Eskom

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For other uses, see Escom (disambiguation).
Eskom
Type Public utility
Industry Energy industry
Founded 1 March 1923
Headquarters Sunninghill, South Africa
Key people Tshediso Matona(CEO)[1]
Services Electricity
Revenue ZAR 91,447 million (FY2011)[2]
Net income ZAR 8,356 million (FY2011)[2]
Total assets ZAR 328,145 million (FY2011)[3]
Employees 39,034 (FY2011)[4]
Website www.eskom.co.za

Eskom is a South African electricity public utility, established in 1923 as the Electricity Supply Commission (ESCOM) by the government of South Africa in terms of the Electricity Act (1922). It was also known by its Afrikaans name Elektrisiteitsvoorsieningskommissie (EVKOM). The two acronyms were combined in 1986 and the company is now known as Eskom. Eskom represents South Africa in the Southern African Power Pool.

The utility is the largest producer of electricity in Africa, is among the top seven utilities in the world in terms of generation capacity and among the top nine in terms of sales.

Eskom operates a number of notable power stations, including Kendal Power Station, and Koeberg nuclear power station in the Cape Province, the only nuclear power plant in Africa. The company is divided into Generation, Transmission and Distribution divisions and together Eskom generates approximately 95% of electricity used in South Africa.

Due to the South African governments attempted privatisation of Eskom in the late 1990s, Eskom's requests for budget to build new stations were denied. President Thabo Mbeki said in December 2007 that this was an error, and it is now adversely affecting the South African economy.[5]

In January 2008 Eskom introduced "load shedding", planned rolling blackouts based on a rotating schedule, in periods where short supply threatens the integrity of the grid. Demand-side management has focussed on encouraging consumers to conserve power during peak periods in order to reduce the incidence of load shedding.

List of power stations and installed capacity[edit]

Coal-fired[edit]

Nuclear[edit]

Hydroelectric and pumped storage[edit]

Gas turbines[edit]

  • Acacia - 171 MWe
  • Port Rex - 171 MWe
  • Ankerlig (Atlantis Open Cycle Gas Turbines - OCGT) - 1327 MWe
  • Gourikwa (Mossel Bay OCGT) - 740 MWe[6]

Future Projects[edit]

Eskom Generation's pilot wind farm facility at Klipheuwel in the Western Cape, South Africa
  • Medupi Coal Fired - 4800 MWe
  • Ingula Pumped Storage Scheme - 1332MWe
  • Kusile Coal Fired - approx. 4800MWe
  • Tubatse Pumped Storage Scheme - 1500MWe
  • Sere Wind Farm - 100MWe
  • Wind 500 - 500MWe
  • Tasakoolo Wind farm 200 - 500Mwe

Power Shortage: 2007 - 2014[edit]

In the later months of 2007 South Africa started experiencing widespread rolling blackouts as supply fell behind demand, threatening to destabilize the national grid. With a reserve margin estimated at 8% or below,[7] such "load shedding" is implemented whenever generating units are taken offline for maintenance, repairs or re-fueling (in the case of nuclear units).

Eskom and various parliamentarians attributed these rolling-blackouts to insufficient generation capacity.[8] According to their claims, the solution is the construction of additional power stations and generators.[9] These, they said, will take time to construct and commission. 2012 was frequently mentioned as the earliest possible end to the power shortages.[9][10][11]

Investigative television show Carte Blanche reported that part of the problem is related to the supply of coal to the coal-fired power plants.[12][13] Several other causes have been postulated, including skills shortages[9] and increasing demand for electricity around the country.[14]

It appears that the steps that Eskom took to maintain some of its plants, increase coal stock piles and improve plant performance had led to them suspending load shedding from May 2008 onwards.[15]

Load shedding was reintroduced in early November 2014. The Majuba power plant lost it capacity to generate power after a collapse of one of its coal storage silos on 1 November 2014. The Majuba power plant delivered approximately 10% of the countries entire capacity and the collapse halted the delivery of coal to the plant.[16] A second Silo developed a major crack on 20 November causing the shut down of the plant again. This after temporary measure were instated to deliver coal to the plant.[17]

On 5 December Eskom started major stage three load shedding in South Africa after the shut down of two power plants on Thusday 4 November 2014 due to diesel shortages. It was also reported that the Palmiet and Drakenburg are also experiencing difficulties due to a depletion of water reserve to the Hydro plants. Stage three is the highest degree of load shedding.[18]

On Thusday 4 November, Eskom fell 4 000MW short of the electricity countries demand of 28 000MW. The power utility has the ability to produce 45 583MW but could only supply 24 000MW due to “planned and unplanned” maintenance. One turbine at Eskom’s Duvha Power Station is currently also still out of commission due to a "unexplained incident" in March 2014.[19]

Effect on the Economy[edit]

In January and February 2008 global platinum and palladium prices hit record highs as mines were first shut down and subsequently restricted in their electricity use. South Africa supplies 85% of the world's platinum and 30% of palladium. Mining companies estimate that hundreds of thousands of ounces of both gold and platinum production will be lost every year until the crisis passes.[20] Estimates on the direct economic impact are not yet available, but given South Africa's reliance on precious metals exports to finance its current account deficit, traders have severely downgraded the currency.

Due primarily to the impact on mining companies, economists have downgraded GDP growth forecasts significantly. The current consensus hovers around 4% (well short of the 6% government target), with the caveat that growth could reduce by 20 basis points every month under certain circumstances.[21]

Banks and telecommunications companies have generally continued to operate as usual thanks to existing backup systems. Retailers initially reported large losses due to spoiled frozen and chilled foodstuffs, but are rapidly installing generating systems. Many large factories have reported it impossible to carry the capital expense required to keep operations uninterrupted. However, the largest (including aluminum smelters that can be effectively destroyed by outages of longer than four hours) have guaranteed service level agreements with Eskom and have been largely unaffected.

Big companies with international investors have also been affected by the electricity crisis and have had no choice but to announce these effects to the international community, bringing the situation to the attention of potential foreign investors.[22]

Crisis management[edit]

As of February 2008 blackouts were temporarily halted due to reduced demand and maintenance stabilization.[citation needed] This drop in demand was caused by many of the country's mines shutting down or slowing to help alleviate the burden. However, regularly scheduled mandatory load shedding started in April 2008, to allow maintenance periods of power generators, and recovery of coal stockpiles before the winter, when electricity usage is expected to surge.

Expanding generating capacity will see an estimated spend of R300 billion over the next five years,[citation needed] with around 20 000 megawatts of additional capacity due to be online by 2025.[citation needed] However, neither short nor long term funding has yet been secured and the downgrading of Eskom's credit rating has ignited speculation of a capital injection by the government.[23]

Controversy[edit]

This entire situation is surrounded by controversy. Decision makers and leaders both in Eskom and in the government predicted in the late 1990s that Eskom would run out of power reserves by 2007 unless action was taken to prevent it.[24]

There is also criticism that Eskom exports electricity to neighbouring African states when it doesn't have the capacity to meet South Africa's demand.[25] Eskom, however, announced on 20 January 2008 that it had ceased to export power.[26][27]

The government claims that the shortage caught them by surprise since the South African economy grew faster than expected. However, their target growth rate of 6% per annum was not reached from 1996 to 2004. The average GDP growth rate during this period was 3.1%.[28]

In 1998 Eskom acquired a minority stake in alternative energy technology company Amazing Amanzi Systems (Pty) Ltd with the vision of incorporating it into its joint venture with Royal Dutch shell as part of the Shell Solar Homes project.[29] and [30][31][32][33]

Controversy erupted at the cancellation of the Shell Solar Project and the roll-out of free and or subsidized kerosene water heaters and stoves due to political pressure.

See also[edit]

Lists[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Eskom Leadership
  2. ^ a b Income statements for the year ended 31 March 2011
  3. ^ Statements of financial position at 31 March 2011
  4. ^ Eskom Integrated Report 2011 - Human Resources Division
  5. ^ "Eskom keeps us in the dark on reasons for its crisis". Business Report. 14 January 2008. 
  6. ^ "Ankerlig and Gourikwa gas turbine power stations". Eskom. 
  7. ^ Expect tight energy supply for four years
  8. ^ What is Load Shedding
  9. ^ a b c Power Crisis - Frequently Asked Questions
  10. ^ No more mega projects until 2012 - Eskom
  11. ^ Eskom to invite more cogeneration projects, hopes to fast track some
  12. ^ Eskom's darkest hour
  13. ^ Eskom: The real cause of the crisis
  14. ^ Govt: Power outages 'a national emergency'
  15. ^ Eskom temporarily suspends loadshedding from May 2008
  16. ^ "http://citizen.co.za/269093/video-majuba-power-station-seconds-silo-collapse/". The citizen. 4 November 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2014. 
  17. ^ "Eskom admits another coal-storage silo at Majuba is cracked". Business day live. 21 November 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2014. 
  18. ^ "Tripped coal stations add to load shedding burden". Business day live. 5 December 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2014. 
  19. ^ "This is a catastrophe: electricity expert". Moneyweb. 6 December 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2014. 
  20. ^ Platinum hits record as Eskom cut hits supply from SA's mines
  21. ^ Three phase electricity
  22. ^ Harmony Gold expects to get 75 pct of power needs from Eskom until Wednesday
  23. ^ Eskom's capex conundrum
  24. ^ Govt was warned about power
  25. ^ "Zim's 'free' Eskom power ride". Fin24. 18 January 2008. 
  26. ^ http://www.news24.com/News24/South_Africa/Politics/0,,2-7-12_2255459,00.html
  27. ^ http://iafrica.com/news/sa/814400.htm
  28. ^ Microsoft Word - P0441 Nov05.doc
  29. ^ http://www.erc.uct.ac.za/Research/publications/04ERC-Solar%20electrification%20Eastern%20Cape-baseline.pdf
  30. ^ http://www.mandela.gov.za/mandela_speeches/1999/990224_elec.htm
  31. ^ http://www.engineeringnews.co.za/article/paraffin-technology-energises-rural-sa-2000-04-21/article_comments:1
  32. ^ https://open.uct.ac.za/bitstream/handle/11427/6955/thesis_com_2003_liou_mc.pdf?sequence=1
  33. ^ http://mp2mas17.eskom.co.za/enviroreport01/sust.htm

External links[edit]