insects, or at least prominently featuring them. Widespread attitudes of revulsion and fear toward insects are often exploited by Horror and Science Fiction films through insect/insect-like monsters (Them! is a famous early example), or by showing humans transformed into (The Fly) or attacked by insects. Another more positive type of insect film is animation with anthropomorphized insects as characters.
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- Forensic entomology
- Forensic entomologist
- Forensic entomology and the law
- Insect thermoregulation
- Insects on stamps
- List of entomologists
- List of entomological journals
- Timeline of entomology – 1800–1850
- Timeline of entomology – 1850–1900
- Timeline of entomology since 1900
- Liddell, Henry George and Robert Scott (1980). A Greek-English Lexicon (Abridged Edition). United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-910207-4.
- Chapman, A. D. (2006). Numbers of living species in Australia and the World. Canberra: Australian Biological Resources Study. pp. 60pp. ISBN 978-0-642-56850-2.
- Antonio Saltini, Storia delle scienze agrarie, 4 vols, Bologna 1984-89, ISBN 88-206-2412-5, ISBN 88-206-2413-3, ISBN 88-206-2414-1, ISBN 88-206-2415-X
- Clark, John F.M. (2009). Bugs and the Victorians. Yale University Press. pp. 26–27. ISBN 0300150911.
- "Karl von Frisch - Nobel Lecture: Decoding the Language of the Bee".
- "KwaZulu-Natal Museum".
- "Magyar Természettudományi Múzeum".
- "O.U.M.N.H. Homepage".
- "Auburn University Museum of Natural History".
- NMSU Entomology Plant Pathology and Weed science. "New Mexico State University Arthropod Museum". Retrieved 2013-07-15.
- "Enns Entomology Museum, MU".
- "Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes - Homepage".
- "E.H. Strickland Entomological Museum - Department of Biological Sciences, Studies in Life Sciences".
- "Lyman Entomological Museum".
- "The Victoria Bug Zoo TM".
- Chiang, H.C. and G. C. Jahn 1996. Entomology in the Cambodia-IRRI-Australia Project. (in Chinese) Chinese Entomol. Soc. Newsltr. (Taiwan) 3: 9-11.
- Davidson, E. 2006. Big Fleas Have Little Fleas: How Discoveries of Invertebrate Diseases Are Advancing Modern Science University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 208 pages, ISBN 0-8165-2544-7.
- Triplehorn, Charles A. and Norman F. Johnson (2005-05-19). Borror and DeLong's Introduction to the Study of Insects, 7th edition, Thomas Brooks/Cole. ISBN 0-03-096835-6. — a classic textbook in North America.
- Grimaldi, D. & Engel, M.S. (2005). Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-82149-5.
- Capinera, JL (editor). 2008. Encyclopedia of Entomology, 2nd Edition. Springer. ISBN 1-4020-6242-7.
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- Professor Andrew Speilman. "Malaria video". Retrieved 2006-12-09.
- Rob Hutchinson. "Mosquitoes video". Retrieved 2006-12-09.
- University of Vermont. "Entomology Laboratory". Retrieved 2006-12-09.
- Iowa State University. "Iowa State Entomology Index of Internet Resources". Retrieved 2011-07-23.
- Meganeura, University of Barcelona. "Fossil Insects". Archived from the original on 2006-11-14. Retrieved 2006-12-09.
- "Goliathus (Entomology hobbyist site)". Retrieved 2006-12-09.
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- USDA Collecting methods.Detailed instructions
- Arthropa Extensive photo album sorted by topic (French language).
- Virtual Insect Museum
- Best of the Bugs Entomology Web sites selected by entomologists
- G.D. Hale Carpenter, A Naturalist on Lake Victoria, with an Account of Sleeping Sickness and the Tse-tse Fly; 1920. T.F. Unwin Ltd, London; Biodiversity Archive.
- Tereshkin Scientific illustration in entomology Tereshkin, A. 2008: Methodology of a scientific drawings preparation in entomology on example of ichneumon flies (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Euroasian Entomological Journal, 7(1): 1-9 + I-VII